Art History Study Notes

Art Hist. Review Ancient Greek Art and Arch. (600 BCE-30 BCE) The Early Classical Period 480-450 BCE 5. 23 KRITIOS BOY Acropolis, Athens 480 BCE -Marble -He is self confident and serious looking -He is a sculpture in the round -The artist is believed to be KRITIOS -The statue has an S-curve to him and is in the contrapposto pose, which is when artists use tension and relaxation around the central axis of the body to increase to muscular tension and enhance the musculature of a body. It is shown here because his weight is all on the left foot, causing his hip to jut out.

His right knee is slightly bent and he has a slight drop in his shoulders. -The artist also made a point to have his head slightly turned to hint that the viewer should take in the entirety of the piece. High Classical Period 450-400 BCE 5. 29 ACROPOLIS, ATHENS 447-432 BCE -In the High classical period which only lasted a half-century and set the standards for art and architecture. There was also turmoil between the Spartans and the Athenians in this time period which was referred to as the Peloponnesian War. -“Acro” means high and “polis” means city. The Acropolis of Athens was once considered a fortress and sanctuary but was later turned into a religious and ceremonial centre for Athena the cities patron and protector. -It was destroyed by Persian troops in 480 BCE and was going to be left and a memorial site of ruins but Perikles convinced them to rebuild it. 5. 31 Parthenon, Acropolis Athens 447-432 BCE -KALLIKRATES AND IKTINOS -Pantelic Marble -Has the pediment, frieze, triglyph, metope, architrive, abacus, mechinus and necking -Athens, Corinth and Sparta. Depicted gods and goddesses who they believed were immortal and supernatural -Sanctuaries for gods and goddesses in form of outdoor alters—replaced by temples integrated into natural site -temples decorated with ceramic sculptures -mathematical proportions which artists use to convey structure and order 4:9 ratio 4×2+1 -human values of truth virtue and harmony -High classical period -plain capital -temple dedicated to Athena -stylobate floor columns rest on and stereobate foundation itself -post and lintel system -entasis columns slightly swell in the middle -Doric order plain capitals peace, prosperity and power through the building projects -transport wood, gold, marble and ivory -sculptures celebrate the Greek victory over Persians 5. 32 EAST PEDIMENT OF THE PARTHENON 447-432 BCE (ATHENS) – High Classical period 450-400 BCE -Sculpture in the round filled both pediments of the Parthenon -illustrated the birth of Athena, fully grown and clad in armor, from the brow of her father Zeus. -The statues from the west pediment are the best preserved of the two. -besides Zeus and the newborn Athena are three goddesses followed by a single reclining male figure who could be Diomysos or Herakles. In the left corner was Helios (sun god) in his horse-drawn chariot rising from the sea and to the right the moon god Selene descends in her chariot to the sea. -The running female figure in the center is Iris the messenger of the gods. P. G. 134 SPEAR BEARER (DORYPHOROS) 450-440 BCE (NAPLES) -POLYKLEITOS -Marble -developed canon of proportions system of measurement used to determine the proportions of the body -contropposto pose is balance and counterbalance one foot bearing weight and one not bearing the weight.

In this case his right foot is the one bearing all the weight of his body while the left foot is relaxed. -It is said to be the hero Achilles -Theorists believed that the basic unit was the length of the figures index finger or the width of the figures hand across the knuckles; others think it was the height of the head from chin to hairline. -S-curve -High classical period -spear bearer, idealized, exaggerated The Late Classical Period 400-323 BCE 5. 46 MAN SCRAPING HIMSELF (APOXYOMENOS) 350-325 (VATICAN) -LYSIPPOS -Marble sculpture -Done in the late classical period male nude athlete, which is a typical Classical subject -This is a sculpture in the round that depicts a young athlete after his workout removing dirt and oil from his body with a tool called a strigil. -Has a different canon of proportions than The Spear Bearer. -His head is smaller in proportion to The Spear Bearer and his legs are spread further apart to counterbalance his outstretched arms. -There is a pronounced S-curve to his posture. -The arms break free into the surrounding space inviting the viewer to take in the entirety of the piece. The Early Roman Empire 27 BCE-96 CE P. G. 76-177 ARA PACIS AUGUSTAE 13-9 BCE -Ancient roman art -Dedicated to Augustus’ triumphant return from the capital after three years of establishing Roman rule in Gaul and Hispania. -It was aligned with a giant sundial. -it contained propoganda of portraiture and allegory, religion and polotics and the private and the public. -on the inside of the alter there are foliate garlands suspended in swags from ox skulls, which symbolize sacrificial offering at the alter during annual commemorations and garlands signify the continuing peace and prosperity brought to the Roman world by Augustae. Augustae’s Imperial Family is depicted on the south side of the Ara Pacis and represent his extended family, possibly Marcus Agrippa (far left) who might have been his successor. The child pulling at Agrippa’s robe is possibly Agrippa’s son Gaius Caesar. The women next to Agrippa on the right may be Augustus’ wife, Livia who grasps her younger sons hand (Germanicus) who is in beside Tiberius (the next emporer). Behind Tiberius is Antonia, Augusts’ niece who looks at her husband Drusus (Livia’s younger son). -Pax Romana — Roman Peace -pointifex maximus—high priest 6. 34 & 6. 5 FLAVION AMPITHEATER (COLOSSEUM) 70-80 CE (ROME) -Tuscan bottom -Ionic middle -Corinthian on top -It was called the colosseum because the statue of Nero called the colossus stood next to it. -seating was by rank lower the rank higher you sat -Early Roman Empire -Flavion dynasty -begun under Vespasian finished under Titus -soldiers would fight animals -tiered seating with good sight lines from where you sit. -Top level covered by and onning -top story in referred to as attic -cartouche —shield shaped ornaments -look at Roman arches High Imperial Art of Trajan and Hadrian 6. 38 MODEL OF IMPERIAL ROME 324 CE

