The English model settlement implied promise to settle land and propagate christianity amoung natives; main goal – trade for gold, other valuable goods; 120 Englishmen embarked, 38 survived 9 mo. later; no gold/food, only illness and disease
House of Burgess
1619 Jamestown, had authority to make laws, levy taxes, govenor could veto, company could nullify
Pilgrims own covenant of government, first constitution adopted in North America; Pilgrims belief in the autonomy of the religious congregation and recognized sovereignty of king but produced system of self-government based on rule of law
like pilgrims, envisioned a reformed Christian society but rather than break with the church wanted to simply reform it – “non-separatists”;
Massachusetts Bay Colony
1630, 900 Puritans, using a corporate (trading) charter granted by the king for the area around Boston; led by John Winthrop, transformed joint-stock business corporation, the General Court of shareholders, into a colonial legislature
Pious protestant families who settle Plymouth, the first permanent community in New England in 1620; 35 of them led by William Bradford with 60 other English migrants, “separatists”
founded in 1636 by Roger Williams and his followers as purchased by the Narragansett Indians. Other religious dissidents founded in neighboring towns. In 1644 these towns obtained a coporate charter from the English Parliament that granted them full authority “to rule themselves.” There was no legally established church; every congregation was autonomous, and individual men and women could worship God as they pleased.
argued salvation was not something earned, it was bestowed by God. Diminished role of all established authority, found heretical, banished and settled in RI then NY
As a Puritan, preferred Pilgrims separation of church and state and condemned congregationalism; settled with followers in RI in 1636, no legally established church, congregation = autonomous free to worship as pleased
Maryland Toleration Act
1649 granted religious freedom to all Christians. Created after political conflict constantly threatened the states stability and to protect the Catholic coreligionists who remained a minority.
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
In 1639 Connecticut Puritans adopted this plan of government that included an established church, a popularly elected governor and assembly and voting rights for most property-owning men not just church members
Leader of the protestors, Nathaniel Bacon was on the governor’s council but when Berkley refused military commission, Bacon marched frontiersmen slaughtering peaceful Indians. Condemning frontiersmen as rebels and mutineers, Berkley expelled Bacon and arrested but Bacon won release and forced the govenor to hold legislative elections. The House of Burgess enacted far reaching political reforms that curbed the powers of the govenor and restored voting rights to landless freemen.
devised democratic church structure controlled by laity or ordinary members of the congregation
believed God had chosen a few “elect” men and women for salvation and condemned the rest to damnation
Legacy of Bacon’s Rebellion
Landed planters remained dominant in VA by curbing corruption and finding public positions for politically ambitious yeomen. Also appeased lower social orders by cutting their taxes and supporting the expansion onto Indian lands. Confirmed planter’s growing commitment to African slavery with turn away from indentured servitude to explicitly legalized slavery in 1705.
Cause of Bacon’s Rebellion
Hundreds of impoverished English freeholders and aspiring tenents wanted cheap land and insisted that the natives be expelled/exterminated. However, wealthy planters, planter-merchants, and VA’s Govenor Berkley opposed expansion into Indian territory. Fighting broke out in 1675 when a band of VA militia murdered 30 Indians. Defying Berkley’s orders 1,000 militiamen surrounded a fort and killed 5 chiefs who had come out to negotiate. To avoid war Berkley proposed a defensive military policy. However, settlers dismissed strategy of building frontier forts as useless militarily and simply plot to impose high taxes and take all the tobacco.
designed by William Penn as a refuge for Quakers who were persecuted in England because they refused to serve in the army and would not pay taxes to support the Church of England
radical protestant sect that used William Penn’s prestige to spread influence; wanted to restore simplicity and spirituality of early Christianity, followed teachings of founders George Fox and Margaret Fell, arguing all could be saved because God gave everyone inner “light” of grace.
Devised in 1662 to preserve Puritanism, altered traditional Calvinist dogma by allowing unconverted Puritans to baptize children; birth not conversion is key to church membership
Salem Witchcraft Trials
1647-1662 hung 14 people who challenged prevailing customs in Salem MA 1692 – group rivalries and deception spawned accusation, arrested 175, executed 20; fear and suspicion spread. English Enlightenment cast intelligence and other explainations than witchcraft.
Sparked by George Whitfield; controversial as conservatives condemned reactions caused by emotioonal preaching; New Lights – followers of revival v. Old Lights – worked to bar traveling preachers byt eventually had law overturned; challenged authority of ministers; questioned government involvement in religion; farm families reaffirmed cooperative work ethic and economic competition; ignored blacks and poor whites
posed threat to ruling gentry by appealing to black and poor; came in 1760s, drew poor offering solace and hope; baptized in emotional public ceremony that celebrated shared fellowship; welcomed slaves shrinking cultural gulf between blacks and whites undermining justification for slavery and giving blacks new sense of spiritual identity
God had created world, but allowed it to operate in accordance with the laws of nature; influenced by Enlightenment science; rejected authority of bible and relied on people’s natural reason to define moral code
emotional, evangelical, religious movement stressing Christians relation to God, attracted many social groups, sparked religious revival
Late 1730’s government of Southern FL promised freedom and land to runaway slaves from SC. War between England and Spain in 1739, 75 Af. Am. killed whites, stole guns, ammunition and marched toward FL; white militia killed rebels and dispersed rest
Mercantilist Navigation Acts
colonies could produce only agriculture goods and raw materials, more profitable manufacturing and provision of commercial services were reserved for British; made because British felt threatened by North America; made way for many harsh, restrictive policies angering colonists greatly
system of state supported manufactuing and trade, monarchs used these policies to increase exports and reduce imports getting favorable balance of trade gold and silver flow stimulated economy, enhanced power of government. By 1600 made overseas colonization possible.
