Apush: the Enduring Vision Ch 27 Notes

Apush: the Enduring Vision Ch 27 Notes

The Cold War (continued) Chapter 27 to page 837, plus 863-64 in Chapter 28 The Eisenhower Presidency

1. Eisenhower – What type of chief executive was he? He gave peace and stability. He gave a sense of unity, inspired confidence and even Democratic liberalism and republican like him . With McCarthyism and desegregation of schools, he had a hand off approach.

2. “Dynamic Conservatism” – How did it differ from conventional conservatism? – Reduce taxes, contain inflation, and govern efficiently without surrendering the fundamentals of the New Deal.

3. William F. Buckley, National Review, John Birch Society – A young conservative yale graduate who founded the National Review in 1955 -> claimed that domestic communism was a major subversive threat. John Birch Society was at the top of this belief, it also denounced Eisenhower as a communist conspiracy.

4. Joseph McCarthy and the Army-McCarthy Hearings – THE DOWNFALL OF McCarthy. He was made that one of his aides had not received a draft deferment, so that senator accused the army in 1954 of harboring communists.

Army countered saying that he had tried to get preferential treatment for the aide who had been drafted. ON NATIONAL TV. Died 1957 from alcoholism -> fear still lingered of communists HUAC still alive.

5. Interstate Highway Act ( 830) – what effects did it have? – In 1954 Eisenhower set up a high powered commission to recommend a highway program that would cost as much as the war. – over 100 billion spent- largest and most expensive public works scheme in American history. – freeway helped unify Americans by increasing the accessibility of once distant regions. FAST FOOD CHAINS MICKEY D’s2

6.Earl Warren – new chief justice in 1953

7. Jencks v. U. S. – Court held that the accused had the right to inspect government files used by the prosecution

8. Yates v. U. S. -The justices overturned the convictions of Communist Party officials under the Smith act. Essentially ended further prosecutions of communists. -> opposition to warren from the right wing

9. Brown v. Board of Education, “ all deliberate speed,” – End of segregated schools.

10. Orval Faubus – Arkansas governor mobilized the state’s national Guard to bar nine AA students from entering the school .

11. Southern Manifesto – In 1956, more than a hundred members of Congress signed this, denouncing Brown as “ a clear abuse of judicial power. ”

12. Civil Rights Acts of 1957 and 1960 – 1957 : the first since Reconstruction, est a permanent commission on civil rights, but did little for black votes. 1960 strengthened it. Neither act empowered fed officials to register AA to vote. The Cold War Continues

13. Korean war armistice – July 1953 established 38th parallel b/n North and South Korea. Eisenhower veiled nuclear weapons right before the armistice was signed.

14.John Foster Dulles and “brinksmanship” – Secretary of State for Eisenhower, a Presbyerian, crazy religious -> wanted holy war against atheist. Brinksmanship, the art of never back down in a crisis, even if it meant risking war ( opinion against communism)

15. Atmospheric Test suspension – In 1958, as a first step toward a test-ban treaty, both the U. S. and Soviet Union temporarily suspended nuclear testing. This informal moratorium on nuclear testing was ended in September 1961 by the Soviet Union. Two weeks later, the U. S. responded by conducting its own test series.

The resumption of nuclear testing produced much radioactive and political fallout. The public concern about the fallout danger finally produced enough political pressure to force negotiations of a test-ban treaty.

16. Emphasis on nuclear weapons as “more bang for the buck” – instead of traditional force, now the new look defense program promised more bang for the buck, NUKE EM for def.

17. Shooting down of US spy plane –

18. Allen Dulles – CIA commander chosen by Eisenhower, a veteran of wartime operations (brother is SoS)

19. CIA & Iran – 1953, CIA organized coup to overthrow government of Iran in fear of oil fields to Soviets. Replaced prime minister with pro-American Shah Reza Pahlavi. -> Iran hatrid

20. CIA & Guatemala – 1953 overthrew leftist elected government in Guatemala because took took United Fruit Company land, and then we took em back.

21. Indochina (Vietnam) – Most extensive CIA operations happened here in the 1950s. With the outbreak of war in Korea, and Communist MAo Zedong – > Indochina key battleground. U. S aids 75% of French forces. But they still lost. French wanted their help! What shall they do?

