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Louis Armstrong Became One of the Most Influential & Musicians

When you think of Louis Armstrong you probably think of a jolly middle-aged man who can play the cornet like no one else, a man who had it all, a man who had the good life. Well, Louis was not always that lucky. From childhood to his adulthood, Louis Armstrong changed much as a person and a musician. He worked very hard to become what he became and did not let anything get in the way of becoming a musician. In this paper, you will read about how Louis Armstrong became one of the most influential Louis Armstrong”s childhood was not of the normal childhoods most of us have had.

He had a very hard and painful childhood. He was treated very harshly by his family and the people around him. His mother did not even care enough to keep his birth certificate. That is why no one is really sure of Louis”s birthdate ,but people believe he was born around 1898, in New Orleans. Around Louis”s time of birth, many blacks were confined to live in the slums. The slums were in a way like ghettos. They were very poor, dirty areas where people who hadn”t much money would live. In the slums, there was much violence, drug circulation and prostitution.

The only people that made any money in the slums were either the hustlers or the musicians. Considering Louis was not related to anyone of that status he and his family had very little money. That left Louis with no possessions whatsoever. He hadn”t any toys to play with, he didn”t even have a simple stick just to keep him occupied. His clothes were at the lowest of the low class. He was confined to wearing a dress as a younger child until he was a little older, then he had hand me down shirts and shorts to wear. His choice of foods was limited to rice and beans. His family did not make enough money to get better food than that.

His family did not have enough of anything to keep him happy. He felt like nobody loved him. When he was born his father left his mother and him to start another life with another family. His mother always was out leaving Louis to fend for himself. But before Louis had lived with his mother he lived with his grandmother. His grandma took the best care of him out of anybody in his family. She always made sure that Louis was fed and that he was not alone. She was the only person that really loved him. She would always take him to church on Sundays which gave Louis his first singing experience.

Louis loved his grandmother but, after seven years of living with her he moved 18 blocks away to live with his mother When he went to her house he found out that he had a new sister named Beatrice. She was nicknamed Mama Lucy. His mother would always be working long hours and drink in bars all night. That left Louis to take care of Mama Lucy and himself. Louis was luck enough to get work from a young white boy who helped him sell papers for pennies. He also sang in a street choir with some of his friends. As he got into his teen years he took up crapshooting.

All of these odd jobs brought in enough money to feed Mama Lucy and himself. When working was not getting him anywhere he could always find a careless r drunk person stumbling in the streets who would drop his/her money. Also, when nothing was working at all he would occasionally steal some food from the local grocery stores. But still being just a boy he was not satisfied with the title of being the bearer of food for his family. He wanted to be and do so many things. He idolized hustlers and their easy lives. With a life like one of theirs, Louis could do more things with his life and still support his family.

Also, Louis was starting to notice music. He always would admire the marching bands that would come booming down the streets and the blues that would ome blasting out of all the bars and “honky tonks”. Louis just wanted to be something more than he was. He was more into being a musician than being a hustler. That”s what he really wanted. So, on New Years Eve there was a big celebration. One kid picked up a gun with blanks and shot it at Louis. Louis then did the same to the kid but was caught in the act. Louis was put on a small trial in which the judge decided something that would start Louis off on his music career.

Louis was sent to the Colored Waif”s Home for poor black boys which he spent most of his childhood. The home was run under military lines. A bugler would use his bugle to wake up the boys, tell them when it was time to eat, and send them to bed. Also, the boys would do intensive drills with fake guns. There were many chores that each boy had to do as well to learn responsibility. At first the home was very new to him. He was homesick for quite some time. After a while though, people started to enjoy Louis”s company and that made him feel more welcome.

Once Louis got settled in, he noticed something that changed his life drastically. He found out that there was a band at the home. It was sort of a school band. They played some old tunes that had some blues influence to them. Louis liked this band a lot. He liked it so much that he would sit down at every band practice in hope that the band teacher ,Mr. Davis, would notice him and ask his to join the band. Finally a man that worked at the home named Captain Jones (he was called that because of the military ranking influence) got Louis involved with music.

A woman named Mrs. Spriggins would come to the home now and then to conduct a boy”s choir. Jones put Louis in the choir. He did so well that at the next practice as Louis sat and watched that band, Mr. Davis walked ver and asked Louis to join the choir. Of course he said yes and was from then on a musician no matter how bad he was. Davis started Louis on the tambourine. Louis”s joy turned a little sour when he was presented with the instrument but, he knew that it was a custom among the New Orlean”s African Americans to start out with rhythm instruments such as the tambourine or the drums.

It gets the musicians a feel for the beat they are to be playing so when they graduate to a more complicated instrument they will be able to keep an accurate beat throughout the whole song. So Louis swallowed his disappointment and layed his tambourine as best as possible. It was simple for Louis. he had been growing up listening to ragtime marches so keeping beat was natural to him. Not long after he started the tambourine Davis realized that Louis was ready to move a level up to the base drum. Louis played that with ease. He played it so well that not long after that he was moved up to mellophone or what we would today call an alto horn.

This was an important switch for Louis. The alto horn is very much like the cornet he played later in his life. Now Louis was in a spot. Like most of the boys in the band he could not read music. This is where singing in the street choir comes in to play. Louis was able to work out the notes by just hearing them. Once he found the notes on the horn, it was easy to play. He was so good that he was moved up to the bugler. The bugle was much different. It helped him form notes by forming his lips around the mouthpiece a special way and using his tongue as well then by blowing into the bugle would create different notes.

Soon Louis was moved to the cornet and became the head of the band. Louis was admired by the rest of the band not just for the music he played but for his humor as well. In the book the author writes that Davis ” I remember Louis used to walk funny with his feet and at the first note of music he”d break into comedy dances. He could sing real well as a boy, too, even though his voice was coarse. I”d play the horn and he”d dance, and when I”d put my horn down he”d pick it up and start playing it. “(Collier, Page 32) One day as the band was marching in the streets ,with Louis leading, they headed down Louis”s old street.

As Louis was playing some of the best music he had ever played at that time in his life all the people that knew him would point out their Little Louis. Louis felt o amazingly good. he was a musician, that was all he ever wanted to be. Louis was now around 16 years old. he had been living at the home for quite a few years. Sometimes his mother ,Mayann, would visit him. But one day Louis got a surpassing visit from someone he has not heard from since he was born. His own father, Willie Armstrong. Louis was curious why his father had come to see him. Willie wanted him out of the home.

But why? Louis was pondering that thought for some time and came to the conclusion that Willie wanted him to babysit his two sons because Willie and his wife had to work to provide for their family. Louis did it anyway as soon as his father convinced the judge to set him free. Louis did a lot of work caring for the kids. He did it until finally, Willie”s wife was again pregnant. That left Willie no choice but to send Louis back to his mother. Mayann and Mama Lucy were glad to see him all grown up. Once Louis was back, it was back to the same old thing. But this time Louis had a new plan.

He was going to become the musician he always wanted to be. Louis tried to become a big musician in the area of New Orleans he lived in. He wanted to be a person that people would always mention when they talked about music. To do that he tried to befriend some bigger musicians that could help him get gigs. So Louis would go to some of the “honk tonks” and listen to some music and get himself a 5 cent beer. He hung around there so much that he ended up meeting a drummer/hustler named Benny Williams. Benny would be conversing with another musician and Louis would stand there and wait to be noticed.

When Benny finally did so they talked for a while. Finally Benny noticed this short teenager was hanging around him quite a lot. He liked this kid. So Benny Williams adopted Louis as one of his very good friends. Benny as a tough guy who no one messed with and when people found out he was watching out for Louis, nobody messed around with him. Louis was on easy street. Benny helped Louis become a better musician by letting Louis sit for Benny and play with the other musicians though he was not yet good enough. As Louis would sit in and play with the musicians he would get increasingly better.

He was getting good enough to play in the “honky tonks”, and so he did. A while after Louis”s becoming a real musician, Benny was shot by his girlfriend. Louis would brag how Benny still lived a week with that old bullet n his heart, but that just is not possible. Louis was very sad but he got over it shortly. After the incident with Benny, Louis started being noticed musically. But Louis knew that he needed his own cornet by now. He could become even better if he could practice by himself more often. Louis has been borrowing other musicians instruments to play but he can”t take them home with him.

So one day Louis met up with that white boy that had helped him sell papers as a child. This boy said that he would sell him a cornet for ten dollars. Louis bought the beat up old thing but made it play beautifully. After Louis ad acquired his own instrument, he was used as a substitute for other cornet players. But when Louis substituted for these musicians he really showed them up. He played so well that the manager finally told him that he was good enough to be a regular player which meant he could be a star attraction. The manager of the club arranged him to play in a band with a drummer named Garbee, and a pianist named Boogus.

While Louis was playing in the band he started to get attached to another big musician. he was very well known throughout New Orleans. His name is Joe “King” Oliver. Oliver was the best cornetist in New Orleans. Louis got to know Oliver and his wife. Oliver would help Louis with cornet and Louis would often sit in for Oliver. Sometimes Oliver”s wife would invite Louis over to eat dinner with them. Finally Oliver got Louis on the right track. He recommended Louis to Kid Ory the best trombonist in New Orleans. Kid let Louis into his band. Louis did very well and Kid liked him a lot.

Louis was proud to be in the best Jazz band in New Orleans. The band mostly played dances. As Louis played in a band he also worked on a coal cart to earn more money. By doing those jobs he was earning a higher income and could afford more food. So with the steady income and the great band Louis was pretty satisfied with himself. But one day the band had to break up. Kid”s doctor told him to move to dryer climates because of coughing spells. So Kid moved to Los Angeles, California. Louis just played parades and had some non-serious bands with his musician friends while Ory was gone.

One dat Ory wrote to Louis asking him to move to L. A. with him. Considering Louis was scared of moving away from an area he already knows he said no. Louis then made himself even a better musician. Louis was asked by a man named Fate Marable to join a band on the Streckfus Line riverboat. Streckfus people were very strict with how they wanted the music to be played. The wanted perfect timing and a very clear sound. Louis was very worried because he could not read music. Luckily, two musicians named Joe Howard and David Jones helped Louis with his music reading abilities.

Considering Louis did not play all year ’round, Marable asked him to and he said yes because he was now ready. When Louis played many enjoyed listening to him. One time a man named Fletcher Henderson asked him to tour with him. Louis would only say yes if they would take along his friend Arthur Singleton ,Zutty, a good drummer. They said that they could so Louis said the same and they went their separate ways for the time being. Finally Louis heard from Oliver. He was in Chicago and wanted Louis to come down a play in his band. Louis was ready to do so.

He knew Oliver and felt comfortable around him so he did not feel alone. When Louis moved to Chicago, Oliver introduced him to a woman pianist named Lilian Hardin. At first she did not like Louis. She felt that he was a hick in a way because of his ratty old clothes and how he did not speak as proper as she did. But after a while she got to like Louis. They started dating a lot. Then on February 5, 1924 they were wed. Lil loved Louis very much and wanted only the best for him. She though ,and so did many other musicians, that Louis was too good for the band and should start his own.