between gentlemen and peasant, owned small land worked by family, since constant labor cost with wheat 2/3x trading price brought in lots of money
joint stock companies
sold shares of stock to many investors for funding
Ceilius Calvert, 1632 given charter by Charles I making him proprietor of territory bordering Chesapeake Bay, wanted Maryland to be Catholic refuge, devised policy of religious toleration; grew tobacco, had economic stability, politically and religously unstable until Toleration Act (1649)
revised and extended in 1660 and 1663; permitted only English or colonial owned ships to enter American ports, also required colonists to ship certain “enumerated articles” including tobacco only to England
South Atlantic System
new agricultural and commercial order; brought wealth to entire English economy, tragedy for W. Af. and parts of E. Af. uprooted 15 million diminishing wealth and population for continent
emphasized power of human reason to shape the world appealing to well-edu. and artisans; originally relied on religion to explain natural world; gave secular dimension to colonial life
British colonial policy during 1714-1760 contributed significantly to the rise of American self-government. Royal bureaucrats relaxed their supervision of internal colonial affairs, focusing instead on defense and trade. By-product of political system developed by Robert Walpole, leader of the British Whigs.
1754; To maintain influence with the Iroquois Nations, the British Board of Trade called a great intercolonial meeting with the Indians at Albany. The Am. delegates declared they had no designs on the lands of the Iroquois and sought their assistance against the French
tensions leading to the French and Indian War
Ohio Co. earned 200,000 acre land grant in VA (Iroquois land) alarming France and Iroquois; France constructed forts where upon George Washington came into land with troops and seized and expelled prompting calls for war among expansionists; Head of parliament Board of Trade Will Pitt = expansionists and persuaded PM to send military British had reaped unprecedented money from its overseas trading empire and was determined to crush France, the main obstacle to British expansion
In an effort to protect the British colonies from France it was a proposed plan of Union with a continental assembly that would manage as western affairs: trade, Indian Policy, and defense. It was thrown out because British ministers feared consolidated Am. gov’t would undermine their authority.
European country line up for French and Indian War
France, Spain, and Austria v. Britain and Prussia with British mounted offensives in India, W. Af. and N. Am.
Legacy of French and Indian War
positive – British drove France out of Canada and dominated N. Am.
negative – increase in money = increase in debt = British impose new taxes on Am; spurred Parliament to redefine character of Empire salutary neglect gave way to emphasis on imperial power and direct Parliament rule
negative – increase in money = increase in debt = British impose new taxes on Am; spurred Parliament to redefine character of Empire salutary neglect gave way to emphasis on imperial power and direct Parliament rule
1760-1820; wanted patronage positions for his military friends, so needed large army, someplace to station it, and somebody to pay for it
1764 maintained settlers had to sell wheat, fish, lumber to French Islands, without molasses sugar and bills of exchange from from those sales, colonists would lack money to buy British goods. so PM (Grenville) resisted demands for sugar duty which would cut off Am. imports of French molasses settled on decreased duty to allow British to compete with France. Threatened Am. merchants and distillers, publicly announce would wipe our trade with France so they privately smuggled. Raised constitutional issues of duty – making act contrary to fund Pricipal of constitution all taxes originate with the people. Merchants prosecuted under act tried by vice-admiralty courts = maritime tribunals with British judges degrading Am. to below rank of English. Taxed several imported goods like coffee and wine in substantial amounts, Parliament says money will go to war debs and troops out W.
1765; would cover part of cost of keeping troops in Am. tax required stamps on all court documents, land titles, contracts, playing cards, newspapers, and other printed items. Hope to raise 60,000 a year. Unlike other taxes, passed in Parliament, not Am. colonial councils/assemblies
1765; directing colonial gov’t to provide barracks and food for British troops; overall provoked constitutional confrontation not only on the specific issues of taxation, jury trials and quartering of military but also on the fundamental question of representative self-gov’t. permitted to stay in colonial inns, ale houses, and unoccupied buildings so colonial share money of troop protection
Stamp Act Congress
NY Oct. 1765; called meeting of colonies to implore relief from the act; nine assemblies sent delegates; the group issued a set of resolves, challenging the constitutionality of the stamp and sugar acts and declaring only the colonists’ elected representatives could tax them. The resolves also protested against the loss of Am. rights and liberties especially trial by jury. Most sought compromise not confrontation. Concluded the resolves by assuring Parliament that Am. glory in subjects of king and petitioned for repeal of stamp act.