22. the Geneva Peace Accords US rejection of the Geneva Peace ACcords – international conference hich arranged a cease-fire and temporarily divided Vietnam. United States never agreed to this. United States created SEATO.

23. Division of Vietnam – 17th parallel.

24. the National Liberation Front – Diem’s opponents created the NLF, backed by North Vietnam, the insurgency attracted broad support and soon controlled half of South Vietnam. DIEM cOST 1 billion. (DEAN SHUDA BEEN IN NAM)

25. Ngo Dinh Diem – U. S made this anti communist Catholic man the premier, then president of an independent South Vietnam. CIA agents helped Diem train his armed forces and block the 1956 election to unify Vietnam. They did this because if there was an election, likely 80% of the population would have voted for communism. NO DOMINO.

26. “domino theory – If one country falls to communist, more will follow. Do not let Vietnam fall. If it did, Burma, Thailand, Indonesia, and the rest of Asia would eventually fall.

27. The Suez crisis- In 1954 when Gamal Abdel Nasser came to power in Egypt, he canceled a previous loan from the United States to finance the government, which followed the nationalization of the British-owned Suez Canal. British believed the Canal to be the lifeline of their empire -> take it back by force! British supported by France (fear Arab nationalism in their Algerian colony) & Israel ( fear of Egyptian Army). – Egypt attacked 1956 –> Ike was mad because war could drive Arabs to Russia. –> Eisenhower Doctrine

28. Eisenhower Doctrine – 1957, proclaiming that the UNited States would send military aid and, if necessary, troops to any Middle eastern nation threatened by “communist aggression. ” –> 14k troops in Lebanon in July 1958 to quell a threatened Muslim revolt against its pro-western regime.

29. Military industrial complex. Cold War Activism

30. Space race/ Sputnik/ NASA / NDEA / ICBM – NOtes

31. Kennedy Tapes -Secret tapes recorded inside the white house that only the president and two secret CIA agents knew about.

32. Peace Corps – created in 1961, exemplified the New Frontier’s liberal anticommunism. By 1963, there were 5k volunteers in Third World countries including teachers, sanitation engineers, crop specialists, and health workers.

33. Fidel Castro & Che, Cuban Revolution (1959) -From US supported Dictatorship to Communist run dictatorship. At first people liked Fidel Castro Overthrowing the previous president and promoting democracy but that didn’t last long…….

34. Bay of Pigs fiasco. Any conflict with Good Neighbor Policy- JFK really messed up. he deprived the 15k anti-Castro exiles of air support. JFK accepted the blame.

35. The Berlin Crisis and the Berlin Wall. – Notes 36. The Cuban Missile Crisis / how started? / major players? / Options? / Deal? – USSR set up missile bases in Cuba, US spy planes find out. Khrushchev lied straight to JFK face. Options: Airstrike, Invasion, Blockade, Negotiation. (ask for more? )

37. Nikita Khrushchev – Premier of USSR

38. Robert Kennedy / Robert McNamara – Attorney General, and Secretary of Defense.

39 . he “hotline” – Two months after signing an agreement to establish a 24-hour-a-day “hot line” between Moscow and Washington, the system goes into effect. The hot line was supposed to help speed communication between the governments of the United States and the Soviet Union and help prevent the possibility of an accidental war. In June 1963, American and Russian representatives agreed to establish a so-called “hot line” between Moscow and Washington. The agreement came just months after the October 1962 Cuban missile crisis, in which the United States and Soviet Union came to the brink of nuclear conflict.

It was hoped that speedier and more secure communications between the two nuclear superpowers would forestall such crises in the future. In August 1963, the system was ready to be tested.

40. Atmospheric and undersea test ban treaty – In 1958, as a first step toward a test-ban treaty, both the U. S. and Soviet Union temporarily suspended nuclear testing. This informal moratorium on nuclear testing was ended in September 1961 by the Soviet Union. Two weeks later, the U. S. responded by conducting its own test series. The resumption of nuclear testing produced much radioactive and political fallout.