Louis did not want to do that because after all, Oliver had done so much for him. But it happened anyway. The band started to fall apart because not only of Oliver”s bossiness but also he was holding each of the member”s pay secretly so they all turned on him and just quit. After that was over Louis joined and band with band leader Ollie Powers. That and was moving slowly but the pace for Louis was just about to pick up. Fletcher Henderson ,who asked him to tour with him when he was playing on the riverboats, wrote him to come to New York. He wanted him to be in his Jazz orchestra. Louis said yes.

While Louis was there he amazed them with his talents. He was and influence to many of them. One man would dress like him, talk like him and follow him around everywhere. He was now being considered the new king of Jazz. Louis was now asking Henderson if he could sing as well. Henderson was hesitant about it and would let him sing but not while hey record records. Louis then got a letter from Lil and she wanted him to come back to Chicago because she had arranged a band for him to lead. Louis thought it over and in October of 1925, Louis moved back to Chicago. His new band was great.

Louis recorded with his band ,The Hot Fives, at OKeh records. Those were some of the most important records he ever made. Louis would also sing and entertain at the Sunset Theater on the side. And later ,after some changes in the line up, the final group of Hot Fives were without many of the originals such as Lil on the piano. You could now tell that their arriage was now in trouble because of that. By 1928 they divorced and Louis got Earl Hines to replace her on the piano. The problem with Jazz then was that it was closing down in Chicago so Louis moved to Manhattan in 1929.

Now Louis was the best. Louis was now famous. He was the best cornetist in the world. He received an engraved watch that said so. But being famous was not all rewards. His introduction to the world of commercial music was very tough. There followed six years of desperate over work, nagging personal problems, appalling management and conflicts with Chicago nd New York gangs. Also, Louis was arrested and suspended for smoking pot, then he went right back to doing it. Another problem was still with Lil and the final relationship, but it all turned out that Lil and Louis stayed good friends.

He also had a problem with dated all the way back to the Waif”s Home. He has been using the wrong part of his lip to play cornet. It has been getting callused and that limited his playing abilities. It even got worse when in 1931, Louis made a mistake in hiring a failed mobster with a drinking problem ,named Johnny Collins, as management. Collins saw Louis as a meal ticket. Collins cheated Louis out of a lot of money and as a result of Collins” gangland connections, Louis”s lucrative secrets became the subject of gang rivalry.

But besides the gangs and personal problems, Louis was still trying to entertain the crowd. So Louis entered the movie business around the 1930″s. He was seen dressed in a leopard”s skin in Rhapsody in Blue and was a band conductor in a later film known as Hello Dolly. Also, in a Betty Boop cartoon, Louis is seen conversing with Betty and then serenading her. He career in t he movie business was rapidly growing. Louis was starting to enter the final phases of his career. First of all, he was remarried to a girl named Alpha Smith.

Alpha was very worried of what happened to Louis and Lil would happen to her, but it seemed to have not. But that was not the biggest issue going on in Louis”s life. The biggest started off in a 1946 movie called New Orleans. The movie had quite a line up of wonderful Jazz musicians. There was Kid Ory on trombone, Barney Bigard on clarinet, Zutty Singleton on drums, and the young Red Callendar on bass. This movie branched off a new band led by Louis called The All Stars. The All Stars were some of the guys from the movie and some old Hot Fives colleagues such as Earl Hines on Piano.

Traditional Jazz was back in business for quite some time. This band was the most well known band of all that Louis was in. They had a succession of hits, but the most well known would have to be Blueberry Hill. Now Louis was finally up to the peak of his career. In 1952 he was voted the most important musical figure of all time in Downbeat Magazine. Louis was also starting to speak his mind. Louis”s fame made him more confident to speak out against one of his biggest problems. Louis was standing up against racism. Louis was protesting on Eisenhower”s policy on race as gutless.

This angered many blacks who thought Louis should have stood up much earlier. Now Louis was trying to stay on top. Armstrong”s corncerts started to settle into a steady, routine of love songs and old favorites. Louis”s final phase of his career was getting nearer as the days passed. His health problems were getting worse as he ignored them which foreshadowed his final days on earth. He tried to ignore his heart problem for ten years. He was forced to acknowledge his precariousness f health when he had woke up one morning to discover that he had swollen up so much that he could not get his shoes on.

Soon after that Louis was ordered to stay at the Beth Israel Hospital under doctor”s orders. After his final concert he returned there for the last time. He was planning another concert when he died July 6, 1971. Louis”s death was deeply saddening for everyone, but especially Lil. She conducted the band at his funeral in his memory. A memorial service followed which President Nixon attended and spoke at. That was the sad ending of Louis Armstrong. To conclude my paper I would like to highlight Louis”s life. He was just a poor child from New Orleans.

He had very little education. He had to take care of his sister and himself 90% of the day until he was and adult. He had to work twice as hard as most people have to worked to get where he got to. He was just a simple man who from the beginning just wanted to play music. But he got so much more than just that and was able to fulfil his life to the fullest. Louis Armstrong will always be remembered as a wonderful man with a passion for playing the cornet beautifully. At least we have his music, movies and television appearances which keep him a live to this very day.

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The Rich Benefits from the Poor

The United States is the most developed capitalist economy in the world. The markets within the economy provide profit-motivated companies endless potential in the pursuance of pecuniary accumulation. Throughout the twentieth-century competitive companies have implemented modernized managerial procedures designed to raise profits by reducing unnecessary costs. These cost-saving procedures have had a substantial effect on society and particularly members of the working class.

Managers and owners of these competitive and self-motivated companies have consistently worked throughout this century to exploit the most controllable component of the production process: the worker. The worker has been forced by the influence of powerful and affluent business owners to work in conditions hazardous to their well being in addition to preposterously menial compensation. It was the masterful manipulation of society and legislation through strategic objectives that the low-wage workers were coerced into this position of destitute.

The strategies of the affluent fragment of society were conceived for the selfish purpose of monetary gain. The campaigns to augment the business position within the capitalist economy were designed to weaken organized labor, reduce corporate costs, gain legislative control and reduce international competition at the expense of the working class. The owners have gained and continue to gain considerable wealth from these strategies. To understand why the owners of the powerful companies operate in such a selfish manner, we must look at particular fundamentals of both capitalism and corporation strategy.

Once these rudiments are understood, we will more clearly relate the perspective of the profit-seeking corporations of America. Legal discussion will also be included to show how the capital possessing elite operate through political parties to achieve their financial objectives. It is the synergist effect of these numerous strategies that have lead to the widening income gap in America, persistent attempts of contraction in worker”s rights and increased corporate political influence. These campaigns have come at an expense to Americans and will only continue to benefit the affluent society.

The United States is a capitalist economy. In a capitalist economy individuals who wish to gain wealth can invest their capital into markets in hopes of future returns. If this investment gains in value then the investor has earned a return, which can be reinvested. This creates a cycle of investing and reinvesting for potential future return. This wealth creating cycle is a fairly simple concept to understand, but wealthy individuals have learned to fabricate this cycle into different situations. A common form of investment is purchasing and selling of corporate stocks.

The stock market works like all markets on the fundamental theory of supply and demand. The more demand for a stock the higher it is valued and conversely the less demand the less it is valued. Corporations are legal entities which issue stock to investors who purchase them and become shareholders of the company. The risk taken by investors is that when they buy stocks it is possible that the individual company will not do well, or that stock prices will generally weaken. At worst, it is possible to lose entire investments, but no more then that.

Therefor, shareholders of a corporation are not responsible for corporate debts. So, a corporation would be a very attractive type of investment for potential investors to consider. Corporations compete against each other in markets in the United States and around the world. These corporations have employees who perform various functions that contribute to successful strategic goal completion. Corporations often will offer stock incentive plans strategically to employees in positions of importance.

The enticement to employees is to work in a manner that will increase the value of the company and their shares of stock. These incentive plans were strategically developed by major shareholders because the corporate executives felt that people would be motivated to increase their own wealth. Most employees are motivated by money and will work harder when the chance is given for more money. The very nature of this strategy consolidates all the employees to act as one self-motivated entity in the pursuit of monetary accumulation.

In Piven and Cloward”s Regulating the Poor, this point is illustrated: “Capitalism, however, relies primarily upon the mechanisms of a market-the promise of financial rewards or penalties-to motivate men and women to work and to hold them to their occupational tasks” (4). The increased motivation of important members of the workforce by the enticing tactics of greed for wealth is a result of strategic planning by the major shareholders of the firm. The cost to these primary shareholders is the stock incentive plans needed additional stock to fulfill, which reduced the valuation of all stocks.

The major shareholders know this devaluation is only temporary because self-motivated employees will act in a manner that will increase the value. The primary concept for discussion purposes is that self-motivated major shareholders have utilized the capitalist theory and thus, created a business compact with employees that will make self-motivated decisions on all levels. The strategy worked and throughout the country employees are busy increasing the value of their stock, but most importantly, they are increasing the value of the major shareholders.

We will see this investing concept throughout most this paper because the wealthy resist adverse conditions with money. The Republican Party remained dominant throughout the 1920″s, remaining unaffected by factionalism that plagued the Democratic Party. The party continued to align its platforms with the southern whites, and owners and managers businesses. Even in extraordinary economic times of prosperity for the wealthy, the Republican Party continued to advocate industrial economic values.

The primary dilemma to republican business interests was the labor problem. The Republicans finally concentrated their discussion on four broad approaches to labor problems: the progressive approach, the open shop approach, the efficiency-engineering approach, and the political approach” (Zeiger 11). Most businessmen resolved harshly to end labor activism and to quietly continue their profitable business interests. This behavior of this standpoint took the pattern of employer resistance to labor unions, but originally the open shop crusades proved to be the most fruitful in the short-run.

The open shop crusade, now illegal because it gave employers the ability to hire prospective employees on the basis if they belonged or support trade union activities. This restricted the employee”s ability to strike on a particular issue because they lack the power of numbers that a union possesses and could be replaced. Open shop enthusiasts were a major and vocal part of the Republican Party because of the financial resources they possess. Many republicans determined them intemperate and adherent, and their perspectives were damaging and extreme.

These open shop enthusiasts constituted a vocal and influential segment of the party. They often proved quite effective in their efforts to chastise organized labor, for many Americans shared their concern. Still, many Republicans considered them extreme and doctrinaire, and their views harmful and inexpedient” (Zieger 74). It was these Republicans that lamented these controversial assaults on labor problems, such as Herbert C. Hoover who wished to devise a whole new style of labor relations based on the philosophies of efficiency and cooperation.

By 1921 industrial engineers and other experts had developed the Taylor Society, the Federated American Engineering Societies. The Taylor Society was designed to improve the efficiency of a job-place in hopes of reducing severe factory working conditions. This in theory would increase aggregate production, which would lead to more available jobs and lower-unemployment. The main points to be established is that the Republican Party was support by wealthy business owners. The worst opponent of the worker is the wealthy business owner within the Republican Party.

These are the characters that advocate extreme hostile tactics such as the open shop crusades. Regardless, they support the Republican Party financially and therefor the Republican Party acts as their voice politically. One component of the production process that can be controlled by management is automation. Regardless, the employee still performs a necessary function in the production process. The taylorization theory states employers have an incentive to make a job function more efficient.

The increased efficiency results in lower production costs, lower aggregate unemployment rates and higher company profit returns. The industrial revolution was characterized by the widespread replacement of manual labor by machines that could perform the job functions quicker and or at lower costs. The industrial revolution was the result of interrelated fundamental changes that transform smaller market economies into an industrialized economy. Many products that were made at home or in small work units were transferred to large factories.

