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Section 8 SEKSYON 8. Hindi dapat hadlangan ang karapatan ng mga taong-bayan kabilang ang mga naglilingkod sa publiko at pribadong sektor na magtatag ng mga asosasyon, mga unyon, o mga kapisanan sa mga layuning hindi lalabag sa batas. “The right of the people, including those employed in public and private sectors, to form unions, associations, or societies for purposes not contrary to law shall not be abridged. ” Freedom to form associations In large part, this section reflects the country’s bad experience during the Martial Law years, when the right to assemble and form associations was unduly abridged.

Obviously, however, it is equally clear that the government can exercise its police power and abridge this right if the association in question threatens the legal order. Section 10 Section 10. No law impairing the obligation of contracts shall be passed. SEKSYON 10. Hindi dapat magpatibay ng batas na sisira sa pananagutan ng mga kontrata. Discusses the “sanctity” of contracts and obligations Laws affecting contracts cannot be applied retroactively Aside: all contracts illegal in nature are non-binding

Section 4 “No law shall be passed abridging the freedom of speech, of expression, or of the press, or the right of the people peaceably to assemble and petition the government for redress of grievances. ” 1. ) Freedom of speech is not absolute, neither is a free press (more on that on the next slide) 2. ) Freedom of assembly refers mainly to peaceful demonstrations related to public affairs – Contrast: in Singapore, for large assemblies one must secure a public entertainment license 3. Right to petition i. e. to take up one’s grievances with government without fear of persecution Freedom of Speech – means an individual is free to speak or utter whatever he wants without prior restraint. Right to a Free Press – means an individual is free to write, publish, and circulate whatever he pleases without restraint. Speech and expression refer to any form of oral utterances, while press covers every sort of publication such as newspapers, magazines, books, leaflets, and the like.

Radio and television are also included. Freedom of speech and expression and freedom of the press are collectively called Freedom of Expression. Freedom of Assembly – refers mainly to peaceful demonstrations related to public affairs. The Right of Petition – to take up one’s grievances with government without fear of persecution. Section 11. Free access to the courts and quasi-judicial bodies and adequate legal assistance shall not be denied to any person by reason of poverty. SEKSYON 11.

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Hindi dapat ipagkait sa sino mang tao ang malayang pagdulog sa mga hukuman at sa mga kalupunang mala-panghukuman at sa sat na tulong pambatas nang dahil sa karalitaan. states that paupers or person who are poor shall be given free access to courts and quasi-judicial bodies as well as free adequate legal assistance (or free counsel to defend him in court) Section 20. No person shall be imprisoned for debt or non-payment of a poll tax. SEKSYON 20. Hindi dapat ibilanggo ang isang tao nang dahil sa pagkakautang o hindi pagbabayad ng sedula.

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