ART103 Midterm

ART103 Midterm

The context in a work of art refers to _______.
a. its form
b. its size
c. its ideas
d. its media
c. its ideas
Content and form are interchangeable in a work of art.
a. true
b. false
b. false
Regardless of culture, content is always readily apparent in a work of art.
a. true
b. false
b. false
Aesthetics is the branch of philosophy that deals with ….
a. all of these answers
b. effects of art on individuals and cultures
c. art sources
d. art forms
e. art
b. effects of art on individuals and cultures
Art is always a serious endeavor and never functions as entertainment.
a. true
b. false
b. false
Ancient Egypt had an ever-changing artistic style.
a. true
b. false
b. false
Art is a _______ phenomenon.
a. natural
b. human
c. scientific
d. geographical
b. human
Fine art and popular culture often share the same images.
a. true
b. false
a. true
Definitions of ART are:
a. timeless
b. evolving
c. absolute
d. thematic
e. universal
b. evolving
Every culture, both past and present, has a word that corresponds to ours for art.
a. true
b. false
b. false
Art has several functions, including: (choose best answer)
a. commemorates the dead
b. protesting political and social injustice
c. promotes cohesion within a social group
d. all of these answers
e. entertains
d. all of these answers
Craft refers to which of the following?
a. sculpture
b. ceramics
c. architecture
d. painting
b. ceramics
Pop culture art includes:
a. gallery displays
b. museum works
c. art history slides
d. calendars
d. calendars
The components of an art work include perception, response, creativity, and _________.
a. beauty
b. energy
c. quality
d. expression
d. expression
Art is primarily a _________ medium that is used to express our ideas about our human experiences and the world around us.
a. visual
b. human
c. historical
d. spiritual
a. visual
In a work of art, the word “composition” refers to _________.
a. the physical material used by the artist
b. the physical texture of the work
c. the technical style used by the artist
d. the arrangement of the formal elements of art
d. the arrangement of the formal elements of art
Regular shapes are______________; irregular shapes are____________.
a. organic and biomorphic
b. organic and geometric
c. biomorphic and two-dimensional
d. geometric and organic
d. geometric and organic
Rythm in art is demonstrated by the_______________ of one or more of the elements of art.
a. emphasis
b. balance
c. subordination
d. repetition
d. repetition
Post and lintel construction is shown by:
a. an Egyptain pyramid
b. an igloo
c. Chartres cathedral
d. the Temple of Athena Nike
d. the Temple of Athena Nike
Lines in art can be either _______________ or _________________.
a. actual or implied
b. formal or informal
c. tonal or atonal
d. dotted or real
a. actual or implied
The wedge-shaped stones in arches are called_________________.
a. arcades
b. voussoirs
c. buttresses
d. piers
b. voussoirs
Texture and pattern are related, because if a pattern is___________ in size, it is often perceived as a textue and if a texture is____________ in size, it is seen as a pattern.
a. increased and reduced
b. reduced and increased
b. reduced and increased
Angkor Wat is an example of a building complex with______________ balance.
a. asymmetrical
b. radial
c. symmetrical
d. casual
b. radial
Eaves and_______________ go together in construction.
a. cantilevers
b. thatch
c. arches
d. lintels
a. cantilevers
Steel-frame construction has been likened to _________________.
a. reinforced concrete
b. load-bearing buildings
c. a hard shell
d. a skeleton
d. a skeleton
The Greek__________ order was considered______________; the Ionic order was considered_______________.
a. Doric/masculine/feminine
b. Ionic/feminine/masculine
c. Ionic/masculine/feminine
d. Corinthian/ feminine/masculine
a. Doric/masculine/feminine
Intensity refers to a color’s ______________ or _____________.
a. spectrum or value
b. pigments or available light
c. lightness or darkness
d. brightness or dullness
d. brightness or dullness
The symbolic use of red and green at Christmas pertains to the use of _________________ colors on the color wheel.
a. analogous
b. complementary
c. local
d. emotional
b. complementary
Emphasis is the creation of one or more focal points in an artwork.
a. True
b. False
a. True
Recent innovations in structural systems include____________.
a. concrete
b. load-bearing walls
c. arches
d. reinforced concrete
d. reinforced concrete
Load-bearing construction is usually characterized by:
a. much air and light
b. large size
c. many openings in the walls
d. few openings in the walls
d. few openings in the walls
Analogous colors are________________ each other on the color wheel.