Since the factories could produce at lower costs the product could be sold at a lower cost. This competitive advantage drove the smaller competition out of business. The people who profited from this effect were the owners of the mechanisms of production. This marks the beginning of an era where these wealthy owners would prosper over the working class. The aggregate effect of the increase production efficiency lead to the development of massive industrial parks. These parks expanded the scale of production dramatically and became concentrated in cities and large towns.

Since traditional production relied heavily in the needs of local subsistence it gave way to the more market orientated production devices. This economically forced large numbers of the rural poor who moved to towns and cities to become the wage seeking labor force necessary to run rapidly expanding industries. This extensive movement of communities had a considerable result on labor prices and ultimately constrained these people to become the urban poor. The effect of the Industrial Revolution on American society was substantial.

Income following workers increased the population of large towns and cities severely. From 1860 to 1900 the number of urban areas in the United States expanded fivefold. Even more striking was the explosion in the growth of big cities. In 1860 there were only 9 American cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants; by 1900 there were 38. Labor markets were flooded with eligible workers seeking employment and through pure labor competition they were willing to work in any environment for any wage. The environments factory laborers were forced to work in were considered by many Americans to be despicable.

Regardless of the factory working conditions, many people were obligated to take the employment. Employment was necessary to generate income to support oneself and family. As a result, the Exploited workers received no power to contract with the owners of production. Instinctively managers and owners of capital have contrasting labor interests then those perspectives of employees. Wages and profits incomes divide the value that production adds, so by definition, labor and capital interests often are on opposing sides of social policy that affects the price level of the real wage.

The real wage can be regarded as the price that equates the supply of and demand for labor”, (Foley and Michl 70). Owners and mangers of capital seek a flexible labor force, which is counter for the worker”s desire for stability and security in their employment and conditions of life. At this point in history, the affluent society of the United States was generating immense wealth by capitalizing on the poorer worker”s needs for minimal financial requirements. The wealthy invested their capital into factory production devises, which drove out smaller competing business from the market place.

This profit seeking strategy worked because it economically forced resource deficient workers into the cities. The supply for labor increased, which coerced many employees to work for the affluent owners at a corresponding cut-rate real wage rate. These events began to illustrate a scenario that would set the scene for modifications in worker”s rights. The laborers had to develop a strategy to counteract the poverty-stricken working conditions imposed upon them by the owners of the factories. The labor market surplus further developed the worker”s dependency upon the self-motivated employer.

Trade unions were formed to advocate alleviation of some dependency and support the worker”s efforts by gaining a quantifiable measure of power over their economic standing. Initially, the trade unions had limited success until they exercised the real true power worker”s have over employers: The strike. The strike in labor relations is a completely organized halt of work and production carried out by a large group of employees. The purpose of the strike is either enforcing worker”s demands that relate to unfair labor practices and or to employment conditions created by the self-motivated owner.

The response to labor unions by business owners was the use of open shop tactics. “Employers” organizations and business groups commenced a vigorous campaign for the open shop. Armed with the then-legal yellow-dog contract, by which an employer could require a prospective employee to agree not to join or support a union” (Zeiger 20). The wealthy opposed the trade union”s use of the concept of collective bargaining because it advocated the subject of worker”s rights. Collective bargaining is where individuals with interest in the matter negotiate their stipulations until a compromise is found.

The wealthy industrialists despise that their interests would are in constant danger by collective bargaining. In response, “America”s industrialist launched a well-financed general attack on the very concept of collective bargaining” (Zeiger 20). The use of collective bargaining proved to be an effective tool in bargaining with owners and managers. This meant that worker”s have finally developed a technique through labor unions that competently combats the proprietor”s regimen.

During the 1920″s and 1930″s, strikes occurred as a natural feature of nationwide unions of the American Federation of Labor and other groups soon to be recognized as the Congress of Industrial Organizations. Striking had become a major weapon in the labor movement and was threatening the profitability of the production owners. “The strikes and threatened strikes, the radical agitation, the sharp industrial depression, and the whole atmosphere of discord and unrest that pervaded the country endangered the Republic and demanded action” (Zeiger 74).

The wealthy republicans had to promote an offensive campaign to end this threat. So as previously stated, they adopted well-financed strategies aimed at the courts to obtain injunctions, which would legally prevented strikes in specific circumstances. The success of these strategies is confirmed in Zeiger”s Republicans and Labor 1919-1929, “The 1920″s marked the climax of antilabor judicial activities”. (260) The basis the owner persuaded the courts with was that their property was either damaged or threatened and that they were powerless without legal solutions.

It was the possession of financial resources that allowed the wealthy to recruit and employ powerful and persuasive lawyers. Legally persuading the courts of law with expensive lawyers was the sole purpose of the use of financial power to authoritatively force workers back into the production factories and produce profit for the owners. From the perspective of the wealthy, the application of financial resources to generate future income is honorable capitalism regardless of the situations” context.

The power of wealth even can influence courts of law through lawyers and thereby, give the wealthy extreme power in legislation during this period in history. The Democratic Party during this era was experiencing outbursts of factionalism. The convention in 1924 was racial divided by southern whites and the northern urban blacks. The future success of the party was depended on the need for a change. The strategy developed by the leaders was to begin the alteration of the Democratic Party appeal. The leaders of the Democratic Party realized that poor people could be a powerful voting coalition.

The great depression of 1929 forced millions of people into unemployment and poverty. These unemployed workers practiced approaches of protest through disruption demonstrations. These massive demonstrations help encouraged the working class voter”s hostility and defection of the Republican Party. The Democratic Party thus capitalizing on this realigned their platform to advocate the needs of poor people with the intent to gain votes. This re-alignment of party policy angered the southern democrats whose views were becoming more Republican.

Having lost the southern support, the Democratic Party became the primary political instrument of vocalization and evolution of labor class politics. “During the electoral realignment of the 1930″s, the Democrats gained the overwhelming allegiance of most manual workers and their unions”, (Piven and Cloward 421). The alignment of the working class with the Democratic Party coalition developed two powerful strategies to combat the wealthy and business leaders. As stated previously, the workers held extreme striking power over the means of production in factories.

Now they had power in the organization of the working class population and could coordinate their votes to consolidate political force for their perspectives. The concept is similar to how the employees of a corporation have incentives to pursue company goals as a team. “The main political project of labor parties became the use of state power to develop the welfare state” (Piven and Cloward 21). Therefor, in the 1930″s the democrats became a party of vigorous government intervention in the economy and thus the social realm.

The goals of the party were to regulate, redistribute economic wealth and to protect people who are in need of assistance in an increasingly competitive society. The depression of 1929 and the coming of Franklin D. Roosevelt into the presidency with the New Deal help syndicate and enlarge the commitment to governmental expansions of assistance programs and industry regulation. Due to the economic conditions of the era, the advocators of economic assistance proved to be attractive to society and The Democratic Party flourished.

The result of these campaigns was increased worker”s rights and a seemingly practical welfare state. Massive unemployment during the Great Depression created a socially dysfunctional society. Without the ability to create income through employment, basic physiological necessities were not being met. “When large numbers of people are suddenly barred from their traditional occupations, the entire structure of social control is weakened and may even collapse” (Piven and Cloward 7). During the depression, society experienced this symptom, which resulted in massive protests.

The Democratic Party under the direction of Roosevelt recognized the need for government intervention. The party aligned itself with the working class and began to advocate worker”s rights legislation. Under Democratic Party control, federal funds were used to establish the Works Progress Administration, now known as the Work Project Administration, which distributed assistance to citizens in need of subsistence. In 1935, Roosevelt again used federal funds to create public works programs, which gave employment opportunities to the unemployed.

As a result of declining republican political power, these and other initiatives were introduced to help increase worker”s rights. These worker”s rights that the Democratic Party supported were the same rights that the Republican Party had worked so hard to repress from regulation. In addition to passing labor rights laws, legislative action was taken against the wealthy industrialist”s use of legal injunctions. These lawful injunctions were used as an intimidating scheme to suppress union membership and ultimately strikes. In 1932 the U. S. ongress enacted the Norris-La Guardia Anti-Injunction Act.

This legislation severely limited the self-motivated employer”s use of injunctions as a standard operating procedure against strikes. Another tactic of wealthy employers to combat unions was the use of the open shop strategy. Abolishment of the open shop regime was usually one of the primary demands by labor unions in collective bargaining. The National Labor Relations Act of 1935, known as the Wagner act, because of its sponsor Robert Wagner was adopted and help end the open shop crusades.

This act federally guaranteed workers the right to organize through trade unions, use of collective bargaining and firmly incorporated a set of employment standards. It also restricted employers from practicing pre-employment tactics such as the open shop strategy. This reduced the power that republican business representatives could exert over the prospective and employed worker. In addition, the federal mandated right of collective bargaining guaranteed workers negotiation hearings in which employers had to listen to the worker”s needs. Congress also established the Social Security Act, which is a form of social welfare.

In 1938, the United States Congress implemented the Fair Labor Standards Act. This primary functions of this act was to eliminate labor conditions that are dangerous to work”s health and productivity, it also established a minimum wage to eliminate the disastrous effects of high labor supplies, overtime wages were developed to eliminate excessive work weeks, and finally it eliminate oppressive child labor. The result of the Democratic Party effect on legislation during the labor movement is essential a bill of rights granted to the working class of America.

No longer would the wealthy elite of America victimize the low wage working class in such inhumane techniques. Instead, these legislative acts marked the beginning of a new challenge to the Republican Party. Now the party had to reclaim lost legal ground by slowly returning to power of the United States Government. The legislative mandates of the Roosevelt era helped establish what is now known as the labor movement. Society was suffering adverse conditions and the Democratic Party mobilized the people into a political voice.

The Republican Party was essentially powerless, regardless of their financial position because government officials were responding to public outcries. This historically proves that when conditions are unfair, a political party can mobilize society and gain control. Roosevelt also initiated measures that resulted in higher taxes on the rich and restricted private utility companies. Although these combinations did not stop the wealthy republicans from continuing to gain additional wealth, it only slowed their progress. History when again prove that the Republican Party would come back into power and restrict the rights of workers.

This occurred when a Republican majority Congress passed the Labor-Management Relations Act of 1947, known as the Taft-Hartley Act evidencing this reoccurring political phenomenon. This act retracted some of the rights that were implemented during the labor movement. These provisions included restricting supervisory employee”s protection from the NLRA and emphasized the right of employees not to join a labor union. These restrictions of labor rights were in the interest of the Republican Party and were created to reduce the power previous legislation granted labor unions.

The successful creation of this statute reinforces the evidence that wealthy Republicans continually attempt to swindle the blue-collar labor class. Their motives are based within selfish financial greed and capitalist economy theory. This congressional act illustrates the phenomenon that bipartisan control and power is cyclical. The Democrats did regained majority of congress and implemented numerous anti-business and social interest acts in the 1960″s. Due to the political cycle, The Republican Party inevitable would gain control of congress once again, but the question was when?

During the economic crisis of the seventies, particularly the great recession of 1973-1975 businesses began to understand their role in the world”s economy. America was importing more then it was exporting, which was creating an unfamiliar and enormous trade deficit. “In 1971, for the first time since the 1890″s, the U. S. imported more then it exported”, (Cohen and Rogers 36) Increased competition from foreign firms posed a substantial threat to American corporations. The result of this threat forced American corporations to compete with globalization.