Sons of Liberty
mainly middling artisans and minor merchants, leaders of mob who demanded resignation of stamp tax collectors (mostly native colonists) made effigy of collector Andrew Olicer which beheaded and burned, then destroyed his warehouse, attacked house of lt. gov. Hutchinson; Rabble (crowds of angry people) – intimidated royal officials. NY leaders = radical whigs who feared reform of imperial system = undermine polt. liberty; published names of merchants who imported Brit. goods, broke store windows and harassed employees
1766 explicitly reaffirmed British Parliament authority to bind Am.
1767 new legislation because Townshend wanted new source of revenue in America; imposed duties on colonial imports, would raise 40,000 a year part would pay Am. military and most would create colonial civil list – fund to pay salaries of royal gov. judges and other imperial officials, who feed by money and dependent on Am. would follow Parliament and king.
Mar. 1770 group of soldiers fired into rowdy crowd of demonstrators killing 5 men; revived fears of ministerial conspiracy against liberty, Radical Whigs labeled it a massacre and filled popular press with accusations British deliberately planned it
Committees of Correspondence
Nov. 1772; Sam Adams persuaded Boston town to establish; to urge patriots in other towns to state rights of Colonists of Province; within months 80 towns had similar committees all in communication with one another; British gov’t sent royal commission with authority to Send Am. to Brit. for trial causing House of Burgess to set up own committee
May 1773; provided money and relief for Brit. E. Indian Co. (deeply in debt because of military expeditions that extended Brit trade and polt. influence in India). Act provided co. with gov’t loan and relieved co. from paying tariffs on tea imported into British Am; made tea competitive with Dutch so Am. bought E. India trading co. and paid Townshend duty
Boston Tea Party
Patriots raided the Dartmouth: a group of artisans and laborers disguised as Indians boarded the ship, broke open 342 chests of tea and threw them into the harbor outraging the British Privy council and the king.
Intolerable (coercive) Acts
4 acts to force MA into submission;
First Continental Congress
Patriot leaders called a meeting of new all-colony assembly. Delegates chosen by 12 mainland assemblies met in Philly Sept. 1774 and addressed a set of controversial and divisive issues. S. favored new econ. boycott, New Eng. advocated polt. union and defensive military preparations, mid-Atl. wanted to seek a polt. compromise.
Second Continental Congress
May 1775 Patriot leaders gathered in Philly; Zealous Patriots supported Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking Up Arms asserted Am. dreaded war but prefer it to slavery. Created continental army with George Washington leading it; Moderates led by Dickinson still hoped for reconciliation with Britain.; ended with invasion of Canada to unleash French uprising and Am. merchants waged econ. warfare by cutting off all exports to Brit. and W. Ind. sugar islands.
An intolerable act; closed Boston Harbor until E. India co. was paid for its tea
An intolerable act; annulled MA charter and prohibited local town meetings
(New) Quartering Act
An intolerable act; required colony to build barracks/accommodate soldiers in private homes
An intolerable act; Protect royal officials from Am juries, allowed trials for capital crimes be transferred to other colonies or Brit.
Outcome of the first continental congress
Galloway proposed new imperial system resembling Albany Plan, king would appoint pres-gen. and Am. assemblies would select legislative council with veto power over parliament legislature that affected Am. Instead they passed Declaration of Rights and Grievances that condemned Coercive Acts and demanded repeal, repudiated Declaratory Act of 1766 proclaiming Parliament’s supremacy and demanded Brit. restrict control over Am. affairs to matters of external trade. Brit branded illegal assembly, Am. must pay own defense and administration and acknowledge Parliament’s authority
Direct assault on trad. polt. order in rousing language stirring popular emotions; call for independence and republicanism form of gov’t; personal attack on King Geo. III; made compelling case for Am. independence turning trad. metaphor of patriarchial authority on head, called on Am. to reject king and Parliament and create independent, repub. sts.
Proclamation Line of 1763
Brit est. law in return for Pontiac and his allies accepting Brit as new political fathers; closed trans-Appalachian W. to Anglo-Am. settlements; without permission from Brit authorities charters theoretically went to Pac.