a. horizontally across from
b. next to
c. diagonally across from
d. opposite
b. next to
Rectangular glass-covered boxlike buildings are examples of the________________ style.
a. Corinthian
b. geodesic
c. free-form
d. International
d. International
The space in paintings is referred to as _____________.
a. planar
b. two-dimensional
c. three-dimensional
d. created
a. planar
Value in art refers to ___________________ and _______________.
a. brightness and dullness
b. lightness and darkness
c. worth and price
d. artificial and natural
b. lightness and darkness
Artists drawing only the outlines of an object are using______________ lines.
a. textural
b. contour
c. gesture
d. tonal
b. contour
Trusses are_____________ shaped construction supports.
a. triangular
b. cantilevered
c. rectangular
d. arched
a. triangular
Diagonal lines imply_______________.
a. calm
b. movement
c. peace
d. growth
b. movement
An achromatic value scale doesn’t utilize _________.
a. illumination
b. tones
c. colors
d. grays
c. colors
Horizontal lines mostly suggest ___________.
a. confusion
b. action
c. rest
d. adventure
c. rest
Tempera, gouache, and watercolor are all waterbased paint media.
1. True
2. False
1. True
Because oil paints dry quickly, it is difficult for artists to make changes to their paintings.
1. True
2. False
2. False
The various branches of art making activity, like painting or sculpture, are called ___________.
1. disciplines
2. media
3. avante guard
4. museology
1. disciplines
The actual material substances used to create an artwork are called media.
1. True
2. False
1. True
__________ sculptures are meant to be viewed from all sides.
1. Bas relief
2. Haute relief
3. Assemblage
4. Freestanding
4. Freestanding
The ____ is an early type of photographic process.
1. photomontage
2. stereoscope
3. daguerreotype
4. cire perdue
3. daguerreotype
A silverpoint drawing is _________________.
1. made by using a thin stylis made of silver
2. a drawing of an exotic bird found largely in Indonesia
3. made by using metalic colored chalks or pastels
4. a preliminary sketch for a relief print
1. made by using a thin stylis made of silver
__________ is a type of printmaking process which uses a slab of limestone or metal and oily crayons, pencils or liquid.
1. Aquatint
2. Serigraphy
3. Drypoint
4. Lithography
4. Lithography
A marble sculpture made by cutting away stone is made in a ____ process.
1. haute relief
2. subtractive
3. constructed
4. additive
2. subtractive
Gouache is a type of watercolor with white chalk added to it to create an opaque paint.
1. False
2. True
2. True
Some contemporary artists use the craft of quilting as an art medium.
1. True
2. False
1. True
A graphite rod in a wood or metal holder is called _________.
1. silverpoint
2. a pencil
3. a conte crayon
4. charcoal
2. a pencil
Some of the oldest surviving paintings were made on ___________.
1. large wooden boats
2. carved totems
3. earthen floors
4. clay vessels
4. clay vessels
Gesso is a white, paintlike substance that is brushed onto paper or canvas to serve as a ground for painting or drawing.
1. True
2. False
1. True
From an art historical perspective, drawing is one of the newest forms of art making.
1. True
2. False
2. False
Unlike most printmaking processes, monoprinting is a type of printmaking which makes only one copy of an image.
1. False
2. True
2. True
In _______ printing, areas which are not to be printed are cut away from the printing surface, so the areas to be printed are left higher.
1. monotype
2. drypoint
3. screen
4. relief
4. relief
The word “intaglio” comes from the Italian verb meaning __________.
1. to make colorful
2. to cut into
3. to add to
4. to throw away
2. to cut into
A(n) ____ print is an example of a relief print.
1. serigraphy
2. intaglio
3. lithography
4. woodblock
4. woodblock
The surface or material that underlies a two-dimensional work of art is called the _________.
1. pigment
2. slip
3. support
4. plate
3. support
A subtext of Hopper’s Nighthawks would be __________.
1. hope and renewal
2. a sense of romance and adventure
3. magic and transformation
4. a sense of impending doom or entrapment
4. a sense of impending doom or entrapment
The Tlaloc Vessel is frontal and symmetrical, which is symbolic of _________.
1. ambiguity
2. playfulness
3. informality
4. formality
4. formality
From the moment a work of art is made, its content is subject to change.
1. False
2. True
2. True
The role of the art critic is ___________________.
1. define popular taste in art
2. to describe works of art and evaluate their significance
3. to research art of the past and art of other cultures
4. to write material for museum exhibitions
2. to describe works of art and evaluate their significance
Formal analysis is important because it is helpful in understanding the ________ of a work of art.