Corporations could no longer produce simple marketing campaigns to develop brand loyal consumers. Global competition forced these companies to produce the highest quality, lowest price and distribute through efficient channels. The international competition however, operating in countries were labor is cheaper, taxes are lower, there is fewer industry regulations and an absence of unions. In addition to these competitive forces, managers of the corporations must also answer to the wealthy shareholders of the corporation. Many business leaders formed think tanks to devise strategies to compete with this new threat.

American business leaders set about developing a political program to shore up profits by slashing taxes and business regulation, lowering wages and welfare spending, and building up American military power abroad”, (Piven and Cloward 443). The sources of all of these objectives were rooted within government policies. These policies would inevitable have to change for these goals to be achieved. So, the corporate elite implemented a political strategy that would slowly form over decades to achieve. Even in modern times the wealthy elitist of society still could influence political matters through the power massive financial resources.

During the 1980″s business elite continued to align themselves with the Republican Party for it conservative ideals. The methods the wealthy corporation shareholders influence legislation during modern times has extremely advanced. The development of political action committees has encouraged corporations to channel financial contributions into political campaigns. Corporations will develop a PAC, establish a set of issues that it promotes politically. If a politician is campaigning for an election with corresponding views, then it is in the best interest of the PAC to contribute to the campaign.

More importantly, corporations are to contribute to groups and individuals not directly affiliated with a candidate, such as the GOP. These groups or individuals can register, persuade voters, endorse a platform, advocate a candidate and oppose another. The Supreme Court ruled that the First Amendment of the Constitution protected this type of spending as a form of free speech in its 1976 decision, Buckley vs. Valeo. These donations are referred to as “soft money” because they are not directly related to a campaign.

The absence of regulation on soft money donations results in the option for corporations to contribute millions of dollars to further their political interest. This advantage has a profound effect in the corporate political strategy. “[Corporations] can simply treat politics as a business expense, a budget item like advertising, research and development, or public relations” (Clawson, Neustadl, and Weller 109). Through the strategy of the use of campaign contributing “soft money”, corporations have vastly increased their influence on political issues.

This new corporate political influence has succeeded in their campaign to minimize threats to profitability. These threats were reduced most noted during the Reagan years when the Republican Party dominated the government. “The administration has made significant cuts in social spending, particularly in low income programs, and made plain its desire for deeper cuts; achieved a massive, and massively regressive, revision of the Federal tax system in 1981; dramatically scaled back the enforcement of regulations that posed any significant limits to business power”, (Cohen and Rogers 38).

This success demonstrates the influential power that wealth has over the United States government. The government by definition should act in the best interest of the population and not the elite. Instead the influx of soft money continues to be unregulated and as proven by the Supreme Court decisions in 1976. This decision closely resembles how the courts protected the rights of employers in the labor disputes of the 1920″s. The reasons why the rich corporations target the government are because the government holds the supreme lawful power over the entire population.

History has proven to these elitists that with well financed operations targeting campaigning officials over time favorable legislation will be passed. The legislation usually reduces some sort of cost or regulation in that firms industry. This increases the profitability of the company, which is directly related to the owner”s wealth. These incremental increases in profits have lead to more investments to further heighten the value of the wealthy. This is apparent by the vast and increasing gap between the rich and the poor in America.

The poor are relatively easy targets in comparison to the costs of soft money contributions. In America, it is very difficult for the poor to change their financial status. So, once a person is poor they are generally poor for the rest of their lives. They will continue to spend their lives spending the little money on the products these corporations provide. In short, the corporations are developing an enlarging consumer base that is dependent upon their products. The middle class is slowly disappearing because of the loss of blue-collar jobs.

The loss of blue-collar jobs is a symptom of the increasing presence of globalization. Globalization has privileged companies to outsource their production needs to other countries with lower regulation and labor costs. This resembles much of the labor practices of companies in the 1920″s were the labor rights were essentially ignored. Another easy solution to minimize the firms operating costs is by eliminating valuable jobs.

These sometimes massive downsizing satisfied the wealthy stockholders because the firm had lower production costs and higher profitability. Investors often applaud the news of a layoff as a sign of corporate turn-around. The payroll is a large, ongoing liability to the balance sheet, and investors are titillated by anything that reduces it”, (Downs 14). History repeats itself as we see that wealthy investors and managers again behave in manners regardless of people”s needs. The forces unleashed by corporate executions and globalization have brought into the labor market thousands of unskilled job seekers with little or no income.

A new underclass has of previously employed individuals has become a nationwide trend in our social and economic condition. These people are forced to take jobs within the service sector and these jobs typical pay wages that are lower then those of manufacturing jobs. These trends have formed a synergetic effect on the growing wealth gap between the rich and the poor. In today”s modern economy companies do not have to worry about the United States government regulating the labor industries in other countries because of jurisdiction.

The use of soft money in the United States government has proven that even at home corporations can freely advocate legislation that is favorable to their terms. This has had a profound effect on the income gap in American society. The wealthy possess financial resources that provide enormous opportunities to create more wealth. This need for excessive wealth is deeply rooted into the personalities of these individuals. In America, society considers the pursuit of wealth has a fundamental right of capitalism. The ethical boundary was crossed by the use of financial resources to victimi

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Life of George Bush

Who knew a son could follow so many footsteps of a father. George W. Bush, son of former president George Bush, has done exactly that; which has led him too many great successes throughout his career in the political arena of politics. George W. Bush a strong businessman, a leader in politics, and a running member of one of the most famous Presidential campaigns ever. George W. Bush, known as “W” to most people, was born in New Haven, Connecticut on July 6, 1946 to the parents of George Herbert Walker Bush and Barbara Pierce Bush. Most of his adolescence was spent in Midland and Houston, Texas.

He is the eldest son of five siblings, which include, Jeb, governor of Florida, Neil, Marvin, and Dorothy. Like his father, Bush attended the same college, Philips Andover Academy in Massachusetts before he went and graduated from Yale University with a bachelor”s degree in 1968 (A&E 1). While attending school, he joined the Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity and became a member of Skull and Bones at Yale. Unlike his father, George Bush did not receive any kind of scholarships for baseball instead he was president of his fraternity as his extracurricular activity (Newsmakers 1).

W then returned to Texas in May, still following the footsteps of his father, he enlisted with the Texas Air National Guard where he became a F-102 pilot. He was trained in a fi! fty-three-week program to fly fighter jets. He completed in 1973 and eventually became a lieutenant but never had to go to Vietnam. He spent his time in Houston holding various short-term jobs, one including a stint at a program called Pull for Youth for underprivileged kids. Although, during this time of the early seventies reporters like to call this a, “nomadic period” for Bush.

Time magazine wrote: “he became a real Texan in the family, chewing tobacco, using barnyard humor, settling in the state”s western corner, the one harboring what his aunt Nancy Ellis calls, a ‘slightly outrageous streak”” (Newsmakers 1). After working as a management trainee in agriculture firm and on U. S. Senate Campaigns in Florida and Alabama, he went to Harvard Business School in 1972 and received his M. B. A. in 1975. Still following the footsteps of his father, Bush decided to go into the business of the oil industry.

He earned his first million within ten years, but the oil industry for Bush didn”t exactly turn out the way it had for his father. W built a small independent oil and gas exploration company called Arbusto (the Spanish word for “bush”). He married Laura Welch, a librarian and former teacher, in 1977 and then joined the 1978 race for the U. S. House of Representatives. He ran against a very well known democratic Senator, Kent Hance. Bush lost by six points after setting a new Texas record for fundraising capabilities for a House candidate (A&E 1).

In 1981, Laura gave birth to their twin daughters named after their grandmothers, Barbara and Jenna (A&E 1). By this time Bush”s oil industry was re-named Bush Exploration. By the early 1980″s, when the energy market turned soft, Bush Exploration foundered. In 1983, Bush combined with Spectrum 7; three years later Bush arranged fo! r Spectrum 7 to be sold to Harken Energy for a bargain price. He later sold his original stock shares and made a considerable profit of 600,000 dollars (Newsmakers 1).

W also got a consulting contract and stock options with Harken which all combined to be a deal of about one million in his pocket over the next few years (Newsmakers 1). Later in 1990, Time reported: “before Iraq invaded Kuwait, Bush sold 66% of his Harken stake at the top of the market for nearly 850,000, which was a 200% profit on his original stake” (Newsmakers 2). This upset the Vice President and W, where they stated: “The media ought to be ashamed of itself for what they”re doing” (Newsmakers 2).

Needless to say, Bush went out of the business and chose to go for politics. By now he was all name and no money. On his 40th birthday, George Bush came to a cross road in his life where he stopped drinking and became a strong Methodist with his wife Laura. He became noticeably more serious in changing his profession to strictly politics. He moved his family to Washington D. C. in 1987 to began working on his fathers 1988 Presidential campaign (A&E 1). Though he had no official title on the campaign he became his father”s hardest and most trusted worker.

He became known as a talented speaker and as the campaign”s chief liaison to Christian conservatives, he gained respect for handling volatile diplomatic matters, such as the firing of chief John Sununu, and for swiftly taking care of business (Newsmakers 1). The experience in Washington was one that Bush did not like, even though it brought him closer to his father, he did not like the hostile environment that the political life brought him.

Bush still felt that he was trailing behind his father”s footsteps with no independence for himsel! of doing something different. After his fathers successful election in November 1988 W moved back to Texas with his family, this time living in Dallas. He wasted no time in venturing out to find something new; baseball was what he found. In a matter of months he gathered up a team of wealthy investors and brought the American League”s Texas Rangers to Dallas. He took role as managing partner for the team. He brought support to the team and helped boost attendance to the games. By doing this, it brought W much admiration from the Texans and the Rangers.

He earned an identity of his own which was something he had been struggling a long time for. He earned a good deal of money through this great investment of 606,000, but he walked away with nearly fifteen million when the team was sold in 1998 (A&E 1). He earned this money as just a managing partner in which he only owned 5% of the team. After such great success with the Rangers, Bush decided it was time to try a hand in loca! Despite his mother”s opinion, Bush wanted to run as governor of Texas against the powerful Democrat Ann Richards.

With much advice not to, Bush jumped right into the race while his brother, Jeb, did the same in Florida. With their experience from being their father”s aid since they were eighteen, they felt they could handle such a large duty as governor. Many reporters felt that Bush had such an advantage by just having his last name, but to Bush he feels the complete opposite. W quoted: “The biggest advantage and the biggest handicap I have is my name” (Newsmakers 2). The campaign against Ann Richard”s was tough, she used sayings such as: “If he didn”t have his daddy”s name he would not amount to anything.

She also used names such as: “jerk” to sometimes address him during a debate (Newsmakers 2-3). Bush”s response to the accusations was very appropriate, needless to say he did not go to her level of maturity. The debate focused on welfare reform, a crackdown on crime (e! specially juveniles), increased autonomy and state financing for local school districts, and personal responsibility (Newsmakers 3). Bush is quoted as saying: “Let Texans run Texas,” this was a message that appealed to all Texans during the campaign (Newsmakers 3).