Objections to Patriot cause
resistance to Brit would destroy respect for all polt. institutions and end with mob rule, Quakers and Germans neutral, If landlord is a patriot tenant farms opp., social divisions, enslaved blacks if masters are patriots, loyalists
Declaration of Independence
to persuade Am. and foreign observers to support independence vilified Geo III. Employed ideas of EU enlightenment justifying republicanism by proclaiming unalienable rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, govt derives power from consent of governed and can be overthrown if govt destructive of rights, linked docs of individual liberty, pop. sovereignty, and repub. form of govt with independence, Jefferson est. as defining values of new nation; est. legitimacy of repub. st. gov’t
Articles of Confederation
1781; est. loose confederation, each st. retains sovereignty, freedom, and independence and powers not expressly delegated to US.; gov’t could declare war/peace, make treaties with foreign nations, adjudicate disputes btwn sts. borrow and print money and requisition funds from sts. for common defense or gen. welfare.; Each st. had 1 vote regardless of wealth/pop., laws needed approval by at least 9 of 13 sts. and changes needed unanimous consent. Gov’t lacked authority to impose taxes.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
provided for the creation of the territories that would eventually become OH, IN, IL, MI, and WI, reflecting enlightenment beliefs prohibited slavery in those territories and earmarked funds from land sales for the support f schools, also specified cong would appoint gov. and judges to administer new territory once 5,000 free adult men in residence could elect a territorial legislature, when pop. 60,000 legislature could write repub. constitution and apply to join confederation of basis of complete equality with existing sts.; added new W. dimension to national identity, Am. had space to expand
merchants and creditors persuaded MA leg. to repay st. war debt by increasing taxes and deter inflation by halting issuance of paper currency with poor farmers no pay debt threatened with court suits. so bands of angry farmers closed courts by force and resistance gradually grew into full scale revolt proving money of war and fruits of independence not shared evenly; Gov;t passed riot act outlawing illegal assembly and equipped a formidable fighting force and called for additional troops to put down rebellion.
11 mill. ppl, rich, most powerful navy in world, standing army with 48,000 and 1000s of hired Ger. soldiers, had experience in Am war, imperial gov’t had support of Loyalists and Indian tribes (but slowly attacked awaiting unlikely compromise)
1/3 zealous patriots, 1/3 supported with taxes/milt. duties, experienced politicians who commanded public support and inspired leader (Geo. WA). Washington had greater margin for error than Brit. gen., Am. decided outcome preferring patriots to loyalists, had financial and milt. support of Fr.
Treaty of Paris
Sept. 1783, Fr. and Sp. stalled talks hoping for more territorial conquests but Am. and Brit wanted to end it, exploiting rivalry between Brit and Fr. Am secured peace on favorable terms, Brit formally recognized Am. independence while retaining Canada and promised to withdraw garrisons, left Brit. Indians alone to their fate
Constitutional Convention 1787
May 1787, 55 delegates arrived in Philly representing each st. except RI, most were monied men; reviewing confederation gov’t and revise the Articles of Confederation but new plans introduced scheme for powerful new national government with representation as central problem.
argued free society should not suppress groups, but prevent anyone from becoming dominant, an end best achieved in a large republic
Judiciary Act of 1789
created fed. dist. courts in each st., provided 3 circuit courts to hear appeals from the dist., permitted appeals to the supreme court, ensuring that nat’l (not st.) judges would decide meaning of constitution.
First Bank of the U.S.
repository of nat’l assets, issue paper money based on assets, source of investment capital
Bill of Rights
safeguard certain fundamental personal liberties and mandated various legal procedures that protected the individual; addressed antifed concerns securing legitimacy of new constitution.
Washington’s Farewell Address
warns against foreign influence, break with EU, Republicans = anti-isolationism, Federalists = pro-isolationism
James Madison, rejected st. sovereignty in favor of supremacy of national authority, called for national gov’t to draw authority directly from ppl and exercise direct power over them, by pass st. gov’t and operate directly on individuals, created 3 tier national gov’t in which pp; only elect lower house with mmbrship based on st. pop. of leg. and lower house name mmbrs of upper house and both houses would select executive and judiciary
New Jersey Plan
strengthened confederation by giving the power to raise revenue, control commerce, and make binding requisitions on sts. Preserved sts. control over their own laws and guaranteed their equality, each st has one vote in unicameral leg.
The Great Compromise
upper house (senate) would always have two members from each st.; lower house (house of reps) would be apportioned on basis of pop. as determined every ten years by national census.
stressed need for strong gov’t to conduct foreign affairs and denied it would foster tyranny, national authority divide up among president bicameral leg. and judiciary each branch check and balance thus preserving liberty; favored constitution
opposed constitution fearing loss of st. gov’t power; feared that constitution lacked declaration of individual rights, feared that powerful central gov’t would be run by aristocracy of wealth; favored keeping gov’t close to ppl with nation as collection of sm. sovereign republics.
Ideological conflicts sharpened debate over Hamilton’s economic policies so in 1794 farmers in W. PA, mounted rebellion to protest Hamilton’s excise tax on spirits, which had raised price and thus cut demand for corn whiskey. WA raised army of 12,000 troops that soon dispersed rebels
1795; allowed settlers in the MS R. Valley to export crops through the Sp. held port of New Orleans
elected 1796 as federalist candidate, continued Hamilton’s pro-Brit foreign policy and dealt with XYZ affair, to silence critics enacted series of coercive measures resulting in further Republican rebuking. Wrote “Thoughts on Gov’t” adapting Br. Whig theory of mixed gov’t to fit with Repub. society, dispersing authority by assigning different functions between bicameral leg., elected gov. with veto power, and elected judiciary to review.