1. design
2. meaning
3. importance
4. quality
2. meaning
Symbols are culturally determined and cannot be taught.
1. False
2. True
1. False
Ideological criticism deals with a work of art’s ___________ significance.
1. economic
2. social
3. political
4. religious
3. political
Iconography uses ________ to suggest concepts and ideas.
1. writing
2. figures
3. paint
4. symbols
4. symbols
The Guerrilla Girls are a group dedicated to __________________.
1. feminist criticism
2. jungle fighting
3. changing fashion
4. apes and chimpanzees
1. feminist criticism
The most obvious factor in determining the content of a work of art is its subject matter.
1. True
2. False
1. True
Artistic metaphors and symbols are:
1. culturally determined
2. elements which represent some other concept
3. elements which are descriptive of something else
4. all of these
4. all of these
Dona Schlesier’s mixed-media piece Setting Cycles has a subject matter, which is ______________.
1. devoid of meaning
2. historical
3. the materials used to make the piece
4. autobiographical
3. the materials used to make the piece
Content is about a work of art’s _______.
1. shape
2. beauty
3. theme
4. size
3. theme
Art historians and art critics from different periods of time often have the same interpretations of the same works of art.
1. True
2. False
2. False
Feminist criticism deals with ________ in art.
1. prejudice
2. gender
3. psychoanalysis
4. postmodernism
2. gender
Deconstruction involves the belief that any image has ______________ of meanings.
1. a religiously determined set
2. a multiplicity
3. only one set
4. a universal set
2. a multiplicity
The subtext in an artwork refers to ________________.
1. noticeable areas of secondary dominance
2. its underlying theme or message
3. its working title
4. critical writings about its meaning
2. its underlying theme or message
Context refers to the social and ___________ conditions that encompass a work of art.
1. critical
2. structural
3. symbolic
4. political
4. political
Structuralists believe that in order to understand a work of art, one must study the structure of art and the complex ______________ of all its parts.
1. interrelationship
2. ideology
3. none of these choices
4. iconography
1. interrelationship
Psychoanalytic criticism helps to interpret artwork with strong ___________ content.
1. emotional
2. religious
3. social
4. preconceived
1. emotional
King Louis XIV founded the Royal Academy (Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture) in 1648 in France.
1. True
2. False
1. True
The opposite of an artist working on a commission is an artist working on ___________.
1. auction
2. contract
3. exchange
4. speculation
4. speculation
The pyramids of ancient Egypt served the purposes of the _________.
1. priests
2. farmers
3. artists
4. rulers
4. rulers
In medieval Europe, specialized societies called _________ preserved technical information for artists and regulated art making.
1. guilds
2. fabbricanti
3. academies
4. masons
1. guilds
Leonardo felt that observation was central to _________ and art.
1. science
2. technology
3. nature
4. physics
1. science
Artists who haven’t been trained in academies and who work outside the mainstream of art are referred to as _________.
1. interns
2. naïve
3. self-taught
4. populist
3. self-taught
The first academy in Europe started in the ___________ century.
1. sixteenth
2. fourteenth
3. fifteenth
4. twelfth
3. fifteenth
Two factors that influenced the growth and popularity of museums were:
1. capitalism and colonialism
2. religion and spirituality
3. aesthetics and education
4. government and politics
1. capitalism and colonialism
An example of artistic collaboration is the _______________.
1. Nightway: Whirling Logs
2. Male Torso
3. Birds of America
4. Painting from a Cult House
3. Birds of America
Artists such as Leonardo and Michelangelo were trained by the ____________ method.
1. apprentice
2. experiential
3. Socratic
4. university
1. apprentice
The view of an artist as a creative genius rather than a skilled worker began to form in Europe during the ________________.
1. Medieval Period
2. Baroque
3. Impressionist Movement
4. Renaissance
4. Renaissance
Some Navajo rituals are known for their _______ paintings, in which pigments are sprinkled directly onto the earth to create symbols and sacred images.
1. sand
2. oil
3. acrylic
4. chalk
1. sand
__________ is the first artist in recorded history and was associated with the concept of genius.
1. Imhotep
2. Leonardo da Vinci
3. King Louis XIV
4. Michelangelo Buonnaroti
1. Imhotep
Persia’s “kitab-khana” were ____________ that made illuminated manuscripts.
