APUSH Study Guide Chapter 8 Terms

Second Continental Congress
Philadelphia May 10, 1775, all 13 colonies arrived, purpose: new appeals to king
Battle of Bunker Hill
June 1775- colonists seized Bunker hill where they threatened British army in Boston. British victory on account of the depletion of American supplies. yet gave them confidence- It pushed Americans towards a final decision for war.
Olive Branch Petition
Last ditch effort at peace that proclaimed American loyalty to the crown, begging king to prevent further hostilities- failed
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Hessians
German troops that King George III hired when he proclaimed the colonies to be in rebellion on August 1775, angered colonists
Common Sense
A pamphlet written by Thomas Paine the criticized and convinced many American colonists of the need to break away from Britain
Declaration of Independence
a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine the criticized and convinced many American colonists of the need to break away from Britain
Declaration of the Rights of Man
The rights should be universal, people should not be born into class, etc. It called for freedom, property, security, and right to resist when rights are stolen.
Loyalists
Colonists who sided with Britain in the American Revolution
Patriots
People who supported the colonists during the American Revolution
Battle of Long Island
Victory for GBR, George Washington loses. Summer/Fall of 1776. G.W. was pushed to escape Long Island, but General Howe didn’t capitalize because he didn’t want to risk losing/winter fighting. He went to icy Delaware River.
Battle of Trenton
12/26/1776. George Washington was able to capture the sleeping Hessians because they were drained from Christmas. He was able to defeat them. It boosted colonial moral.
Battle of Saratoga
General Burgoyne is surrounded at Saratoga by American militia, 10/19/1777 to Horatio Gates.
Model Treaty
sample treaty drafted by the Continental Congress as a guide for American diplomats. Reflected the Americans’ desire to foster commercial partnerships rather than political or military entanglements.
Armed Neutrality
Loose alliance of nonbelligerent naval powers, organized by Russia’s Catherine the Great, to protect neutral trading rights during the war for American independence.
Treaty of Fort Stanwix
the first treaty between the United States and an Indian nation; forced the Indians to cede most of their land
Battle of Yorktown
Last major battle of the Revolutionary War. Cornwallis and his troops were trapped in the Chesapeake Bay by the French fleet. He was sandwiched between the French navy and the American army. He surrendered onOctober 19, 1781.
Treaty of Paris
This treaty ended the Revolutionary War, recognized the independence of the American colonies, and granted the colonies the territory from the southern border of Canada to the northern border of Florida, and from the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River
Ethan Allen
He lead troops to the capturing of GBR stationed troops at Ticonderoga/Crown Point at lakes by New York.
Benedict Arnold
United States general and traitor in the American Revolution; in 1780 his plan to surrender West Point to the British was foiled
Richard Montgomery
He was an Irish-born soldier who was in the British Army, but later lead an army for the Americans, he was the major general. He captured Quebec, but he they were eventually overtaken.
Thomas Paine
American political philosopher and author: he urged an immediate declaration of independence from England in his anonymously and simply written pamphlet, Common Sense.
Abigail Adams
May have started the first ideas of women’s rights by writing letters to John Adams, her husband.
Richard Henry Lee
American statesman from Virginia best known for the motion in the Second Continental Congress calling for the colonies’ independence from Great Britain
Lord Charles Cornwallis
British officer, who surrendered at Yorktown and his ministry had fallen eventually. He lead British attacks.
William Howe
British Officer, who was a major leader for British troops. He was able to capture Philly, but it was a trap. He lost at the battle of bunker hill.
John Burgoyne
British army officer, politician and dramatist. He first saw action during the Seven Years’ War when he participated in several battles, mostly notably during the Portugal Campaign of 1762. He captured Fort Ticonderoga but lost the Battle of Saratoga
Benjamin Franklin
Printer whose success as an author led him to take up politics; he helped draw up the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution; he played a major role in the American Revolution and negotiated French support for the colonists.
Comte de Rochambeau
French general who led troops against the British Army during the Revolutionary War.
Gorge Rogers Clark
goes down river with 175 men, and captures Kaskaskia, Cahokia, Vincennes Forts. He was known as the “Conqueror of the Old Northwest”
Admiral de Grasse
Commanded the French fleet at the Battle of the Chesapeake, which led directly to the British surrender at Yorktown

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