APWH Industrial Revolution

APWH Industrial Revolution

Abolition of Slavery
All South American countries abolished slavery by 1880. In Britian it was because a change in economic interest, and resistance from the enslaved people.
Adam Smith
Scottish philosopher; Economy depends on demand of people.
Canals
an artificial waterway used to direct water (usually from a river or lake) to a certain area (city, town, etc.)
Capitalism
an economic system based on private ownership of capital, companies choices, goal is to make profit to reinvest in company
Combustion engine
oil burning, replaced steam engine, used in transportation
communism
Everyone is equal, perfect justice
consumer markets
The markets for products and services purchased by individuals or households to satisfy their specific needs.
convict labor
Public service for criminals which displayed disciplinary methods and created living and working conditions reminiscent of slavery where prisoners were housed and treated like animals with a high mortality rate.
dependency theory
Everyone/ Everything depends on someone or something
Edmund Burke
father of modern conservatism. noted for his emphasis on tradition
Emancipation of Serfdom
This happened in Russia ,1861 (brought about by the tsar at the time, Alexander II
Export economy
a type of economy in which it’s goods are produced mainly for export rather than for domestic use
factory system
a method of production that brought many workers and machines together into one building, “Putting out system”
fossil fuels
a nonrenewable energy resource that forms in the Earth’s crust for millions of years, coal, oil, natural gas.
global division of power
Shift of powers from countries to companies
Immigration
migration into a place (especially migration to a country of which you are not a native in order to settle there). Jews went to USA, Australia, Argentina. Irish went to USA or Britain.
Industrial Revolution
The change from an agricultural to an industrial society and from home manufacturing to factory production, especially the one that took place in England from about 1750 to about 1850.
Industrialization
the process of developing machine production of goods
John Stuart Mill
believed in laissez-faire but believed government should work for the well being of all
Karl Marx
German journalist and philosopher. He is known for two books: The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (Vols. I-III, 1867-1894).
Laissez Faire
the doctrine that government should not interfere in commercial affairs
Marxism
Willing to respect/ accept other opinions, “open minded”
Mass Production
the production of large quantities of goods using machinery and often an assembly line
meiji restoration
Political program that followed the destruction of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868, and set Japan on the path of centralization, industrialization, and imperialism. 1866-1869.
Middle class
A social class made up of skilled workers, professionals, business people, and wealthy farmers
private property
property owned by individuals or companies, not by the government or the people as a whole
professionalization
The extent to which a firm meets or exceeds the standard business practices for its industry.
proletariat
the industrial working class
public education
As industry grew, America needed an educated workforce so public schools were created.
Second Industrial Revolution
Steep growth in industry and the production of steel, petrolium, electric power, and the machinery to produce other goods
Social Impacts of Industrial Revolution
Modernization, Family life changed
Socialism
An economic system based on state ownership of capital
specialization of labor
Focusing work effort on a particular product or a single task
steam power
steam-engines burned coal to to boil water and create steam, which drove mechanical devices that performed work.
sugar plantations
Sugar plantations were a major economic thing in South America and Africa requiring a large amount of Slavery. The model for using these with slaves was established by the Portuguese.
Trans- Siberian Railroad
Constructed in 1870s to connect European Russia with the Pacific; completed by the end of the 1880s; brought Russia into a more active Asian role.
Unions
groups of workers who unite to improve conditions for themselves (higher wages, safer working conditions)
Urbanization
Change from rural to urban lifestyle, the growth of cities