Art History Exam 2

Kuros
Statue representing a boy. Archaic period.
Kore
Statue representing a girl/female. Archaic period.
Doryphoros (Spear Bearer)
By Polykleitos, 450-440 BCE, idea of physical perfection, counterbalance of tension and relaxation (chiastic balance), became standard proportions, marble copy after a bronze original
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Column
Columns were used to show openness, power and were an advance in engineering.
Cella
Is the inner part of the temple, housed the statue.
Heroic nudity
Greek were passionate about the human body and that is why they are nude sculptures, in the archaic period all naked sculptures were male athletes. The idea of human body being perfect.
pediment
triangular part above columns in Greek buildings, where sculptures would be placed to tell a story.
Greek temple—purpose, function, construction, material
Greek temples functioned as houses for the gods, who were embodied in cult statues, but rituals occurred on the outside, open to the demos.
humanism
Human-centered world.
Greek architectural orders (Doris, Ionic, Corinthian)
Greeks a collection of peoples from the north, Dorians, and the coast of Asia Minor, Ionians. Two artistic styles, one austere and simplified (Doric), one more decorative (Ionic), combined to form Greek art historical periods.
Greek periods: Archaic, Classical, Late Classical, Hellenistic
Archaic Greece is characterized by an artistic flowering in independent city-states. Humanist ideas developed along with innovative forms of the polis. We trace a movement towards naturalism in vase painting and sculpture, and the development of new architectural forms that express these ideals.

Late Classical Period -4th c BCE
At the end of the 5th century, Athens was defeated first by the Spartans in the Peloponnesian war and then in the 4th c by Philip II of Macedonia, father of Alexander the Great.
Disappointment and disillusion followed. The serene idealism of the Classical style was over.
Greek art focused on the individual and reality rather than on community and perfection. Emotion, elongated body, nudity.

Hellenistic Sculpture
empathy, theatricality, emotion, dynamism, non-traditional subjects
archaic smile
Half smile, slightly up on the side = called archaic smile.
Chiastic pose/contrapposto
Cross pose – if you divide the body in halves across the vertical axis and the horizontal axis it represents a set of relations. The halves support each other vertically and contradict each other diagonally: lazy arm stands against a lazy leg and working arm against a working leg; extended arm along an extended leg, a flexed hand along a flexed leg.
Polykleitos, “the canon”
“the canon” Roman marble. Goal: to explain motion, to impose order on human movement, to make it rational. Polykleitos was a sculpturer and a philosopher.
Very important artist in the greek history.
Greek Democracy
Iktinos and Kallicrates, the Parthenon
Parthenon – the physical building showing the greeks empire.
It was made in 9 years while a team of restoration architects have been trying to restore it for over 30 years. The height and width define perfect proportion. There is no curve in the building, everything is slighted angled.Doric in the outside, ionic in the inside.
Aqueduct
A conduit, either elevated or under ground, using gravity to carry water from a source to a location-usually a city-that needed it. The Romans built many aqueducts in a period of substantial urbanization.
Concrete
made of lime mortar, volcanic sand, water and small stones) becomes very strong; allowed them to develop new structures; today’s name cement Architecture became more focused on space than on mass with a new sense of how to enclose space.
Arch
it allows wider separation of the posts, better support of the curved lintel and better weight distribution; arcade.
dome
Roman senate
In the 6th c BC the Romans overthrew the last one of the Etruscan kings of Rome and established a Republic with a constitutional government.. A small group of elite men was on the top of the government. The republic was governed by a senate (literally “a council of elders” senior citizens) and two elected consuls.
Julius Caesar
One of the generals, Julius Caesar took the idea further and in 46 BC he declared himself a life-time dictator. The Romans lost the republic and this became a pretext for his enemies. In 44 BC he was assassinated.
(Octavian) Augustus
Octavian became a caesar – the first Roman emperor. He appropriated the name Augustus (“supreme leader’) In 37 BC Octavian defeated Mark Antony and Cleopatra. He established an empire in 31 BC and gave himself the title pontificus pontifus maximus a king-emperor. The empire reached the largest extension during Trajan .
Via Appia
an important Road connecting Rome with the southern seaport to Greece (Brundisium). Built by Appius Claudius in the late 300s BC.
oculus
eye of jupiter. Open part in the ceiling where gods were able to “watch” the decisions going on inside the building.
coffers
are the designs on the wall that are sunken in, panels on the ceiling decorated with golden stars.
cuirass
Medieval body armor that covers the chest and back
Adlocutio
Address (imperial type scene in which the emeror speaks to his troops or subjects).
Mausoleum
Monumental tomb
313 Edict of Toleration
Legalized christianity across the empire
312 battle of Milvan Bridge
The eventual victor in the conflict was Constantine–son of Constantius the Augustus of the West. He defeated the first one of his rivals – Maxentius at the battle of the Milvian Bridge in 312 and took control of Rome. He attributed the victory to a vision of a cross that he saw in the sky before the battle.
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Kouros, ca. 600 BCE, marble, approx. 6′ high
First pieces of art emerged in the 600 B.C. Kouros = boy. All status in the beginning were kouros, statues of boys.
Kroisos, from Anavysos, ca. 530 BCE, marble
Kroisos had influence from the middle-east. Same position as sculptures seen in other places. Stiff but still moving forward.
Peplos Kore, from the Acropolis, Athens, ca. 530 BCE
Kore = girl / female. Female sculptures are always clothed in the archaic period. Represented a godess.
Acropolis Kore 675; 530-515 BCE
A more detailed sculpture of a goddess (Athena) with ornaments and blue color clothes showing wealth. Changing period in sculptures.
Kritios Boy, from the Acropolis, Athens, ca. 480, marble, approx. 2’10” high
Naturalistic—follows the body not a grid. Humanism. Perfect proportion of the human body. Realism.
Polykleitos, Doryphoros(Spear Bearer), “the canon” Roman marble copy from Pompeii, Italy, bronze original of ca. 450, 6’11” high
explain motion, to impose order on human movement, to make it rational.
Warrior, from sea off Riace, Italy, ca. 460-450, bronze, 6’6″ high
Realism but with exaggeration. The spine is really deep and goes all the way down to the butt. Lines on the side of the body are quite inhuman.
Praxiteles, Aphrodite of Knidos. Roman marble copy of an original of 350-340 BCE, 6’8″ high
First female nude in the western art. In the archaic period women are represented with clothes. In this period is when women started to be portrayed nude. Submitted his sculpture to the competition = Praxiteles
Iktinos and Kallicrates, Parthenon, 447-438 (plan, architecture, sculpture, function, significance)
the physical building showing the greeks empire.
It was made in 9 years while a team of restoration architects have been trying to restore it for over 30 years. The height and width define perfect proportion. There is no curve in the building, everything is slighted angled.Doric in the outside, ionic in the inside.
The Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheater), Rome, ca. 70-80 CE
Pont du Gard, Nimes, France, ca. 16 CE
The Romans skillfully manipulated and controlled water—important source of power in all large empires. Huge aqueducts unite superb engineering and water management; transported water over vast regions not through pressure, but through subtle incline – 1 inch for every 31 km or 3000 inches. Built only with cut square stone, no mortar.
Temple of Fortuna Virilis, Rome, ca. 75 BCE
Sanctuary of Fortuna Primigenia, Palestrina, Italy, late 2nd C BCE
Primigenia, Palestrina, Italy, late 2nd C BCE. possible through Roman invention of concrete.
Epigonos, Dying Gaul, Roman marble copy after bronze original from Pergamon, Turkey, ca. 230-220 BCE, approx. 3′ high
Very human, it is not standing anymore.The sculpture is very ashamed and dying.
Nike alighting on a warship (Nike of Samothrace), from Samothrace, Greece, ca. 190 BCE, marble, figure approx. 8′ high
Goddess of victory. Movement, motion, the clothes are wet and are “attached” to the body.
Old Market Woman, ca. 150-100 BCE, marble, approx. 4′ high
individualism, overt eroticism and a sense of nobility. First time in the realistic period, old people are shown and poor people. Classical period is where the body of males are show in perfection, athletes.
The Pantheon, Rome, 118-125 CE (plan, design, purpose, message, patron, architecture)
“looks more in book on this building” – The name means every God. Was rebuilt twice due to fires. Writing above is in Latin. Many building such as the Washington Capitol building mimic this building look.