Fr. navy seized Am. merchant ships, Fr. foreign ministers Talleyrand Solicited a loan and bribe from Am. diplomats to stop seizures, Admas charged that Talleyrand’s agents (dubbed X,Y,Z) had insulted Am. honor. Party conflict now extended to foreign affairs
Alien and Sedition Acts
authorized deportation of foreigners and prohibited publication of ungrounded or malicious attacks on president or congress
Virginia and Kentucky Resolves
declared alien and sedition acts unauthorative/void, set forth “sts rights” interpretation of constitution by arguing that sts. had right to judge legitimacy of nat’l laws
use authority of national gov’t to stimulate trade and industry, pro-Br., favored merchants, financiers, argued for strong executive and judicial review, loose interpretation of constitution
U.S. remain agricultural nation with local and st. gov’t predominant, pro-Fr., favored farmers, artisans, believed in democracy and rule by leg. majority
Compromise on Slavery
dented cong. power to reg until 1808, “fugitive clause” allowing masters to reclaim runaways, not give slavery nat’l recognition by explicitly mentioning. count slaves as 3/5 of person for purposed of rep. and taxation
Revolution of 1800
bloodless transfer of power demonstrated that gov’ts elected by ppl could be changed in orderly way even in times of bitter partisan conflict
Marbury v. Madison
1803; asserted court’s power of judicial review
shaped evolution of constitution with 3 principals – commitment to judicial authority, supremacy of national over state leg. and trad. static view on property rights.
Napoleon coerced Sp. to give Fr. LA and ordered Sp. officials to restrict Am. access to New Orleans, so Jefferson negotiated purchase of New Orleans and ended up with whole LA territory because Napoleon feared Am. invasion with failure of Fr. Haitian invasion and war in EU already going on. Bought for $15 mill; Jefferson forced to reconsider interpretation of constitution
During Napoleonic era neither Fr./Br. respected neutrality o Am. merchant vessels. so 1807, Brit warship attacks US vessel, 21 casualties outraging Am.
1807 prohibited Am. ships from leaving home port until Fr. and Br. repealed restrictions, US exports plunge 108 million to 22 million over 2 years, merchants and farmers howl at lost profits and fed howl at tyranny.
1814, lay foundation for reform in “Nat’l Compact” discuss strat, proposed succession by sts, amendments restricting commercial embargos, proposed constitutional amendment limit office to one, four yr. term and rotate among citizens from different sts.
War of 1812
officially went to war because of violations of neutral rights seizure of neutral ships and impressment of am. sailors. W. Repub favored acquisition of new territories and hoped war discredit feds and pro-Br. policy, W/ embargos failure Madison replaced it with series of new econ. restrictions not persuading fr. and br. to respect Am. neutral rights. Shawnee chief revived W. Confederacy and in Battle of Tippecanoe village was burned down;
Treaty of Ghent
1815; restored prewar borders to US; made Andrew Jackson war hero, redeemed US pride and w/ coming of peace undercut Hartford convention’s demands for sig. revisions to constitution.
1819; persuaded Sp. to cede FL, to US in return US gov’t took responsibility for its citizens and financial claims against Sp., renounced Jefferson’s claim Sp. TX part of LA purchase and agreed on compromise boundary btwn New Sp and st. of LA
declared Am. continents not subject for further colonization by nations of EU. in return reiterated US policy of no interference in internal concerns of EU nations
Henry Clay’s American System
integrated program of national econ development that relied on the 2nd bank of the US to regulate st. banks and advocated use of tariff revenues to build roads and canals; nationalistic prog. pop. in W. which needed transport. improvements but crit. in S. w/ no manufacturing indust. to protect
Am plan of mercantilism with goal to increase the commonwealth of society by st. leg enacting measures to stimulate commerce and economic development mainly by granting co. charters to private businesses for projects that would benefit the public
easier to attract investors, if business failed, personal assets of share holders would not be seized to pay for co.’s debts
commonwealth system that used st. incentives to encourage business to improve general welfare
Era of good feeling
decline of federalists and party politics
tax on imports, with two purposes of raising revenue for the gov’t and protecting domestic products from foreign competition.
1820; series of polt. agreements; allowed ME to enter Union as free st. in 1820 and MO follow as slave st in 1821; preserved existing balance in senate btwn N. & S. and set precedent for future additions to the union, prohibited slavery in the rest of LA purchase N. of latitude 36o30′ S. boundary of MO
celebrated importance of feeling – physical, sensuous appreciation of God, nature, and other human beings caused new marriage system to appear
Difference between 1st and 2nd Great Awakening
second was more complex, took place in churches and frontier camp meetings led to new denominations, first was churches prospered preaching spiritual equality and gov. selves in relatively democratic fashion
Tariff of Abominations
1828; S. had no need for it and by the increase in price of br. manufacturers it cost S. planters $100 million a yr. planters either buy the increasingly costly Am. textiles and iron goods enriching NE business and workers or increasingly taxed Br. goods thus paying cost of nat’l gov’t; saw it as legalized pillage
pres. from rose from common origins and fit tenor of new dem. age and reputation as plain, solid repub. attracted voters from all regions; created spoils system while in office. Wanted to limit reach of nat’l gov’t and deconstruct Clay’s Am. system. Legacy – permanently expanded authority of executive, using rhetoric of pop. sovereignty asserted pres = direct rep. of ppl, upheld authority with threat of milt. force, reinvigorated Jefferson’s trad. of limited/frugal central gov’t
dispersing gov’t jobs to aid friends and win support
ruling ideology, rule by property owning men of talents and virtues
1820s/1830s in practice meant rule by popularly elected party politicians, maj. sh gov.
