Art History 6C @ UCSB

Modernism
“all that is ephemeral and fleeting and everything that isn’t traditional”; describes an effect and focuses on an object; uproot from rural to industrialized cities
Enlightenment
brought light and no longer governed by superstitions; emphasis on individual rather than the state
1. belief that destiny can be shaped and changed
2. individual takes on new meaning with agency to pursue happiness
3. institutions can be reformed and perfected and the purpose of the state is to help the individual
French Revolution
1789: inspired by enlightenment ideas; State=King, first estate=clergy/church, second estate=noblemen, third estate=everyone else; third estate rebels and try to create a constitution that is democratic and gives more equal rights

Death of King Lois XV; result of a vote; executed on January 20, 1793

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Philosophes
those men engaging with reason, individualism, and liberty
King Lois XIV
1. extremely powerful and had the palace of Versailles constructed to keep eye on his court and administrators
2. Versailles = power and control
Hierarchy of Genres
1. History paintings
2. Portraits
3. Genre Paintings
4. Landscapes
5. Animal Paintings
6. Still Life
History Paintings
most important kind of painting; includes religious, mythological, historical, literary, or allegorical subjects (conveys a moral lesson about appropriate behavior, virtue)
Portraits
painting of someone that is meant to be of a specific person
Genre Scenes
scenes of everyday life, neither ideal nor in style nor elevated in subject; admired for skill, ingenuity, and even humor
Still Life
inanimate objects being painted
Rococo
arose from the rule of Louis XV who was more interested in social life and gambling than state of affairs; represents modern pleasures; intimacy, secrecy, fun between subject matters; fluffy brushwork, concerned with more playful themes
Neo-Classicism
austere, moral values, didactic, crisp lines, hard edges and clarity, sculpted forms, and shallow depths; usually history painting; used to teach citizens how to behave; often about how loyalty and sacrifice to the state is overall more important than emotion
Didactic
intending to teach; particularly in having moral instruction as an ulterior motive
Royal Academy
established by Lois XIV in 1664; training for artists in casting, musculature, sin, and then clothes; made to control the artists
Salon
represent the artists’ work; established by Kin Lois XIV to control what was painted and to keep the state upheld; 1664-1881; official, sponsored; after 1881 Bougeureau and others take over and clal it the National Salon; held in spring
Storming of the Bastille
July 14th, 1789: peasants take over the prison and kill many of the prisoners and guards; the flashpoint of the french revolution
Guillotine
a weapon to kill those accused of being against the revolution; seen as democratic because it was used on everyone regardless of their status
The Reign of Terror
1793-1794; period during the revolution that was led mainly by Robespierre who was killing people in large numbers
September Days
1794, estimated that 18,000-40,000 were killed in weeks
Jacobins
the ones who did the reign of terror/september days; led by Robespierre
Romanticism
NOT a style; a movement that sets itself in opposition to tradition; values emotion and individual aspects of life; focuses on how the artist feels about the subject; often has more messy/fluid brushwork and no real distinction of background with the scene (but not always)
Timeline
1. Lois XIV = Sun King
2. Lois XV = Beheaded King
3. French Revolution = 1789
4. Empire = Napoleon as officer, then member of Consul, crowns himself emperor, beaten at Waterloo in 1815 and is sent into exile
5. The Restoration (1815-1830) = Lois XVI’s Brother “restored” to power
Napoleon
First Consul and the Emperor (1800-1815)
The Restoration
1815-1830, “restoration of the monarchy”; Lois XVIII and then Charles X; autocratic ruler
July Monarchy
second french revolution from 1830-1848; began with overthrow of Charles X; then Louis Phillip (“citizen king”) comes to power; then the revolution of 1848 (Workers and Peasant Revolutions)
Louis Phillip
constitutional monarchy under the charter; triumph of Bourgeoisie (workers are forgotten); King Louis Phillip, January 1831: attempted to stay in middle ground in equal distance from excess of popular power and abuse of royal power
The Revolution of 1848 (Workers and Peasant Revolutions)
