ATI Introduction to Pharmacology

ATI Introduction to Pharmacology

A health care professional obtaining a patient’s health history discovers that the patient is taking loratadine (Claritin), an over the counter drug. Which of the following information about over the counter drugs is correct? (select all that apply)
They do no require supervision of a health care professional.
They can interact with other drugs.
They should be included in a drug assessment.
A health care professional is talking about drugs that have a small margin of safety to a patient who is taking phenytoin (Dilantin). The health care professional should include which of the following information? (select all that apply)
Periodic laboratory tests are essential to measure serum drug levels.
Monitoring for indications of toxicity is important.
Taking the smallest effective dose is crucial.
A health care professional is obtaining a patients health history. The patient states that he has no allergies but developed mild itching while taking amoxicillin (Amoxil). Which of the following information should the health care professional explain to the patient?
Itching can indicate a hypersensitivity to amoxicillin
A health care professional administers 2 units of Regular insulin (Humulin R) to a patient subcutaneous injection at 0700. The package insert included with the Regular insulin bottle states that the onset of action is 30 to 60 minutes, the peak effect is is 1 to 5 hours, and the duration of action is 6 to 10 hours. A health care professional should advise the patient to expect the lowest blood glucose level at which of the following times?
0900
A health care professional is caring for a patient who is hospitalized with chest pain. Patient instruction about drugs and discharge planing should begin
As soon as possible
A health care professional is preparing to explain how to take care of a new colostomy to a patient. The health care professional should recognize that which of the following can decrease the patient’s ability to learn? (Select all that apply)
Cognitive Level.
Language.
Comfort Level.
Readiness to Learn.
A health care professional is caring for a patient who is taking acetaminophen (Tylenol), a nonopioid analgesic, and codeine, an opioid agonist, for pain relief. These drugs interact together to cause an additive effect.Which of the following are characteristics of additive drug interactions? (Select all that apply)
Patients can achieve desired effects with the use of lower dosages.
Both drugs have similar actions.
Which of the following information should health care professionals consider when calculating drug dosage for infants and children compared with adults?
Older children can have a faster metabolic rate than adults.
An older adult patient who has hypertension is prescribed enalapril (Vasotec), a drug that is eliminated by the kidneys. Before the patient begins the drug, the health care professional should asses which of the following blood values?
Creatinine clearance
Which of the following describes drugs that are in pregnancy risk category D? (select all that apply)
Require the use of contraception by women of child bearing age.
Can cause fetal malformation.
Can pass through the umbilical cord or the placenta to the fetus.
Weighing the potential benefits against the possible risks.
A health care professional is caring for a patient who is having cardiac dysrhythmias and is taking digoxin (Lanoxin). The health care professional should recognize that which of the following routes of administration has the fastest rate of absorption?
IV
A health care professional is caring for a patient who is receiving nitroglycerin (Nitrostat) IV and is changing to the oral form of the medication. The health care professional should recognize that the oral dose will be higher than the IV dose because of which of the following?
Decrease bioavailability because of the first-pass effect.
A patient is having difficulty remembering to take his prescription drug three times a day. Which of the following forms of the drug should the health care professional recommend to increase adherence?
Extended release tablet
A health care professional is talking to a female patient who is taking captopril (Capoten), an ACE inhibitor, for hypertension. The health care professional informs the patient that the captopril is a teratogenic drug. Teratogenic drugs can cause which of the following?
Fetal malformation
A health care professional is caring for a patient who arrived to an urgent care center following a bee sting. Which of the following finding indicate an anaphylactic reactions? (select all that apply)
Low blood pressure
Wheezing
Swallowing difficulty
Infants are at risk for drug toxicity due to which of the following? (select all that apply)
Decreased liver enzymes.
Reduced kidney perfusion
Reduced liver perfusion
A patient who is postpartum and is breastfeeding asks a health care professional about what effects taking over the counter drugs will have on her new born. Which of the following should the health care professional consider when recommending a drug for the patient? (select all that apply)
The newborns weight.
How much breast milk the new born consumes everyday.
Whether or not the benefits to the mother outweigh the risks to the newborn.
The properties of the drug.
A patient who reports chronic pain states that his fentanyl (Duragesic) topical patch is no longer effective for pain relief. The health care professional should suspect which of the following?
Tolerance of the drug
When talking to a patient about taking vancomycin (Vancocin), the health care professional explains the need to check periodic blood levels of the drug to monitor serum peak and trough. Peak and trough drug levels help monitor for which of the following? (select all that apply)
Drug toxicity.
Minimum effect dose.
Constant therapeutic level.
A health care professional is explaining the adverse effects of digoxin (Lanoxin) to a patient. Which of the following is an adverse effect of the drug?
Cardiac dysrhythmias
When talking to a patient about taking naproxen (EC-naprosyn), enteric-coated tablets, which of the following information should the health care professional include?
Do not crush or chew the tablet
A health care professional is talking to a patient about giving the correct dose of acetaminophen (Tylenol) to the patients infant. The health care professional explains that infants can absorb certain drugs different than adults. Which of the following is a physiological characteristic of infants that can alter drug absorption?
Delayed gastric emptying
A health care professional is caring for a patient who has a history of renal insufficiency and is taking lithium carbonate (Lithobid). The health care professional should monitor for which of the following?
Drug toxicity
A health care professional is preparing to administer a parenteral drug to a patient. Which of the following drugs is he preparing to give?
Heparin via subcutaneous injection
A health care professional is speaking to a patient who is taking carbamazepine (Tegretol) and who reports drinking grapefruit juice. The health care professional explains that grapefruit juice inhibits an enzyme in the liver that is used to metabolize certain drugs such as carbamazepine. The health care professional should recognize the patients risk for which of the following?
Drug toxicity