APWH Chapter 34

APWH Chapter 34

The spark for World War I was
Provided when Gavrilo Princip assassinated the Archduke of Austria-Hungary, Franz Ferdinand
The first total war in world history was
The Great War/World War I
Approximately how many combatants died in World War I?
15 million
Self-determination
The term for the idea that people with the same ethnic origins, language and political ideals had the right to form sovereign states.
Nationalistic aspirations of subject minorities were most threatening to a state such as
Austria-Hungary
Pan-Slavism
Was actively promoted by Russia
England’s industrial output in 1914
Stood at 14%, roughly the same as Germany’s
Areas of competition and conflict between England and Germany in the years leading up to WWI
Not: Oceans (naval race), east/southwest Africa
The desire to ensure it’s “Place in the sun” was a common complaint of
Germany
Triple Alliance
Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy
The Triple Alliance was threatened from the very beginning by
Italy’s policy of aggrandizement at the expense of the Ottoman Empire and Italy’s rivalry with Austria-Hungary in the Balkans
The French were deeply suspicious of German expansion because of
The inability of the French to forget their humiliating defeat in the Franco-Prussian war
Plan XVII
Amounted to a veritable celebration of offensive maneuvers-“attack” undertaken always and everywhere
Schlieffen Plan
The military plan that called for an invasion of France through Belgium
Gavrilo Princip
A Bosnian Serb who assassinated the Archduke and his wife
The last tsar of Russia
Nicholas II
Nicholas II mobilized Russian armed forces following
The Austro-Hungarian declaration of war on Serbia
The soldiers who marched off in 1914 to fight in World War I were mostly
Wildly enthusiastic
What was the motto of the Americans?
“To make the world safe for democracy”
The German offensive of 1914
Was halted at the River Marne (western front)
The western front in World War I was
A bloody stalemate
The massive German assault on the western front in 1916
Was unsuccessful because they didn’t make it past the French troops of Verdun; French counted 315,000 dead and German counted 280,000
The Somme
A battle fought to relieve the pressure on Verdun by the British and by November they had gained a few thousand yards at the cost of 420,000 casualties
(An English assault in 1916 that gained a few thousand yards)
In World War I, the eastern front
Was ultimately a spectacular German success
Which of the following was not a characteristic of the new total war of World War I?
Was: barbed wire, new weapons (poisonous mustard gas, machine gun), tanks, airplanes, submarine, no mans land
Wilfred Owen (World War I poet) considered Horace’s line
“It is sweet and proper to die for one’s country” to be and “old lie”
What effect did World War I have on the status of women?
They took the men’s work during the war, gained voting rights in some countries after war, discouraged patriarchal family system in Russia and China
Joseph Caillaux’s experience during World War I demonstrated that
Governments censored bad news and vilified the enemy through propaganda campaigns
Explanation of the expansion of World War I to Asia, Africa and the Pacific
Not: The German invasion of neutral Belgium was such a profound breech of international law
The Twenty-One Demands
Were issued to China from japan on January 18, 1915
The Japanese fought in World War I due to their
Determination to dominate East Asia
Which of the following was a German African colony conquered by the Allies in World War I?
Togoland, The Cameroons, German southwest Africa, German east Africa
The Battle of Gallipoli
Was a disaster. Allied soldiers were pinned on the beaches by the Turkish, led to a weakening of imperial ties and paved the way for emerging national identities
To lead the bedouins of Arabia against Ottoman rule, T. E. Lawrence worked with
British intelligence services as a military adviser among the Arabs in revolt against Turkish rule
The February Revolution of 1917
Was an unplanned and incomplete affair, Russia ceased to be a monarchy
The main reason for the failure of the provisional government in Russia in 1917 was
Soviets of workers’ and soldiers’ deputies surfaced all over Russia, failed to satisfy popular demands for an end to war/for land reform
The main difference between the philosophies of Marx and Lenin was
Lenin viewed the industrial working class as incapable of developing the proper revolutionary consciousness that would lead to effective political action
The most famous motto of the Russian Revolution was
“Peace, land, and bread”
The Treaty of Brest Litovsk
Ended Russia’s involvement in the Great War, gave Germans possession of 1/3 of Russia’s territory and 1/4 of Russia’s population
The key factor in the United States’ decision to enter World War I was
Germany’s resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare in February 1917
The Influenza Pandemic of 1918
Left more than 20 million dead and was helped spread by wartime traffic on land/sea
One of the major problems of the Paris peace negotiations that led to the Treaty of Versailles was
The Allies didn’t permit representatives of the Central Powers to participate
Woodrow Wilson agreed to many harsh stipulations to the Treaty of Versailles
In return for the creation of the Leaue of Nations
Woodrow Wilson’s 14 point peace plan
1-5: Remove the MAIN causes of conflict
6-13: Redraw the map by self-determination
14:League of Nations
Mustapha Kemal
Became president of the Republic of Turkey in the wake of World War I