1. guilds
2. libraries
3. factories
4. artists
2. libraries
The pyramids of Egypt are an example of art as a _______ activity.
1. social
2. personal
3. power-driven
4. political
1. social
One example of a museum dedicated only to contemporary art is the:
1. Cairo Museum
2. Guggenheim Museum
3. Qin Figures Museum
4. British Museum
2. Guggenheim Museum
Art is kept by various cultures for the following reasons:
1. aesthetic
2. political
3. religious
4. all of these choices
4. all of these choices
Museums became common in _________ during the nineteenth century.
1. North America
2. Asia
3. Africa
4. Europe
4. Europe
Art created for the tourist market generally helps local art production to ___________.
1. decrease
2. fail
3. survive
4. increase
3. survive
An example of a community art work is the ________________.
1. Tamaya Teahouse
2. Sistine Ceiling
3. Spiral Jetty
4. AIDS Memorial Quilt
4. AIDS Memorial Quilt
Trajan’s Market has tabernas whose form and arrangement suggests a ______________.
1. shopping mall
2. kiva
3. multistoried skyscraper
4. Navajo pueblo
1. shopping mall
Coe’s There Is No Escape is from a series condemning the meat industry called ____.
1. Porkopolis
2. Slaughterhouse Five
3. Beefopolis
4. Animal Farm
1. Porkopolis
Salt was considered so valuable that it was a source of wealth; the European nobility used elaborate saltcellars as a ____.
1. ritual object
2. weapon
3. status symbol
4. source of trade
3. status symbol
The ancient Chinese made ____ vessels for storing wine.
1. ceramic
2. bronze
3. clay
4. brass
2. bronze
Australian Aboriginals painted “contour maps” indicating food and water locations; these maps were then ____ after a ritual celebration.
1. hidden
2. destroyed
3. preserved
4. painted over
2. destroyed
As its name suggests, the ancient Greek ____ was used for carrying and storing water.
1. fountainhead
2. hydria
3. hydrant
4. vase
2. hydria
Examples of ancient communities in which homes were close together in the same style include Catal Huyuk and ____.
1. Villa Rotonda
2. Pueblo Bonito
3. Lascaux
4. Habitat
2. Pueblo Bonito
Prehistoric artists painted images in the ____ of the caves.
1. front
2. shelter
3. back
4. outside
2. shelter
Bruegel’s The Harvesters showed the place of ____ within the landscape.
1. the nobility
2. humans
3. animals
4. wheat
2. humans
In the early twentieth century, still life paintings were not concerned with ____.
1. food as sustenance
2. food as opulence
3. food as honor
4. food as political statement
1. food as sustenance
Lascaux’s images probably had a(n) ____ purpose linked to nature’s bounty.
1. practical
2. ritual
3. political
4. religious
2. ritual
The architect __________, who designed one of the first innovative tall buildings of the twentieth century, believed that “form follows function” in architecture.
1. Frank Lloyd Wright
2. Louis Sullivan
3. I.M. Pei
4. R. Buckminster Fuller
2. Louis Sullivan
Mu Qi’s Six Persimmons emphasizes ____ in life.
1. the importance of food
2. meditation and simplicity
3. the keys to regularity
4. the beauty of fruit
2. meditation and simplicity
The Pomo tribal baskets, covered with feathers and shells were made as ceremonial ____.
1. jewelry
2. gifts
3. offerings
4. hope chests
2. gifts
Warhol’s work, such as Heinz 57 Tomato Ketchup celebrated the commercial art of ____.
1. food manufacturing
2. packaging
3. illustrating
4. advertising
2. packaging
Ritual meals include:
1. all of these choices
2. meetings of government figures
3. weddings
4. religious ceremonies
5. holidays
1. all of these choices
Because water is essential for survival, various cultures have developed inventive systems for storing liquids using a variety of materials, including ________.
1. clay
2. straw
3. leather
4. all of these choices
4. all of these choices
High vs. Low Art
High Art- typically displayed in art museums; refined objects of supreme cultural achievements of the human race

Low Art (Popular Art)- art that is more accessible inexpensive, entertaining, commercial, touristy, etc. (ex. tourist art, adverOsing, posters, calendars, etc.)
-Kitsch, Anime, & CraI are subcategories of “Pop”

Describe how the artwork “Tan Tan Bo” by artist Takashi Murakami fits into both high and low art?