Martin Van Buren
chief architect of emerging system of party gov’t, created first st. wide polt machine – Albany Regency, then first nat’l polt. party – Jacksonian democrats. patronage = important, insisted on party discipline, required st. leg. to follow dictates of party meeting/caucus. Sacrifice individual preferences for gen. good.; laissez-faire outlook ill-suited for econ depression, pres. 1837 – 1841
South Carolina’s Ordinance of Nullification
declared tariffs of 1828 and 1832 null and void, forbade collection of duties in SC after Feb. 1833 and threatened secession if fed tried to collect them
authorized pres. to use milt. force to compel SC to obey nat’l laws.
Indian Removal Act of 1830
granted money and lands in OK & KS to Ind. who would give up ancestral holdings
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
1833, Cherokees take case to court and claim status of foreign nation. Marshall denied claim and declared Inds domestic dependent nations
Worcester v. Georgia
Marshall sided with Cherokees voiding GA’s extension of st. law of Cherokee; held Ind. nations = distinct polt. communities, having territorial boundaries within which their authority is exclusive
Trail of Tears
Scott’s army rounded up 14,000 Inds and forcibly marched 1,200 mi. to new Ind territory. arduous journey w/ 3,000 Ind die of starvation and exposure. All tribes removed except Seminole who waged successful guerrilla warfare
formed by Clay, Calhoun, and Webster; rise of dem sparked the creation of 2nd party; began in 1834 by congmen who opp Jackson’s policies, accused Jackson of violating constitution with spoils sys. and increasing pres. authority. goal – polt world dom. by men of ability and wealth chosen by talent not birth, celebrated role of enterprising entrepeneurs, welcomed indust. rev. of investments, money capitalists, provide poor with jobs and continue econ progress with return of Clay’s Am. sys.
Working Men’s parties
send urban artisans and wage earners to leg to ban priv. banks, chartered monopolies, and imprisonment for debt. Goal of a society in which there was no dependent wage earners and all men were independent proprietors working on own capitals on farms/shops
Commonwealth v. Hunt
maj. legal success, improved long term prospects of labor movements by upholding rights of workers to form unions and enforce closed shop, overturned common law precedents by ruling union is not an inherently illegal org. and could strike
Charles River Bridge Co. v. Warren Bridge Co.
Taney declared leg. charter not necessarily bestow monopoly, leg. could promote gen. welfare by chartering a competing bridge co.
Radical Reform ideas of early 19th century
extreme individualism, common ownership of property, the immediate emancipation of slaves, sexual equality
intellectual movement that postulated importance of an ideal world of mystical knowledge and harmony beyond world of sense; critical examination of society and emphasized individuality, self-reliance, and nonconformity; Emerson and Thoreau
escape constraints of life in Am’s emerging market society, hoped planned societies org. life in new ways allow members to realize spiritual and moral potential, opted out of competition and tension of urban society, members hoped to develop minds and souls and inspire new social order
common ownership of prop. and devised unconventional forms of marriage and family life, challenged cap. values and trad. gender roles
no marriage/sexual pleasure, lust = corruption, committed to celibacy
men and women work cooperatively
Noyes and Oneida community
complex marriage, all married to each other, wished to free women from prop. of husbands, no multiple pregnancies, communal nurseries, women cut hair and wore pants
founded by Joseph Smith believing God led him to receive special revelations of divine truth. fled religious conflicts in E. used communal labor and elaborate irrigation sys. based on communal water rights and transformed region
goal – advance women’s movement, rousing manifesto for women’s rights – Declaration of Sentiments, persuade Am. right to long-standing wrong staking out claims for women in public life and no separate spheres
men and women have diff. gender-defined characteristics and that consequently the sexes inhabited and should inhabit diff. social worlds, with men in public world of polt. and econ. and women in priv. world of home and family
turned to Christian bible for justification, Jesus defines duties of followers without any reference to sex or condition, invoked enlightenment principles to claim civic rights for women
pres 1845 – 1849; strategy of linking TX and OR put him in the wh. house and TX in the union; initiated Mex-Am. War
Polk sent guy to Mex city with instructions to win acceptance of Rio Grande as boundary and buy Mex. provinces of New Mex. and CA paying no more than $30 mill but anticipating failure had alt. plan.
dem. congman from PA wrote to limit slavery spread proposed to prohibit institution in any territories acquired from Mex. call for free-soil = 1st anti-slavery proposal to attract pop. support. leg. killed it.
Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo
Polk signed Feb. 1848 US agreed to pay Mex. $15 mill. in return for over 1/3 of territory – TX, NM, and CA, ratified by senate Mar. 1848
Polk ord. gen. Taylor to Rio Grande to incite armed response from Mex. essential that Mex. start war, taking liberties with the truth, pres. declared Mex. passed boundary of US, invaded territory and shed Am. blood on Am. soil
Compromise of 1850
to mollify S. included new fugitive slave act, to satisfy N. leg. admitted CA as a free st. resolved boundary dispute between NM and TX in favor of NM and abolished slave trade in WA D.C., org. rest of lands acquired from Mex into territories of NM and UT on the basis of pop. sovereignty
Fugitive Slave Act
fed. magistrates in N. sts determined status of alleged runaway slaves, law denied accused blacks jury trial and right to testify, plight of runaways and appearance of slave catchers in N and MidW. aroused pop. hostility and free blacks and abolitionists defied new law
Purchase of narrow splice of land that’d assist Pierce’s negotiator James Gadsden to build S. based transcont. rail line
doc. detailing S. expansionists funded milt. expeditions to Cuba in hopes of causing sugar producing slave owners to announce independ. from Sp. and join US. publication of this doc. revived N. fears of “Slave Power” conspiracy halted planter dreams of carrying out empire for slavery in Caribbean.
repeal MO compromise and org. region on basis of pop. sovereignty and agreed to formation of two new territories NEB and KS
vowed to ban slavery in all new territories, opp. slavery cuz degraded manual labor by enslaving blacks and driving down wages and working conditions of free whs. celebrated moral virtues of society based on middling classes who own soil and work it with own hands, every man chance to own prop. assert values of freedom and individual enterprise
anti-immig. and anti-catholic, unite native-born protestants against alien menace of Ir. & Ger catholics, prohibit further immig. and institute literacy tests for voting
William Lloyd Garrison
abolitionist who denounced free-soil doctrine as racist, embraced women’s rights, pacifism and abolition of prisons
MO residents cross into KS to and on opp. free soilers from New Eng. went to KS to vote. Pierce accepted pro-slavery leg. elected. Pro-Slave gang (200) sacked free-soil town causing this and in vengeance, John Brown murdered/mutilated 5 pro-slavers in Pottawatomie Massacre beginning guerrilla warfare in KS taking 200 lives
to thwart plan of massive “slave power” conspiracy, joined by ordinary yeomen farmers believing slavery = institution of aristocratic men and threat to liberty of masses; abandoned focus on sinfulness of slavery and depicted it as threat to repub institutions and wh. yeomen farmers
Dred Scott v. Sanford
Cong. cannot deny S. citizens right to take slave prop. in territories and own it there due to 5th amendment which prohibits takings of prop. without due process; declared cong. no give to territorial gov’t any power cong does not have itself so since cong no power to prohibit territory neither did territorial gov’t. only when settlers wrote constitution and requested st.hood could they prohibit slavery
John Brown’s raid on Harper’s Ferry
hoped to secure arms and lead slave rebellion and est. separate Af. Am. st. in S., Repub leaders disavowed unsuccessful, but dems called natural, logical, and inevitable result of repub docs and teachings. horrified S. feared future
felt slavery = unjust but fed. gov’t no constitutional authority to tamper with it. argued firm opp. to expansion of slavery, gradual emancipation and colonization of freed slaves in Af. only practical way to address the issue. with his moderate position on slavery, conveyed compelling egalitarian image appealing to sm. farmers and wage earners. Pres. 1861-1865
called for constitutional amendment that’d permanently protect slavery from fed. interference in any st. where already existed, called for W. expansion of MO compromise line to CA border. Slowly barred N. of line and protect S. including any territories hereto after acquired
MS, FL, AL, GA, LA, and TX forming the Confederate States of America led by Jefferson Davis. From upper S. VA, AR, TN, NC
arraying entire resources of two societies against each other
Confederacy Draft loopholes
exempted 1 wh. man – planter son or overseer for each 20 slaves allowing some whs. on lrg. plantations to avoid milt service; drafted men could hire substitute ($300)
aka Enrollment Act of 1863, increased quotas and was strongly opp. by immig. and seized by N. dems as opportunity to bash Lin. started violent riots in NYC.
Legacy of Civil War
armies of union destroyed confed. and much of econ.; milt. struggle preserved union and destroyed slavery but cost of war = enormous in money, resources, and lives
provide emergency aid to ex-slaves during transition from war to peace
Jan. 1865; prohibited slavery
June 1866; est. nat’l citizenship for persons born/naturalized in the US, no sts. can deprive citizens of civ. rights/equal protection under law; decrease st. rep in house by % of adult male citizens denied the right to vote
Feb. 1869; no states could deny a citizen the right to vote on grnds of race, color, or prev. condition/servitude
ex. confeds led by planters to launch counter revolution to absolve S. and restore polt. to dems
laws enacted in the S. designed to drive former slaves back to plantations and restore slavery in all but name
Military Reconstruction Act of 1867
org. S. as conquered land divided into 5 milt. dist. each under command of union gen. price or reentering union is granting the vote to freedmen and disenfranchising those of S. prewar leadership who participated in the rebellion. Each milt. commander ord. to reg. all eligible adult males, supervise election of st. conventions, and make certain new constitution contained guarantees of black suffrage; cong would admit state to union if voters ratified the constitution.
