APUSH Chapter 9

APUSH Chapter 9

Loyalists
during Revolution still loyal to British Crown, around 80,000 left America leaving room for rising Patriots
Society of the Cincinnati
Continental Army officers form elite group on 1783, denounced as pretentious and aristocratic
primogeniture
first born son receives all of inheritance, these laws changed after revolution
Protestant Episcopal Church
what the Anglican church reformed into after it was humbled because of its royal roots
Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom
passed in Virginia 1786 because of Thomas Jefferson, helped bitter battle over state divorce from church
Philadelphia Quakers
1775 found world’s first antislavery society, show hostility towards trade in “black ivory”
interracial marriage laws
accompanied abolition, shows how incomplete revolutionary ideas were when put into action
New Jersey constitution
1776 temporarily allowed women to vote
Abigail Adams
teased husband that the “ladies” will one day plan their own rebellion when given the chance
civic virtue
idea that democracy depended on the unselfish commitment of each citizen to the public good
republican motherhood
idea that mothers/women are bestowed with the responsibility of cultivating the ideas of civic virtue and family life to children through education, gives them more prestigious role as keepers of the nation’s conscience
Elizabeth “Mumbet” Freeman
after hearing about “rights of man,” 1781 sued her master for freedom, won and spent rest of life as paid domestic servant in Massachusetts
republicanism
A philosophy of limited government with elected representatives serving at the will of the people. The government is based on consent of the governed.
executive and legislative branch
two branches intentionally weakened, people suspicious of former royal governors and judges
Roger Morris
example of Loyalist property confiscated, this man’s large New York estate cut up into 250 parcels
Brandywine Creek
south of Philadelphia, provide power for many mills/factories, shows how America was trying to rise up the commercial scale
Empress of China
example of a Yankee ship that boldly sailed the world to trade with foreign countries, this ship carried ginseng, opened up Eastern markets
Articles of Confederation
nation’s first constitution, was adopted by the Second Continental Congress in 1777 during the Revolution try and win French help. The document was limited because states held most of the power, and Congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control currency, sometimes called Articles of Confusion
Congress
govenerning body kept very weak, people weary of British oppression, however led to problems resulting from lack of central government, no power
Independence Hall
state house built in 1730’s Pennsylvania, meeting place for congress, witnessed much history, later renamed in 1820’s
Thomas Jefferson
enthusiastically supported the somewhat weak Articles of Confederation, could not be compared to any other country, new breed of state
Old Northwest
are of land west of Ohio River and east of Mississippi, recently acquired, leads to various land laws
Land Ordinance of 1785
law that states Old Northwest land would be sold to pay off debt, area was to be surveyed, divided into townships, structured settlement very different from the south (1785)
townships
6 sq mile sections established in Northwest, divided into 36 parts, the 16th one for schools, method of surveying
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
dictate method of governing of Northwest, each townships have two stages, first is territorial stage attract settlers, once reach 60,000 can be admitted to congress as a state, also forbade slavery in area (1787)
Lord Sheffield
Wrote a popular pamphlet in England that said Britain would win back America’s trade and that commerce would naturally follow old channels.
Spain
country was openly unfriendly to America, closed off some ports/river, held the fort Natchez on disputed soil
John Jay
secretary of foreign affairs, hoped that insults America received from others would humiliate people into finally framing a new government to gain respect
King Congress
term used against Congress, suggests it is oppressive and tyrannical just like the King
rag money
currency becoming worthless, each state had different
Shays’s Rebellion
Massachusetts 1786, backwood farmers loosing farms, many veterans, rise up, movement crushed, but the memories haunted and warned the rich of the monster Democracy formed
General Daniel Shays
led a rebellion in 1786, followers called Shaysites, many former veterans now farmers
Cement to the Union
phrase suggestion America needed some permanent stability in the form of government, be it an amended Articles, a new Constitution, or a strong central government
Alexander Hamilton
emerged as a major political figure during the debate over the Constitution, as the outspoken leader of the Federalists and one of the authors of the Federalist Papers. secretary of treasury under Washington,spearheaded the government’s Federalist initiatives,
May 25, 1787
The date the Constitutional congress was called to a start, 55 delegates from 12 states
Rhode Island
refused to send representatives to the Constitutional Convention, still known as “Rogue’s Island”
demigods
because of their high status, Jefferson called the delegates this
George Washington
most prominent leader, elected chairman at convention, known as the “Sword of the Revolution”
James Madison
considered “Father of the Constitution” for his notable contributions, wrote 14 amendments
Dey of Algiers
North African leader who took advantage of the weakness of the Articles of confederation to attack American shipping, could be argued that he drove the delegates to their work
large-state plan
The plan proposed by Virginia at the constitutional Convention for a bicameral legislature with representation based on population
unicameral and bicameral
one house in Congress or two
small-state plan
Plan proposed by New Jersey for equal representation regardless of size or population. Unicameral.