Hadarion built Roman dome. 150 ft wide 150 ft tall. It cant be classified and it’s a mystery. Used concrete the higher it goes the lighter the load. Tuff brick at the top. Ring of stone that is open to outside. Oculus-ring of stone at the top. A place where the emperor give judgment. The oculus allows “al the gods” to look and see what’s going on. 16 columns (in front) Carved from single piece of Egyptian granite. Primary reason is a place for the gods.

Head of an old man, from Osimo, Italy, mid 1st C BCE, marble
Shows the head of old senate members, white, old, wise members. Sculptures were commissioned to show heritage.
Portrait of Augustus as General, from Primaporta, early 1st C “copy” of bronze “original”, ca. 20 BCE
Shows the “golden age” augustus wanted to revive in Roman from the greeks.
Ara Pacis Augustae (Altar of Augustan Peace), Rome, 13-9 BCE, 5′ high, marble
Commemorates successful suppression of rebellions in France and Spain.
Female Personification, panel from east façade of Ara Pacis Augustae, Rome, marble, 5’3″ high
personification of Rome, Tellus (Mother Earth), Pax (Peace), Venus or Ceres (goddess of grain). Suggest that the time of peace is in abundance.
Column of Trajan, Forum of Trajan, Rome, dedicated 112 CE
Served as the resting placed for the emperor.
Campaign is described in the column. Narrative of the war against Dessau where Trajan was victorious. You can’t see the top but it was expected what the column shows.
Forum of Trajan (reconstruction model), Rome, dedicated 112 CE
Four tetrarchs, Constantinople, c. 305 AD, porphyry, approx. 4′ 3″, Saint Mark’s, Venice
They all look the same, face (they look angry/serious), they all have swords on their left hand, size is the same (equal in power). As united and separated. Stiff body, no movement. Part of the late roman sculpture.

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