Urban workers-socialist regime; June days and National Workshops; overthrow government; establish 10 hour work days, nationalized railways, National workshops for those who were unemployed, June days, uprisings stop in 1849
Realism
rejects notion of “higher reality” in art; focus on things of one’s own time, things one cn see and experience; usually depicts peasant life; paint application and composition call attention to themselves
June Days
guns, soldiers enter pairs – Emperor Napoleon III takes over – second empire established
1846-1848
1. Potato blight/famine
2. 1 million die in Ireland
3. 1 million migrate population decreases by 25%
4. Recession – mass unemployment
5. Literacy in Germany and Austria rose
6. Newspapers produced everywhere as a result and communication increases
7. Universal workshops, 10 hour workdays
8. Unstable uncertainty about who is going to rule
Constituents
working class Bourgeoisie, petit bourgeoisie, and peasants
Romantic vs. Realist
Romantic used smoother lines and their lines show movement or flow to create action; Realists used rougher lines to show the relationship between the subjects hard life and the brushwork and showing paint as it was without trying to perfect it
Academic Painting
mid late 19th century; set apart from real life (like the Hollywood of painting); had hints of Neoclassical and Romantic styles; unlike Neoclassical there was no moral lesson to be learned, just a nice painting with many details in accordance with the conventions of the academy; took styles and normalized them along with their subjects; became a machine as it lost its relationship with the world
Impressionism
about a Bourgeoisie world where Bourgeoisie rituals govern and stand as markers of a persons social standing; wants to paint the modern world; wants to show how the painting was created (paint is not going to make a perfect figure when we do not live in a world of perfect figures); representation, fleeting spectacle of everyday life; plein air painting (outoors, on site); empahsis on surface as well as subject matter; rapid brushstrokes; motif is a slice of life rather than a posed scene; primarily leisure activities; interest in color and light
Salon of Refuges of 1863
put on by Napoleon III after numerous were rejected from the Salon; paintings such as Manet’s were displayed; sponsered to appease those rejected by the official salon
Chiaroscuro
modeling of form through light and dark to produce a 3D effect
Second Empire
1852-1870: “Haussmannization”
Timeline of Styles
BAROQUE AND ROCOCO
NEOCLAISSICISM
1) French Revolution
2) Empire
ROMANTICISM
3) Restoration
4) July Monarchy
REALISM
5) Workers and Peasant Revolutions 1848-50
6) Second Empire
IMPRESSIONISM
7) Franco-Prussian War 1870-71
8) Third Republic
IMPRESSIONISM, POST-IMPRESSIONISM
9) The 20th Century
Impressionist Exhibitions
1874-86: anonymous society of artists, subscription to the society was required
Haussmannization
period during which Paris was transformed into the Modern city that it is today; Haussman was appointed by Napoleon III to modernize the city; created wide boulevards; people were moved and displaced; high rent for shop owners and some areas began to turn lively and trendy; filling leisure time and shopping the construction of the department stores brought entertainment and people started going to spend their time in other places
Franco-Prussian War
1870-71: prussia wins and france loses; republicans go to Versailles to make peace with Prussians and the elected french government (the republic) surrenders to Prussia so the Prussians agree to withdraw;
The Commune
March to May 1871: radical group; had separation of church and state, voting rights for women, the abolition of night work in Paris bakeries, pensions for survivors of National Gardman, and they postponed commercial debt obligations; during this period there was communism in the air; crushed and the Republicans ally with Prussians
Salon des Independants (1884)
founded by critics, artists, and dealers interested in “progressive” art; no jury and to exhibit your art you would pay 10 Francs; held in spring
Salon d’Atomne
1903: no jury; held in fall; established as progressive and features many foreign artists and major retrospectives “forward thinking”
Post-Impressionism
took certain parts of Impressionism and emphasized expression through use of color, line, patterning; the emotional impact of what they see

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