the Great Compromise
Plan proposed by Roger Sherman, William Samuel Johnson, and Oliver Ellsworth that suggested combining the Virginia and New Jersey plans. There would be two houses, one house having representation based off of population (house of reps), the other having representation based off of the state (senate, 2).
Gouverneur Morris
Pennsylvania representative at the Constitutional Convention; credited with authoring large sections of the constitution, including the preamble, draftsman
Electoral College
the body of electors who formally elect the United States president and vice-president
three-fifths compromise
the agreement by which the number of each state’s representatives in Congress would be based on a count of all the free people plus three-fifths of the slaves
Georgia
only state constitution that didn’t forbid slave trade, 1807 trade was supposed to stop altogether
Constitutional Convention
The meeting of state delegates in 1787 in Philadelphia called to revise the Articles of Confederation. It instead designed a new plan of government, the US Constitution.
triple-headed monster
what critiques of the Constitution called the three branch government system
antifederalists
opponents of a strong central government who campaigned against the ratification of the Constitution in favor of a confederation of independent states; mostly farmers, workers, artisans, etc.
federalists
supporters of the stronger central govt. who advocated the ratification of the new constitution; mostly aristocrats, landowners, etc
District of Columbia
later became known as this, federal stronghold 10 square miles
June 21, 1788
Date of the ratification of the Constitution, right after New Hampshire voted
Virginia, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island
only 4 states left who didn’t agree to the ratification of the constitution, eventually gave in as they knew independent states would not survive separate from the union
The Federalist
Essays promoting ratification of the Constitution, published anonymously in NY by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison in 1787 and 1788.
confederation
a political system in which a weak central government has limited authority, and the states have ultimate power.
federation
the act of constituting a political unity out of a number of separate states or colonies or provinces so that each member retains the management of its internal affairs
checks and balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
sovereignty
ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states
popular sovereignty
The concept that political power rests with the people who can create, alter, and abolish government. People express themselves through voting and free participation in government
mobocracy
lawless control of public affairs by the mob or populace, many feared that it was the monster that came out of the Revolution
consent of the governed
the idea that government derives its authority by the sanction of the people
states’ right
the belief that an individual state may restrict federal authority
anarchy
a state of lawlessness and disorder (usually resulting from a failure of government), absence of rule
bundle of compromises
This referred to the fact that the Constitution was trying to please everybody.
Constitution
The document which established the present federal government of the United States and outlined its powers. It can be changed through amendments.
section
piece of land 1 square mile around 640 acres, could support about 10 self suff farming families (50-75 acres each), each buy a subsection
quorum
The minimum number of members who must be present to permit a legislative body to take official action
Annapolis
first place for constitutional convention, only 5 states showed up
reapportionment
the process of reallocating seats in the House of Representatives every 10 years on the basis of the results of the census. cut off at 435
gerrymandering
the drawing of legislative district boundaries to benefit a party, group, or incumbent
Sun Belt
U.S. region, mostly comprised of southeastern and southwestern states, which has grown most dramatically since World War II.
Rust Belt
The manufacturing region in the United States that is currently debilitated because many manufacturing firms have relocated to countries offering cheaper labor and relaxed environmental regulations.
309 million
approximate population of US
37 million
approximate population California, have 53 House seats
Detroit
motor city, automobile industry
Nevada
state with highest unemployment rate
citizens committee
in charge of drawing district lines, supposed to be more fair to minority party, appointed members
Molina, Ridley-Thomas, Yaroslavsky, Knabe, Antonovich
5 LA county district supervisors, more diverse, represent minorities
38 states
3/4 states needed to ratify an amendment, means only 13 to block!
ERA proposal
equal rights amendment, men and women treated same under law, only got 34 states, main argument military, brought up again in 2006 by Pelosi
Boehner
Mr. Orange, speaker of the House, from Ohio