Bush defeated Ann Richards by 350,000 votes. Elected governor of Texas on November 8,1994; twenty thousand people attended Bush”s inauguration in Austin, including the famous preacher Billy Graham, legendary baseball pitcher Nolan Ryan, movie star Chuck Norris, and, of course, George and Barbara Bush (Newsmakers 3). Becoming the 46th governor of Texas, Bush has earned a reputation as a compassionate conservative: who shapes policy based on the principals of limited government, personal responsibility, strong families and local control (“Governor” 1).

In an historic re-election victory, he became the first Texas Governor to be elected to consecutive four-year terms on November 3, 1998, winning 68. 6 percent of the votes, 27 percent of the African-American votes, and 27 percent of Democrats and 65 percent of women. He is the first Republican to win the heavily Hispanic and Democratic border countries of El Paso, Cameron and Hidalgo (“Governor” 2). In six months, he signed nearly all of his proposed reforms into law by working closely with Democratic Lieutenant Governor Bob Bullock (Newsmakers 3).

Making Texas a Beacon State, he has made policies such as: responsible government, better schools, strong families, safer streets, cleaner environment, growing economy are all some issues that he ha! s improved during his governorship in Texas. Education is Bush”s first priority in Texas. He has increased 47 percent of the TAAS tests in all parts. The number of minorities passing the mathematics portion of TAAS has increased 25 percent.

The most recent National Assessment of Educational Progress Report Card on Math Achievement showed Texas African-American fourth graders ranked first in nation in improvement, with Hispanic students close behind (“Message”1). Texas eighth graders ranked fourth in the country on the 1998 National Assessment of Education Progress writing test. All minority groups and Texas African American and Hispanic eighth graders ranked first and second in the nation. Reading performance has improved 87 percent of all students in grades 3-8 and 10 passed the reading TAAS in 1998, an increase from 77 percent four years ago.

From 1994 to 1998, the number of schools rated “exemplary” rose from just 67 to 1,048. During the same time, the number of “recognize! d” schools more than tripled from 516 to 1,666 (“Message” 1). He has worked with the Legislatures to increase the state”s share of funding for schools, so that they can: restore local control, strengthen the state”s accountability system, give parents greater choice of schools and to foster competition and creativity through charter schools. This will give the people of Texas an expanded menu of educational opportunity.

His greatest goal is that every child will learn to read by third grade and continue to read at grade level or better throughout public school (“Message”1). Legislation signed by the governor during the 1999 Texas Legislative Session included the largest funding increase for public education in the state”s history and nearly two billion in tax cuts and relief, the largest tax cut in Texas history (“Governor” 1). In June of 1999, Bush made the one decision that would change the rest of his life.

It was time to decide if he would once again follow in his father”s footsteps, and become the 43rd President of the United States. In July, 2000, Bush announced his choice of running mate: Richard B. Cheney, a former congressman from Wyoming who served as Secretary of Defense under Bush”s father and is now in the oil business in Texas (A&E 2). Their opponents would be Al Gore and Joseph Lieberman, two strong, powerful democrats. Throughout the campaign of 2000, the candidates were shown to be close in the poles because both had issues that were appealing to the American people.

Some of the main issues are: pro-life, pro-choice, social security, budget and economy, affirmative action, education, government reform, health care and prescription drugs (“Issues” 1-20). On November 7, 2000, both candidates await for the winning election of their lifetime. Their life experience would be rolled u! p into one day and two hundred seventy Electoral College votes. When the night of their lifetime finally arrived, the night ended with no presidency to guide America.

That night has led to the counting, re-counting, and even hand counting of the ballots. It has also brought on numerous lawsuits from individuals to the parties themselves. It has scaled from local jurisdiction courts all the way to the Supreme Court of the United States. Even today, court cases are being heard that each party hopes to win in order to bring finality to the election. Even after the smoke clears and a President is declared, there will always be an uncertainty to the validity of this election in the minds of the people of the United States.

George W. Bush, a man of pride, ambition, and power. He has served the state of Texas as their Governor, and now he has been declared twice our President of the United States of America. Will he serve America in the way he claims he can, will he be a leader for all to follow and look up to, will he be the man he acts upon being? The nation waits as the Supreme Court continue to make their rulings to find out which man will take this role as the Presidency of the United States.

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The Pan American Airlines

Pan Am was an American icon for more than sixty years. The company skyrocketed into success and set the industry standards for others to follow. With Trippe at the helm, it seemed the company could do no wrong and that the world was truly within its grasp. However, changes in competitiveness in the marketplace, thanks to the Transpacific Route Case and deregulation, coupled with decline in air travel and soaring fuel prices caused the company’s ultimate demise.

Juan Trippe: The Man Behind Pan American:

Juan Trippe, founder of Pan American World Airlines, graduated from Yale in 1921. He became bored with working on Wall Street, and after receiving and inheritance, started to work with New York Airways, a commuter service that served the wealthy and powerful. Eventually, with the aid of some of his wealthy friends, Trippe invested in an airline named Colonial Air Transport (“Juan Trippe”, 2005).

Trippe’s interests lie in servicing the Caribbean, though. As such, he created the Aviation Corporation of America, based in Florida. It was this company that Trippe would use to take over fledgling Pan American Airways. Pan Am’s first flight from Key West to Havana took off on October 28th, 1927, and signaled the beginning of an era of evolution for the aviation industry.

Besides Pan Am, Trippe established China National Aviation Corporation, providing domestic service within the Republic of China. He also became a partner in Panagra, the Pan American-Grace Airways, holding a quasi-monopoly for air travel in many parts of South America (“Pan American-Grace Airways”, 2005). But, it would be Trippe’s Pan Am and his famous Clipper planes that would indelibly etch his aviation efforts in the minds of millions of people.

Trippe was known, in the aviation industry, for his innovation. He believed Pan Am was the standard setter, and that air travel should be just for the wealthy, but for the general public as well. He is often credited as the father of the ‘tourist class’ and saw great potential for expanding his customer base with the development of jet aircraft. Introducing 707s and DC-8s into his fleet, Trippe was able to lower fares and increase passenger numbers (“Juan Trippe”, 2005).

It was Trippe’s desire to service even more passengers that led to his request of friend Bill Allen of Boeing to produce an even larger aircraft. The end result was the Boeing 747. Yet, despite his best efforts, the oil crisis of the 1970s and airline deregulation, would see Trippe’s Pan Am eventually crumble apart (“Juan Trippe”, 2005).

History of Pan American World Airlines:

Pan American World Airlines, commonly known as Pan Am, was the primary international air service provider in the United States for approximately sixty years. Pan Am was a cultural icon of the 20th century, and the unofficial flag air carrier of the United States (Shaw, 1997, p. 12 – 13). It was their dedication to customer service and innovations, such as the use of jumbo jets and computerized reservation systems, that would help shape the industry.

Major Henry “Hap” Arnold and a few partners founded Pan American Airways Incorporated in 1927. They had obtained a U.S. mail delivery contract to Cuba, yet did not have the physical assets available to actually do the job. A few short months later, Trippe had formed Aviation Corporation of America, with backing from William Rockefeller and Cornelius Vanderbilt Whitney, along with others. With Whitney at the helm as President, Aviation Corporation had obtained the landing rights for Havana, by acquiring a small seaplane service between Key West and Havana. During the same time, the Atlantic, Gulf and Caribbean Airways Company was established, by New York investment banker, Richard Hoyt (“Pan American”, 2005).

It would be these three companies that would merge in a holding company called the Aviation Corporation of the Americas, in June of 1928. Hoyt was named Chairman, Whitney was made President, and Trippe and his partners held forty percent of the equity. Pan American Airways Incorporated was created as the primary operating subsidiary of Aviation Corporation of the Americas, with Trippe positioned as the operational head of the new company (“Pan American”, 2005).

The United States government approved the transfer of the original mail delivery contract to Pan Am, without hesitation. The government had feared that the German-owned Colombian carrier SCADTA would have no competition in routes between the US and Latin America. The government further assisted Pan Am by insulating it from American competitors, choosing Pan Am as their ‘chosen instrument’ for American foreign air routes (Bilstein, 2001, p. 79). This monopoly on foreign airmail contracts allowed Pan Am to expand quite rapidly.

Plans were made to expand Pan Am’s service through all of Central and South America. The next decade saw Pan Am purchasing multiple failing airlines in their target territory, as well as the negotiation with postal officials to win airmail contracts in their regions.

Trippe toured Latin America, with Charles Lindbergh, to negotiate landing rights. Within a few short months, Trippe had opened up service down the west coast of South America, all the way to Peru. With the purchase of New York, Rio and Buenos Aires Line, Pan Am opened up a seaplane route along the eastern coast of the continent, including Buenos Aires, Argentina, and Santiago, Chile (“Pan American”, 2005).

Pan Am’s stock soared, with the development of their South American network. Negotiations with Britain and France, to start a seaplane service between the United States and Europe began in earnest. The British state carrier, Imperial Airways, was eager to partner with Pan Am, however France’s Aeropostale was on of Pan Am’s competitors in South America, was less eager to help. Eventually, Pan Am was able to negotiate a contract offering services from Norfolk, Virginia, to Europe by way of Bermuda and the Azores. In addition, they obtained another airmail contract, this time servicing Boston to Halifax (“Pan American”).

Pan Am’s next plan of action was to begin land plane service, over Alaska, to China and Japan. Lindbergh’s services were once again called upon, as he was sent to survey the area, in 1930. Yet, due to the political turmoil in the Soviet Union and Japan, it was determined that that route was not viable. Instead, Trippe focused on developing service from San Francisco to Honolulu, with continuing flights on to Hong Kong and Auckland. By 1934, Pan Am had secured rights to land at Pearl Harbor, Midway Island, Wake Island, Guam, and Subic Bay. By 1935, the company had been awarded the airmail contract between San Francisco and Canton, China (“Pan American”, 2005).

Pan Am’s ‘Clippers’ were the only aircraft capable of transcontinental travel, at the time. The airline prided itself on service, and their flight crews formal naval-style uniforms and procession when boarding harkened to this fact (Gandt, 1995, p. 19). As World War II set in, most of Pan Am’s fleet was called into military service. This allowed Pan Am to open new routes in central Africa and Iran. By early 1942, Pan Am was the first airline to operate a route that circumnavigated the globe (“Pan American”, 2005).

Following World War II, Pan Am’s fleet was rejuvenated with faster planes made up of Boeing 377s, Douglas DC-6s and Lockheed Constellations. Competition from began to impact the previously untouched Pan Am. TWA began service to Europe, Braniff to South America and Northwest Orient began service to East Asia (Bilstein, 2001, p. 169). Hoping to reposition itself as America’s chosen international carrier, in 1950, Pan Am changed its name to Pan American World Airways, introduced ‘economy class’ service, and began to offer around-the-world flights.

Significant Accomplishments of Pan Am:

Trippe had positioned Pan Am as a leader in the aviation industry through a variety of tactics. Airmail contracts had launched the company and expanding passenger service had firmed its hold on the industry. However, competition had intensified during the company’s first two decades of service.

To remain competitive, Trippe began investing in new aircraft. Jets and wide-bodied airplanes, such as the DC-8 and 707, were used to increase the number of passengers they could service, while reducing costs. The company was the first to operate 747 service, in 1970, and was one of the first three airlines to take out options on the Concorde, however, did not exercise this option.