Impeachment of Johnson
Feb. 1868 11 counts of pres. misconduct, 9 of which were violations of the Tenure of Office Act. acquitted but completely defanged for remainder of presidency
labor sys. by which freedmen agreed to exchange a portion of their harvested crops with the landowner for use of the land, a house, and tools. sys. developed a cash-trapped S. cuz freedmen wanted to work their own land but lacked money to buy it, while wh. landowners needed agr. laborers but no money to pay wages
boss of polt. machine – Tammany hall, in 1860s made hall byword for corruption until arrest in 1871
highly org. groups operating within and intending to control polt. parties. re: as anti-dem. by polt. reformers; exchanged social services with votes
Booker T. Washington
black leader of the day advocating for black econ. progress giving up on polt. protests and avoiding direct assault on wh. supremacy. advocated indust. edu – manual and agr. training. preached values of thrift, hard work and prop. ownership and saw wh. S. elite as crit. allies when they were dependent on black labor they would recognize the justice of black rights
Harvard edu, black sociologist fought for complete and total black social equality, saw talented tenth of black population as promise only stifled with manual edu. started Niagra movement encouraging black pride, uncompromising demand for full polt. and civ. equality, and resolute denial that negro-Am assents to inferiority, is submissive under oppression and apologetic before insults
conducted by Booker T. Washington where in a famous speech he conceded the need for Af. Am economic equality and let the other social and political equality wait and reveal itself in the future.
Booker T. Washington’s stance of economic equality in exchange for any hope of social and political equality
reformers but not for social justice, workers meant little to keeping the state out of welfare of business which should be big and the less gov’t the better. Brand of reform perfectly in step with the conserv. ethos of the time; injected elitist bias into public opinion.
former slave owners, ex-whigs, ex-dems drawn to repub to attract N. cap., yeomen farmers wanting to rid S. of slavery
N. who move to S. for cap. or other reason
1887; authorized pres to carve up tribal lands receiving sm. parcels of land
Helen Hunt Jackson’s A Century of Dishonor
1881; told story of unjust treatment of Inds; believed best way to save them was to encourage assimilation into wh. society starting with their kids and since priv. prop = civilizing force, advocated for a division of lands into individually owned parcels
1862; gave heads of families or individuals of at least 21 the title to 160 acres of public land after 5 years of residence. this econ. prog. won the allegiance of many N. to the Repub party and bolstered Union’s ability to fight the civ. war.
Union Pacific and Central Pacific
1862 chartered by the Repub. cong. to build a transcont. RR line assisted with lavish subsidies by gov’t; became free enterprises handed over to construction co.’s persuaded to accept bonds as payment and when that failed selling/borrowing bonds to raise cash.; also limited liability in buying stock.
Chinese Exclusion Act
1882; cong. passed act which barred further entry of Ch. laborers into country. Injustice of law (no other nationality targeted) merchants and Am. Ch. free to come and go evaded sys but immig. still decreased to a trickle
After 1967 and decline of the granger movement ; spread rapidly through traveling lecturers extolling virtues of cooperative activity and reminded farmers of obligation to stand as great conserv. body against monopolies and corruption.
farmers org. needed to overcome isolation and provided econ. services and spread across the MidW.
strong labor platform and sought union supports in class appeal recognizing conflict between cap and labor; pos. attitude toward st. and an expanding gov’t is good. great divide between monopolies and corporations and single producer class with no middle ground.
Plessy v. Ferguson
1896; court ruled segregation is not discrimination and did not violate black civ. rights under 14th amendment, provided blacks get accommodations equal to those of whs. “separate but equal” ignored realities of S. life
international monetary standard in which values of nat’l currencies of participating countries are fixed in terms of gold and therefore in terms of each other
farmers gravitated towards this as means to increase the money supply in the early 1890’s thus raising farm prices and give them some relief and pops party would be fattened by hefty contributions by mining interests
Rockefeller’s Standard Oil Company
built co. partly by talking on rival firms but also built distribution sys to reach enormous market for product
1856; invention that refined raw pig iron into the essentially new product steel thus forever changing the course of Am. Indust.
Terence Powderly’s Knights of Labor
only satisfied with egalitarian society with econ independence and no return to agr. past but replace existing wage sys with more just ord. that did not distinguish between caps. and laborers.all = producers laboring cooperatively together in cooperative commonwealth. Founded in 1869 with spirit of comradeship and fraternity harnessed to labor reform, advocating a voice to worker; were polt. active and field independence slates of candidates; favored 8 hr work day for more leisure time for workers; by mid 1890’s faded away
American Federation of Labor
began by nat’l trade unions in Dec. 1886 after failing to desist knights union activity; looked to place trade-union structure as evoked in 1880s with the underlying structure that workers need to take the world as it was not dreamed as it might be. opp polt. party for workers.
led ideological assault on Knights saying theories/schemes that excited labor reformers sh b avoided and unions sh. focus on concrete, achievable gains and org. workers not as undifferentiated mass. battleground = workplace where workers sh mobilize their power not in polt.; president of AFL
Eugene V. Debs
became nations leading socialist after being imprisoned for activity in Pullman strike emerged avowed radical committed to lifelong struggle against employers to enlist powers of gov’t to beat down ppl