High Art= One of a kind, large, expensive, difficult to see the original (only in museums), best of contemporary Japanese art

Low Art= Popular culture imagery used in this painting, artist Murakami designs high- end mass produced objects and reproductions from his studio

Disciplines and Media in Art (5 each)
Disciplines and Media for each:
1. Drawing; dry or wet media: silverpoint
2. Printmaking; woodblock, stone, or stencil
3. Painting; pigments and binder (oil or acrylic paint)
4. Fabrics, Needlework, and Weaving; quilting
5.
Explain the production and function of the “AIDS Memorial Quilt”. What type of art is it?
Community Art-Making
– Untrained / self-trained artists.
– Example: AIDS Memorial Quilt (Ongoing effort of the Names Project begun in 1980’s.)
– fund-raising tool for AIDS research
– made of 3X6 foot panels
– made by thousands of ordinary people to memorialize someone lost to AIDS
How do the drawings in the Lascaux caves in France link food, art and ritual? Explain.
– Food: people were hunters, gatherers, early farmers
– Art:proposed that people drew the likeness of images of the animals they hunted for ritual purposes
– Ritual:performed on the animals’ likenesses to ensure a successful hunt.
+ homage to earth and animal spirits
+ Ritual purpose linked to human food supply
What are the art categories?
High/Fine Art, popular culture, craft
Hue
pure state of a color
Chairoscuro
term to describe, gradations of light and shade to create the illusion of form
Types of line
actual, implied, directional, gesture, contour, hatching
Analogous Colors
close to each other on the color wheel
Formal Elements in Art
1. Line
2. Light and value
3. Color
4. Texture and pattern
5. Shape and volume
6. Space
7. Time and motion
8. Chance, improvisation, and spontaneity
9. Engaging all the senses
Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian
Doric- “masculine” simple/geometric with no base
Ionic- “feminine” taller, more decorative with a scroll at the top
Corinthian- acanthus leaves at the top
Keystone
very top of an arch
Voussoir
blocks shaped in a certain way to hold form and reach the top of an arch
Pier
like a post to hold arch up and support it (ex. gateway arch)
Arcades
a series of arches
Buttressing
to support larger arches
Vaults
to support larger arches
Domes
arches in 360 degrees
Disciplines
the various branches of art making activity
Medium
the actual material substance used to make a work of art
Support
material that underlies the artwork
Silverpoint
a thin stylus made of silver that creates delicate marks; used on paper or wood coated with lays of gesso as a ground
Dry vs. Wet media
dry- includes pencils, chalk, pastel, and silverpoint
wet- ink
Categories of printmaking
1. Relief
-Woodcut and linocut are two relief printmaking processes
2. Intaglio
– Etching and engraving are two intaglio printmaking processes
3. Lithography
4. Serigraphy (screen printing)
5. Monotype
– Only one image can be produced from a single working of the plate
Encaustic pigment
pigment mixed with hot wax
Fresco pigment
applied to wet or dry plaster
Tempera
pigments mixed with eggs
Watercolors
transparent layers of thin stains and flowing quality
Gouache
watercolor with white chalk added to create an opaque paint
Oil Paint
slow drying, allows blending of colors and details, intense colors with lustrous surfaces
Acrylic Paint
faster drying and more versatile, is suitable to larger flat broad areas of color
Assemblages
found objects or ready-made components are incorporated (assembled) into a piece of art
Installations
usually mixed-media artworks designed for specific interior or exterior spaces
Composition
the arrangements of the elements and principles of art
Subject Matter
the specific idea of an artwork; the substance of the artwork in contrast to its form
Iconography
is a system of symbols that allows artists to refer to complex ideas
Metaphor
an image or element that is descriptive of something else
Symbol
an image or element that stands for or represents some other entity or concept
Context
consists of the external conditions that surround a work of art, such as historical events, religious attitudes, social norms, etc.
Art critics
Describe artwork, usually contemporary and evaluate their significance
Art historians
Academics who primarily research art of the past and art of other cultures
Curators
Write catalog essays, wall labels and educational material for museum and art exhibitions
Visual culture
art criticism that integrates and studies all of the visual
Semiotics
the study of signs and symbols in written and verbal communications
Apprenticeships
learning directly from a mature artist
Guilds
specialized societies in Medieval Europe that preserved technical information and regulated art making
Iconoclasm
destruction of sacred images
Hydria
a greek ceramic jar, usually with 2 handles
Vanitas
style of Dutch painting in which the theme is the transitory nature of earthly things along with the inevitability of death
Impluvium
front atrium pool that collected rain water in shelter