Diversification was another competitive option for Pan Am. Trippe bought into the InterContinental Hotel chain, as well as a business jet, the Falcon, as complimentary businesses. In addition, Pan Am was involved in developing a missile-tracking range in the South Atlantic and also in operating a nuclear engine-testing lab, in Nevada (Ray, 1999, p. 184).

It was in 1962 that Pan Am would introduce the next industry innovation. The organization contracted IBM to build PANAMAC, a computerized airline and hotel booking system. Occupying the fourth floor of the Pan Am Building, PANAMAC not only managed Pan Am’s flight and hotel reservations, but also was a database of knowledge on geographic areas, airports, aircraft, other hotels, and even restaurants (“Pan American”, 2005).

In 1971, Pan Am expanded Terminal 3 of John F. Kennedy International Airport, dubbing it ‘Pan Am Worldport’. The largest airline terminal for several years, Worldport was most noted for its flying saucer shaped roof that was suspended far from the outside columns of the terminal, allowing airplanes to pull their noses under the roof, preventing passengers from getting wet as they got on or off the planes (“Pan American”, 2005).

Intercontinental routes flourishing, in 1964, Pan Am began providing helicopter service between New York’s major airports and Manhattan. Their fleet had grown from 707s, 747s and DC-8s, to include: 720s, 727s, 737s, 747SPs, Lockheed L-1011s, and eventually Airbus A300s (“Pan American”, 2005). This diversified fleet allowed Pan Am to meet a variety of needs for the varied routes they serviced all over the globe.

Pan Am was not only a great leader in the aviation industry, but also a leader in humanitarian flights. The company flew approximately 650 flights a week between West Germany and West Berlin. And, in 1966, Pan Am flew Rest and Relaxation (R&R) flights during the Vietnam War, carrying American service men and women to Hong Kong, Tokyo, and a variety of other Asian cities for well-deserved R&R (“Pan American”, 2005).

In 1973, the energy crisis dealt a staggering blow to Pan Am. High fuel prices and low demand for air travel were only Pan Am’s beginning worries. The Transpacific Route Case was one of the most damaging policies for the company.

Prior to the Transpacific Route Case, the only airlines allowed to fly civilian transpacific routes were Pan Am and Northwest Orient. President Dwight Eisenhower opened the case, in 1959, to investigate opening the transpacific market up to more competition. Although Eisenhower closed the case, Kennedy reopened it in 1961. By 1969, the Civil Aeronautics Board had awarded additional transpacific routes to airlines including:

American Airlines – Australia, Fiji, Hawaii, New Zealand, and Samoa

Continental Airlines – Guam, Hawaii, and Saipan

Northwest Airlines – Hawaii to Asia flights

Trans World Airlines – Hawaii, Japan, and Taiwan

Western Airlines – Hawaii (“Transpacific”, 2005).

This additional competition drastically reduced Pan Am’s international passenger service as well as profit margins. The large fleet of 747s the company had invested in, while expecting a continued increase in travel demand, would now weigh down the company and eat away at their profit margin.

In response to this new competition overseas, Pan Am worked on further developing their domestic market. Road blocked at winning approval for new domestic routes, it was airline deregulation, in 1979, that would allow Pan Am to expand its service in the United States. However, the gift of deregulation would also be the company’s greatest bane.

Trippe had failed to create a strong domestic presence for his airline. He now found himself competing with established carriers in the domestic market, for the routes he wished to enter, plus had to compete with them on international routes as well. In response, Pan Am absorbed National Airlines, in 1980, yet a bidding war caused the company to sell for a much higher price than its worth (“Pan American”, 2005).

The two companies were at odds with one another from the beginning. The two disparate fleets caused the company to run inefficiently and ineffectively. Their route networks were incompatible as were the two companies’ corporate cultures. Insurmountable debt began to be accumulated. In an effort to recover, the Pan Am Building was sold off to MetLife, in 1981, and in 1985, Pan Am’s entire Pacific route was sold to United Airlines. The money from the sales was used to invest in new aircraft, and despite the beginning of shuttle service between Boston, New York and Washington D.C., the financial losses and declining customer service plagued the company (“Pan American”, 2005).

The final straw came with lax security on board Pan Am flights. Despite the development of the Alert Management Systems, in 1986, in order to reduce cost and avoid inconveniencing customers, Pan Am kept security at a minimum. The Lockerbie bombing caused Pan Am to be associated with terrorism and brought a $300 million lawsuit, filed by more than 100 families. By March 1991, the company began to sell off it’s most profitable routes, and on December 4th, 1991, the airline’s last flight from Bridgetown, Barbados to Miami was completed.

In the end, Pan Am was an American icon for more than sixty years. The company skyrocketed into success and set the industry standards for others to follow. With Trippe at the helm, it seemed the company could do no wrong and that the world was truly within its grasp. However, changes in competitiveness in the marketplace, thanks to the Transpacific Route Case and deregulation, coupled with decline in air travel and soaring fuel prices caused the company’s ultimate demise.

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The Air Pollution Report

Air pollution is a major problem facing our environment today. This dilemma is harmful to every single living creature on this planet. How can we limit the causes of air pollution? There are industrial as well as residential causes of air pollution. How can we limit the effects of air pollution? We all know it affects the environment, but do we all know it also can affect us directly? How can we control air pollution? Is the government doing its job to protect us? Air pollution can be defined as impureness of the air.

Air pollution is all around us. It might not be as clearly visible in some areas as others but the fact is that air pollution is still there affecting us in some way, shape, or form. It has been known to cause illness and/or death. Many people are not aware of this. There are two main causes of air pollution. One of the main causes is natural pollution. “Natural pollution is windblown dust, pollen, fog, etc. ” The other main cause is people pollution. “People pollution is the chief concern and most serious form.

Most of people pollution is caused by industry, cars, trucks, and airplanes. ” The causes of air pollution go on and on. There are residential causes and industrial causes. Residential causes are those such as automobile emissions and forest fires. Industrial causes are those such as factory emissions and the burning of fossil fuels. One residential cause is the emissions of automobiles. This is probably the most harmful cause, at least in the United States of America it is.

People drive automobiles every day to get from point A to point B. If automobiles did not exist, the air would most likely be cleaner but we would not be able to travel long distances in short periods. In any case, the problem remains that automobile emissions are harmful to the environment. This is how they generate automobile emissions into the atmosphere. Motor vehicle emissions are generated in several different ways and locations during engine/vehicle operation. The most important sources are, of course, those produced in combustion and vented through the exhaust pipe.

These exhaust gases consist mainly of unburned HCs, CO, and NOx and account for approximately 90- 92% of all vehicle emissions. Some products of combustion are not vented through the exhaust system, as they slip by the piston rings and the cylinder walls. These “blowby” gases consist mainly of unburned HCs that accumulate in the crankcase exhaust port. A third source of emissions is the votalization of HCs through the carburetor and fuel tank vents. Carburetor emissions are pronounced during the “hot soak” period immediately following vehicle operation.

Forest fires caused by the carelessness of humans puts harmful smoke into the environment. These forest fires do not happen often, but when they do, there is mass destruction caused to the atmosphere. In the early 1950’s, forest fires in the Southeastern United States covered huge areas of the country with smoke so thick that flights were canceled in New York City. Chlorofluorocarbons or CFC’s were developed by chemists at General Motors in 1928. When they were developed, they were looked upon as “miracle” gases that could be safely used for many purposes. They were not toxic.

They were not carcinogens. They did not corrode the materials with which they came in contact. Nor were they flammable. Finally they could be manufactured easily and inexpensively. Over the years these CFC’s have been made to serve many purposes from refrigerator coolants to jet streams in aerosol cans and polystyrene material to air conditioners. When people do not properly dispose of CFC’s, they could escape into the atmosphere, creating a hole in the ozone layer.

Air pollution was first realized as a major problem during the Industrial Revolution in Europe. Industrial pollution is particles (especially of metal dusts) and waste gases (especially carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, and nitrogen oxides) that are waste products of industry and end up in the air. Industrial emissions are the second largest pollutants of the atmosphere after automotive exhausts. ” Industries that are the major pollutants include petroleum refining, metal smelting, iron and steal mills, grain mills, and the flour handling industry. The most common chemical natured factory pollutant is methylene chloride. The burning of fossil fuels is a major cause of air pollution.

Fossil fuels are formed from the remains of ancient plant and animal life such as coal and natural gas. If complete combustion of fossil fuels was possible, it would only produce heat energy, water vapor, and carbon dioxide. However, since this not possible because the level of oxygen is never ideal, carbon monoxide forms. The incombustible material enters the atmosphere as smoke, dust, soot, and particles of tarry (tar-like) hydrocarbon substances. Small amounts of mineral and metal impurities are released into the air as fly ash.

Sulfurous impurities produce sulfur oxides, especially sulfur dioxide. Sulfur dioxide combines with water in the air to form sulfuric acid, the largest component of acid rain. ” Air pollution, as like any other pollution, is harmful to the environment. Unlike other pollutions though, air pollution is not always visible in the environment. Air pollution is the cause of acid rain, smog, and the hole in the ozone layer. Acid rain damages living organisms and materials. Deposition from acids, such as sulfuric acid and nitric acid and mixes with the rain and goes into the soil and bodies of water.

This is most common in the Northeastern United States, where fossil fuel burning is highly concentrated. “Acid rain is killing more than lakes. It can scar the leaves of hardwood forests, wither ferns and lichens, accelerate the death of coniferous needles, sterilize seeds, and weaken the forests to disease, infestation, and decay. Below the surface, the acid neutralizes chemicals for plant growth, strips others from the soil and carries them to the lakes and literally retards the respiration of the soil. ” From this you can see that biological damage is most pronounced in forests and lakes.

In bodies of water, acid shock, caused by runoff of highly acidic water into lakes and streams when snow melts can greatly affect fish and other aquatic life. It also affects farmers. Vegetation may show damage through bleaching and spotting on leaves. In urban areas acid rain discolors and speeds up the erosion of marble, cement, historic monuments, and statues. When exposed to acid rain, steel corrodes two to four times faster in urban and industrial areas than in rural areas. Soot and grit deposited by acid rain onto buildings, cars, and clothes results in these materials needing to be cleaned and restored.

In the United States alone, acid rain causes billions of dollars damage to materials. Smog is dirty fog. “Smog is a sort of ‘atmospheric soup’ of pollutants cooked up by the action of sunlight. This thick, brown haze is made of air polluted by automobile exhaust fumes, smoke, and aerosols. ” Smog contains chlorinated and organic phosphates that get unleashed into the air from blowing farm particles, heavy metals, and evaporating acid. These chemicals make the smog even more toxic than most people think. Smog is developed when weather conditions are in the mid- eighties and there is little wind.

Therefore, smog does not affect all parts of the world. It is most common in a city such as Los Angeles where these weather conditions exist. Ozone depletion is looked upon as a problem that up till now, we can not fix. Air pollution has caused this hole in the ozone layer. The ozone layer absorbs 99% of the sun’s harmful energy. It prevents ultraviolet radiation from reaching the Earth’s surface and the troposphere. It protects humans from sunburn, skin and eye cancer, and cataracts.