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WEST FACADE -It depicts Visitation and Mary on the left and Elizabeth pregnant with St. John the Baptist on the right. -the figures are in contrapposto pose because their weight is shifted to one foot as they turn towards each other. -Villard highlighted an innovation that was the development of bar tracery, where thin stone bars called mullions are inserted into the wall to form a lacy framework for the stained glass. 16. 31-32 PULPIT 1260 (ITALY) -NCOLA PISANO – Corinthian columns -elevated and are carved in design of animals -gothic trefoil arch and 6 sided pulpit enunciation angle of Gabriel announces that Mary is pregnant with Christ -classical and naturalistic style -New Testament Subjects -Each panel narrates several continuous scenes such as : Annunciation, Nativity and Adoration of the Shepherds. 16. 33 NATIVITY 1302-1310 (PISA) -GIOVANNI PISANO – deeply carved setting -Mary gazing at her baby as the midwife below her prepares the bath for the child. -Sheep, shepherds and angels spiral up towards the trees to the right -it is as dynamic as Nicola’s is static. Fourth Century Art in Europe 17. 5 VIRGIN AND CHILD ENTHRONED 1280 (FLORENCE) -CIMABUE -tempera and gold on wood panel the Virgin and Child are surrounded by angels and places a row of Hebrew prophets below them. -Mary is depicted in hierarchy and holds Jesus on her lap. – she looks at the viewer while gesturing at her son. -her throne is bronze with enamels and gems inset and provides framework for the figures. He uses thin gold lines to highlight the drapery of the figures to give them a sense of divinity. -he gives naturalistic warmth and dimension to his human figures. 17. 6 VIRGIN AND CHILD ENTHRONED 1305-1310 (FLORENCE) -GIOTTO DI BONDONE – tempera and gold on wood panel -painted for the church of Ognissanti figures are in a symmetrical composition and use the hierarchy scale like Cimabue’s Virgin and Child Enthroned. -Mary takes up a large amount of space and overwhelms her Gothic throne. -the halos also overlap the faces of the figures in the background -she holds her child’s leg instead of pointing to him. -he has created a better sense of dimension compared to Cimabue’s -the angels are foreshortened and project towards us. 17. 7 SCROVEGNI (ARENA) CHAPEL 1305-1306 (PADUA) -GIOTTO DI BONDONE -fresco -he covered the entrance wall with The Last Judgment and the sanctuary wall with 3 scenes from the life of Christ. The Annunciation spreads over two painted architectural frameworks on either side of the opening to the sanctuary. -below and to the left of this is the scene of Judas getting payment for betraying Jesus and to the right the scene of Visitation where Mary pregnant with God is with Elisabeth who is pregnant with John the Baptist. -Colors complement each other, which is supposed to make the viewers relate them to each other -there is a grisaille which is a painting done in all grays -paint replicated marble and carved medallions on vertical bands -portrait disks float like glowing moons in the blue sky. 17. MARRIAGE AT CANA, RAISING OF LAZARUS, LAMENTATION AND RESURRECTION/NOLI ME TANGERE 1305-06 (PADUA) -GIOTTO DI BONDONE -fresco -scene from Christ’s life -top left Jesus performs his first miracle, at the wedding feast at Cana turning water to wine and the wine-steward sips it. -to the right is the Raising of Lazarus where figures twist in space using gestures they react to the drama by pleading for the help of Jesus. Jesus’ eyes are locked on Lazarus. -on the lower left register is Jesus’s followers grieving over his dead body in a circle of grief. Mary holds her dead son and John flings his arms back in despair and hunches over the corps. 7. 9 KISS OF JUDAS SCROVEGNI (ARENA) ITALY 1305-06 -GIOTTO DI BONDONE -fresco – the mark of betrayal that shows the first step to Crucifixion for Jesus. -they are slightly off-center in the foreground. -Judas wears the same outfit as in the scene of payment for his betrayal and looks as though he completely swallows Christ’s body. -faces glare from all directions -Jesus is calm unlike the figures in the rest of the scene. -Peter is seen lunging forward to cut off the ear of a member of the arresting retinue. -The scenes of cloth compress the chaos into the picture as if to protect the viewer.

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