Republicanism – Political theory of representative government, based on the principle of popular sovereignty, with a strong emphasis on liberty and civic virtue. Influential in eighteenth-century American political thought, it stood as an alternative to monarchical rule. Radical Whigs- Eighteenth-century British political commentators who agitated against political corruption and emphasized the threat to liberty posed by arbitrary power. Their writings shaped American political thought and made colonists especially alert to encroachments on their rights. Sugar Act (1764) – Duty on imported sugar from the West Indies.
It was the first tax levied on the colonists by the crown and was lowered substantially in response to widespread protests. Quartering Act (1765) – Required colonies to provide food and quarters for British troops. Many colonists resented the act, which they perceived as an encroachment on their rights. Stamp tax (1765) – Widely unpopular tax on an array of paper goods, repealed in 1766 after mass protests erupted across the colonies. Colonists developed the principle of “no taxation without representation” which questioned Parliament’s authority over the colonies and laid the foundation for future revolutionary claims.
Stamp Act Congress (1765) – Assembly of delegates from nine colonies who met in New York City to draft a petition for the repeal of the Stamp Act. Helped ease sectional suspicions and promote inter-colonial unity Sons of Liberty – Patriotic groups that played a central role in agitating against the Stamp Act and enforcing non-importation agreements Daughters of Liberty – Patriotic groups that played a central role in agitating against the Stamp Act and enforcing non-importation agreements Declaratory Act (1766) – Passed alongside the repeal of the Stamp Act, it reaffirmed Parliament’s unqualified sovereignty over the North American colonies.
Townshend Acts (1767) – External, or indirect, levies on glass, white lead, paper, paint and tea, the proceeds of which were used to pay colonial governors, who had previously been paid directly by colonial assemblies. Sparked another round of protests in the colonies. Boston Massacre (1770) – Clash between unruly Bostonian protestors and locally stationed British redcoats, who fired on the jeering crowd, killing or wounding eleven citizens.
Boston Tea Party (1773) – rowdy protest against the British East India Company’s newly acquired monopoly on the tea trade. Colonists, disguised as Indians, dumped 342 chests of tea into Boston harbor, prompting harsh sanctions from the British Parliament. “Intolerable Acts” (1774) – Series of punitive measures passed in retaliation for the Boston Tea Party, closing the Port of Boston, revoking a number of rights in the Massachusetts colonial charter, and expanding the Quartering Act to allow for lodging of soldiers in private homes.
In response, colonists convened the First Continental Congress and called for a complete boycott of British goods. First Continental Congress (1774) – Convention of delegates from twelve of the thirteen colonies that convened in Philadelphia to craft a response to the Intolerable Acts. Delegates established Association, which called for a complete boycott of British goods. Battles of Lexington and Concord (April 1775) – First battles of the Revolutionary War, fought outside of Boston.
The colonial militia successfully defended their stores of munitions, forcing the British to retreat to Boston. Valley Forge (1777-1778_ – Encampment where George Washington’s poorly equipped army spent a wretched, freezing winter. Hundreds of men died and more than a thousand deserted. The plight of the starving, shivering soldiers reflected the main weakness of the American army—a lack of stable supplies and munitions John Hancock- wealthy colonial statesman whose fortunes were amassed by smuggling.
Crispus Attucks- a freedman in the era of the abolitionist movement who was martyred in the Boston Massacre. George III- A good mofal man who proved to be a bad ruler, Earnest, industrious, stubborn, and lustful for power, he surrounded himself with cooperative “yes men” Samuel Adams – a “rebel” ringleader sought out by British during Battles of Lexington and Concord Thomas Hutchinson – Governor of Massachusetts at time of Boston Tea