It also prevents much of the oxygen in the troposphere from being converted to ozone (gas). In the mid-seventies chemists F. Sherwood Rowland and Mario J. Malian discovered “CFC’s were creating a global chemical time bomb by lowering the average concentration of ozone in the stratosphere. ” In other words, the CFC’s were and are creating a hole in the ozone layer. As long as we keep using these CFC’s the hole is going to continue to grow wider and wider. Effects on the Health of Living Organisms Air pollution is hazardous to our health. It can endanger the health of living organisms in several ways. One way, is by introducing particulate matter and poisonous gases into the respiratory systems of humans, animals, and plant leaves.

Another way is by increasing the acidity of precipitation, which alters the chemistry of soil and water. One more way, is that it engages chemical reactions in the atmosphere that increase the exposure of living organisms to harmful radiation. Yet another way that it affects living organisms is by altering globally, the composition and ultimately the temperature of the atmosphere and thus producing conditions that threaten the survival of living organisms. In humans air pollution especially affects our respiratory system.

Our respiratory system has a number of protective mechanisms built to protect against exposure to air pollution. Hairs in the nose filter out large particles. The mucus lining in the upper respiratory tract helps capture and dissolve smaller particles and gaseous pollutants. Sneezing and coughing helps to remove contaminated air and mucus when the respiratory system is exposed to pollutants. Long term exposure to cigarette smoke and other air pollutants can ruin the natural defenses, resulting in respiratory conditions such as allergic reactions like asthma, and diseases such as lung cancer, emphysema, or chronic bronchitis.

Air pollution can also cause other health problems. It can cause extreme allergic reactions. It also can cause headaches, nausea, rashes, and swelling. Such activities as jogging, bicycling, and other strenuous outdoor activities, while being done in areas with high concentrations of air pollution, can cause vigorous coughing and chest pain. The hole in the ozone layer is the cause of many cases of skin cancer. There are three basic approaches to control air pollution. The first approach is called preventive measures.

This means that they would change the raw materials sed in industry or the ingredients of fuel. The second approach is called dispersal measures. That is raising of the smokestacks. The third one is called collection measures. This is done by designing equipment to trap pollutants before they get into the atmosphere. Most highly industrialized countries have legislation to prevent and/or control air pollution. In the U. S. air pollution is the responsibility of the state and local governments. All states have an air quality management program that are patterned after federal laws.

The basic federal law is the Clean Air Act of 1970. It was last amended in 1990. Under law the Federal Environmental Protection Agency sets the standards for air quality. The EPA sets the limits on the amounts of air pollutants that can be given off by automobiles, factories, and other sources. Air quality programs have improved many areas. There are several examples on how these air quality programs have improved areas. One example is that burning low sulfur coal and oil in factories and power plants has lowered levels of air pollution in the areas of the factories and plants.

Another example is that automobile engines have been redesigned to emit lower emissions. New cars are equipped with devices such as catalytic converters which change pollutants into harmless substances. Because of this, air pollution from car exhaust has also been reduced. The EPA released the Pollution Prevention Strategy in February of 1991. The strategy provides guidance on the EPA’s ongoing environmental protection efforts and includes a plan for achieving substantial voluntary reductions of targeted high risk industrial chemicals.

The major component of the strategy is the Industrial Toxics Project. The EPA has identified seventeen high risk industrial chemicals that offer significant opportunities for prevention. These seventeen pollutants present both significant risks to human health and the environment and opportunities to reduce such risks through prevention. “Scrubbers are pollution control devices used in industry to remove aerosols and waste gases. ” Wet scrubbers operate by directing sprays of water or other liquids into chambers containing exhaust gases. The gases are then washed away in the liquid.

Another form of scrubber works by a process called adsorption in which gases are removed by activated charcoal and filtering. Another way to control air pollution is to use alternate or renewable sources of energy. One of these alternate sources is solar power. The number of solar power plants is increasing as the markets expand for this power source. There is absolutely no pollution from solar power. “However, backup systems using conventional fuels are needed at night, during bad weather, and in the snowbelt areas, where the sun is often obscured during the winter months.

Another thing is that the cost of solar energy is much higher than fossil fuels. Another alternate form of energy is nuclear power. Nuclear power is energy that is generated by radioactive fuels at nuclear plants. Nuclear power is often described as clean power when it is compare to fossil fuels. Nuclear power would limit air pollution problems since nuclear plants do not produce carbon dioxide or any of the gases that cause acid rain. On the downside, if there are nuclear power plants, there is always the threat of a nuclear fallout.

If any radioactive materials escape from the plant, they could expose the people to radioactive contamination. The dilemma of air pollution is a major problem that faces our world today. What if we can’t go outside because the smog is to thick? What happens when the acid rain gets potent enough to eat right through our skin? What do we do when the hole in the ozone layer widens and melts the polar ice caps? These could be some of the questions we will ask if we don’t find ways to control the problem of air pollution.

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The Rapid Growth and Development of South Korea

The rapid growth and development in the newly industrialising economies (NIE”s) in recent decades has been nothing short of spectacular. Now among the world”s most dynamic industrialised economies, the NIE”s of Singapore, Taiwan Hong Kong, and South Korea which will be the focus, stand as perhaps the best examples of successful economic development. The economic development of South Korea, which has been among the most rapid in the world is typical of the ‘miracle” that is the NIEs.

Korea has come far since the days it was ‘a nation of hungry rice farmers”, by pursuing an industrialisation-led development commitment since 1961, which has since produced annual GDP growth of 8.4% per annum, second only to China. The success of South Korea, has been identified by a number of factors including the shift away from import substitution strategies towards export orientated industrialisation, and the effective managing of the economy and authoritarian rule adopted by the government in order to accelerate the pace of capital accumulation, technical progress and structural change to produce economic growth beyond what could possibly occur in a free market economy.

NIEs, South Korea, are now recognised as ‘export machines” boasting some of the highest trade/GDP ratios in the world. International economic relations began in 1964 with the recognition of these limitation of the domestic market and the ineffectiveness of pursuing substitution industrialisation strategies. As part of its new strategy for export expansion the South Korean government introduced new measures which included the devaluation of the won, which improved the competitiveness of its exports and introduced incentives designed to channel resources into export-orientated industries.

Exporters were also supported by direct cash payments, permission to retain foreign exchange earnings for the purchase of imports, and the exemption from virtually all import controls and tariffs. The government in consultation with firms, set up export targets for industries as well as individual firms. These targets appeared to have influenced firm behaviour and supporting this claim was from between 1961 and 1973 the volume of exports increased at an annual rate of 35% and today continues to consistently rank in the top twenty trading nations.

Over the last 30 years the share of manufactures in total exports has increased from 12% to 95%. Furthermore the manufactures exported have themselves changed with more advanced products, led by electronics dominating the list of major exports and hence the importance of the Samsung and Lucky Goldstar to the Korean economy. The direction of trade has also changed somewhat, where South Korean exports went largely to the USA and imports came from Japan, Asian countries excluding Japan are now South Korea”s major trading partners. The importance of China is also becoming of increasing significance.

South Korea”s economic success as noted can also be contributed to the high levels of savings and investment. South Korean”s save about 35% of GNP and thus sustainable economic growth has been driven by capital stock accumulation and expanded productive capacity. Indeed some figures show up to 60% of economic expansion in South Korea is a result of capital accumulation and increase infrastructure.

Undoubtedly one of the most important rationalisations for economic success is effective government intervention. Selective government intervention has promoted the development of new industries, many of which have become internationally competitive and also supported and advanced the growth of the private sector. The main aim of the government in South Korea has been to ensure that the behaviour of individual business accorded with the long term interest of the business class as a whole, and while applying authoritarian rule recognising when it was time to allow the market to operate on its own. Apart from the macroeconomic management, government in the NIEs have also sought to accelerate the pace of capital accumulation, technical progress and structural change beyond what would have resulted from “laissez-faire.”

All NIEs pursued trade policies, supporting industrial deepening and the development of national firms with selective incentives to promote exports. In South Korea for example, the government gave Chaebols preferential access to bank loans, relying on them to develop heavy and chemical industries capable of competing internationally. Indeed four decades of industrial development in South Korea have been marked by what have been marked as ‘incestuous ties” between big business and government. In recent times government has been hostile to the conglomerates but the appointment of Mr Kim Suk Won to the ruling party has reopened an old wound over the role of big business and politics in South Korea.

The role of the Chaebols in the Korean economy was a substantial reason for Korea”s success over the last 40 years. The Chaebols are the large multi-company family owned business entities which are both horizontally and vertically integrated. Examples include Samsung, Hyundai, Lucky Goldstar and Daewoo, which together account for over half the total output. The Chaebols have played a major role in the economic development of Korea. They were given preferential access to bank loans and were relied upon to develop the HCIs (as they had the resources and ability to compete in foreign markets). Indeed, the period of the HCIs drive marked the most rapid expansion of the Chaebols.

The Chaebols engaged in fierce and even ruthless competition with one another on the many fronts of industry, with at least 4 or 5 competitors in each industry, which all contributed to the economic expansion of the economy.

The government in South Korea, as well as other NIEs has supported a technology policy. By providing a favourable tax environment, government has indirectly encouraged business research and development expenditure. The Korean government for example grants a tax credit equal to 10% of capital expenditures. Current policies are aimed at achieving a 5% share of research and development expenditure in total GNP by 2001. The government has also aided fundamental technological development in advanced materials, advanced vehicle technology, bio materials and nuclear reactors.

The role of the government in South Korea was also to provide these financial incentives to promote the development of particular industries. Interest Rates for example were kept generally low and stable in order to reduce the cost of investment. Designated industries received priority in allocation of bank credit, state investment funds and foreign exchange, The government in South Korea deliberately distorted prices and incentives as to improve the market outcome and accelerate economic growth.

The government in South Korea also actively pursued competition policies. This intervention works both ways. In other words competition policy restricted the competition or promoted competition policy in the areas depending on the circumstances. In South Korea the government granted exemptions to conglomerates from laws governing monopolistic practices. Competition policy has been married with industry policy. In this the role of government has been limited with government policy interacting with the competitive strategies of private firms.

Governments in the NIEs have been remarkably stable. This has had obvious benefits on the economy. There is no standard formula for government in the NIEs and there are differences between them across nations. Singapore for example has a paternalistic government whilst Hong Kong is essentially “laissez-faire” Stability is the only real link between governments of the NIEs.

As the South Korean economy reached a more mature stage of economic growth problems regarding the structural change in the economy began to surface. The agricultural sector in South Korea for example is now only a third of its original size. Most notably there has been a marked shift to the tertiary sector. There has been obvious problems and challenges resulting from this. Most notably rapid growth has brought about labour shortages in key sectors such as electronics, heavy machinery and shipbuilding. Such shortage of labour in which employers have noone to fill vacancies made by expanded productive capacity will threaten South Korea”s booming exports, which is seen as the vehicle for growth in South Korea. The problem is further compounded by an increasing reluctance among school leavers to ‘dirty their hands” in industry and the inability and unwillingness to attract foreign labour.

After growth and development in South Korea for so long was driven by government intervention one of the most important challenges facing the matured economy was for the government to relinquish much of its influence over the economy and to allow market forces to operate effectively. If South Korea is to continue to growing as a truly advanced industrialised nation then obviously the market mechanism will have to be let to operate freely. This will take time and cause and also cause relative social unrest.

As the South Korean economy has reached a mature stage, it has recognised the old regulatory environment that led to high levels of inputs especially in manufacturing sectors but low levels of productivity must change. In manufacturing, Korea has massively invested in the best available technology but because of protectionism and poor corporate governance in banks and companies, it was not forced to adopt the best managerial practices. As a result labour and capital productivity are in most manufacturing sectors less that 50% of US levels and thus must be one of the challenges for future success of the Korean economy.

Other challenges that Korea has had to face, continues to face, and must overcome are the consistent current account deficits (CADs) and foreign debt which may put a constraint on South Korea”s future economic performance. South Korea”s economy relies heavily on high exports and thus is susceptible to global fluctuations. Secondly there is a pressing need in South Korea to use imports more efficiently.

Furthermore, the greatest of the challenges Korea has had to face to date was the Asian Financial Crisis of 1997. Up to this point in time many economists looked favorably upon the economic fundamentals of Korea. However, due to excess short term debt over the long term debts, excess debt over equity and the generating of wealth through asset price bubbles, which was clearly unsustainable, these vulnerabilities only required a small shock which was initiated by the devaluation of the Thai baht in July 1997.

As an advanced economy, South Korea now needs far more than simply hard work and determination to succeed in this new century, Companies in South Korea need to keep ahead of the profound social, economic and political transition. It is the inherent need for human capital that drives much of South Korea”s business and government spending. Many would agree that a well educated workforce is paramount to future success.

In the future, South Korea will need to reform its financial sector, remove the burden of excessive business regulation, provide a more favourable environment for foreign investment and restructure its economy away from declining manufacturing and agricultural industries towards services and sophisticated manufacturing.

The prospects for continued economic growth hinge on the success of the aforementioned drivers for economic growth. Deregulating services in addition to lowering barriers to imports, allowing FDI (which can reduce the risks of future financial crisis in the medium and long term) and improving corporate governance would be the key to restoring strong growth in Korea.

This reduction would come mainly because fair competition with best practice together with more careful bankers and demanding shareholders would force Korean manufacturers to improve their return their return on investments. In an increasingly globalised economy higher productivity in manufacturing and low import barriers would allow domestic competition to increase due to lower prices. Opening the domestic market would not lead to an increase in the trade deficit or external debt as higher capital productivity would reduce the need to import capital.

In overall terms, prospects for South Korea”s economy are favourable, but the high rate of success from the growth performance in the 1980″s will be difficult to replicate. The next phase of the Asian miracle that will involve China emerging as the world”s largest economy within 10 years and the re-emerging Japanese economy will provide substantial benefits for the Korean economy. Some important strengths of the economy include: a well educated and motivated workforce, a growing level of R&D, continued rates of high savings, greater regional trade links and potential for domestic growth through increased infrastructure investment, housing and personal consumption.

In summation, South Korea is an economy which initially through selective government intervention and now through domestic and international reforms, sped to economic might. Although there are many challenges in the longer term making South Korea”s future uncertain, (including the reunification with the ailing, unstable North) the fact South Korea has come so far argues well for the future. If South Korea can make the necessary changes to its economy to become a sustained industrialised nation then it will certainly take its place as an economic leader in the near future.

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National Government in America 1775 to 1789

Americans developed many types of “national” governments between 1775 to 1789. Each of these variations in centralized governments served different purposes through out this time period. They also represented the ideologies and fears of the people in how they were regarded, empowered, and organized.

One of the first unified fronts that the colonial states presented in a form of centralized governments was the formation of the Second Congress. The Second Congress met on May 10, 1775 in Philadelphia. It had many of the same restrictions that the First Congress had when it met in September 1774. Their purpose was to perform in two contradictory ways. First they had to raise money for an army. All the while negotiating a reconciliation with England.

Some of the delegates included, John Hancock, John and Samuel Adams, John Dickinson, George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, and James Madison. Although these delegates were, for the most part, of the same mind in 1775, times would later change them: influencing all of them in different political directions.

This Congress had virtually no power. They did not have any authority to write or change laws. But they could raise an army, finance the war, gathering a pro-independence coalition, and they could explore diplomatic alliances with foreign countries.

So little power was given to Congress, by the states, because of a deeply embedded fear of a powerful centralized government. Unwilling to repeat the mistake made in Britain, placing so much power in such a small governing body, was something that the states strived to not repeat. And they kept that in mind when they elected to draft the Articles of Confederation.

The Articles of Confederation, drafted by John Dickinson in May 1775, allowed Congress to issue bills, borrow money, to settle all disputes between states, and to administer unsettled western lands. However, many state governments did not like the last two provisions (settle disputes between states and control all western lands). Those issues would cause Congress to debate the Articles for years.

To amend the Articles, all states had to unanimously agree to the changes. Again the second class powers given to the national government was due to the states fear of an all-powerful central government. For it could potentially jeopardize the freedoms of the people it governed. Just like it had when the king of England and Parliament passed various revenue generating taxes on the colonies without representation.

By 1781 economic turmoil began to weaken the newly formed confederation of the states. The cost of the war had plunged the colonies into economic hardship. From 1781 to 1788 is known as the “critical period.” After the revolution the first priority was to pay for the war itself.

Congress had given land certificates to solders that fought in the war against the British, as payment for their service. They had also printed money to pay for the military supplies and pay solders, but the money was never backed by “hard money.” Hard money is gold or silver. In 1775 this printed money had some value, but it was virtually worthless by 1781. Many states had also printed paper money in excess, as well. Further confusing and disrupting the economy and plunging the country into deeper economic debt.

Even though Congress was granted the right to print money, it did not have the right to tax. Without the ability to tax, Congress had no means of collecting revenue to pay for the war. A weakness that was discovered when Robert Morris served as Superintendent of Finance for the Confederation from 1781 to 1784.

Morris originally proposed a five-percent impost tax on all imported goods into the country. But most coastal states already had impost taxes, which they used to pay for their potions of the war debt. Also Congress did not have the authority to impose such taxes on the states populations according to the Articles of Confederation. Nor did they have any means of enforcing compliance of such tax laws. This proposal was soon dropped.

A second plan by Morris called for a nationally supported bank that would hold Congress”s hard money along with other investors and private citizens. In return the bank would give the government short-term loans. This plan also allowed the bank to print “banknotes.” Banknotes were paper money that was backed by hard money in the bank vaults: therefore they would not depreciate in value. The theory behind this was that with paper money backed by hard money it would provide the nation with some economic stability.

Morris” national bank worked with limited success. The bank was relatively small; it printed little money (even thought it actually printed more paper money than what it could back in hard money) for circulation. Therefore, it had limited impact on the economy: providing little stability.

In the fall of 1786 the economic troubles of the Confederation reached a peak. Armed men threatened the courts in Massachusetts over the newly imposed taxes passed by the state. Not only were additional taxes passed, but also the state insisted that they be paid in hard money. Most citizens at the time had little hard money on hand.

This caused many to arm themselves again, in protest against the hardships that the government was imposing on them. Daniel Shays was the leader, who was a farmer, and also had served as a captain in the Continental army during the revolution. Shays, with 2,500 other, marched on the courts of Massachusetts. James Bowdoing, governor of Massachusetts at the time, quickly put the rebellion down. Later this uprising would be called Shays Rebellion.

The significance of Shays Rebellion was that it demonstrated that the nation was still in unrest. Originators of the revolution found themselves on the other side of the table. In their efforts to repay the war debt and maintain a standard of living and success of their businesses, they had placed economic hardships on the people in the form of excessive taxes. Although Congress and the state governments had few options (one being to print money in excess or to heavily tax the people), some thought that there was a better way.

Economic problems come from the simple fact that all thirteen states printed their own money. Some states (with strong economies: Virginia and New York) relied on taxes solely to repay their portions of the war debt quickly. While other states that had poor economies simply printed more money to compensate for monetary fluctuations. One theory was that if a unified economy could be established it would help ease the situation and growing tensions. But to have that you would need a unified national government, one with more powers than the present Congress had to manage it.

At the prompting of James Madison, the Virginia legislature called a meeting of the states. The way this meeting was called bypassed the confederation Congress. The purpose of this meeting was to try and modify the Articles of Confederation, to give Congress power to regulate trade in hopes to improve the economic problems. But only five of the nine states, which agreed to participate, attended. Out of those who did attend, all had the same impression of a pending national crisis. So the meeting was rescheduled for Philadelphia in May 1787 in order to try and get more participants to attend.

During the time it took for a quorum to gather, Madison and the Virginian delegates drafted a fifteen-point plan, which totally restructured the confederation. Once the seriousness was reveled of what was really under discussion, it was unanimously decided to keep all of the proceedings completely confidential. To help keep order, George Washington was elected to preside over the convention.

Virginia was the first to propose vast changes in the federal government. Their plan, presented by Edmund Randolph, called for a three-branch government. With a two chamber legislature, a powerful executive, and judiciary branch. This government operated directly on the people. Congress had the right to veto state legislation, coerce states militarily to obey national laws, and to legislate in areas were states are incompetent. The executive and judiciary branch could veto jointly any legislation presented by Congress. To say the least this plan was heavily debated. But it did not meet any out right opposition.

William Paterson, who was from New Jersey, presented an alternative plan in mid June. This plan became know as the New Jersey Plan and resembled some of the Articles of Confederation. It had a single house Congress in which the states would have one vote. But it would have a shared three-man presidency, of who were elected by Congress. This three-man group took the place of the executive and judiciary branches. This plan gave vast powers to Congress: it was allowed to regulate trade, and to use force on unruly states. However, the plan still rested on the confederation principle of the national government that was to be an assembly of states and not of the people.

A compromise later broke the heavy debates over the two plans. By mid July it was agreed that the new form of government should be a three-branch government with supreme power over the states and bicameral legislature (with a Lower House of Representatives appointed by population and the Senate who represented each state). In the Senate the two senators could vote independently of each other. This was the first emergence of the present day federal government; a government based on the representation of the people.

The next hurtle was to define who the people were. In southern states they had large majorities of people who could not vote, but would give power to them through the new form of Congress. But these people were slaves: the debate was, are they citizens or are they property. To the southern states they were citizens, with the idea that they would allow more power for them in the Congress. However, smaller northern states with little or no slaves viewed them as property. Who had no right to representation in Congress. This debate created what is known as the “three-fifths clause.” Which stated that only three-fifths of the non-voting population could be counted when deciding the number of representatives in Congress.

With most of the problems out of the way, the next step was to have the thirteen states ratify the new form of government. Only nine states needed to ratify, and pass, the proposal in order to make it law, however, it was going to be an up hill battle. For the states would not give up their powers so easily.

The proponents of the new government called themselves Federalist; opponents to the new government took the name of Anti-Federalist. By May 1788, eight of the states ratified the proposal. To help gain more support, the federalists James Madison and John Jay wrote a series of essays called “The Federalists Papers.” The essays started in October 1787, and totaled eighty-five altogether. They were published in New York newspapers in hopes to win the states vote for the new government. New York was critical to the success of the proposal, after Virginia, New York was the next most influential state. If New York could be persuaded to pass the new form of government it would assure solidity and legitimacy to the new government.

Even though Virginia and New York”s ratification was not necessary to the passing of the new government, the federalists wanted to have a unanimous vote. Having these two states would help in pulling the remaining two states in (North Carolina and Rhode Island) into a unanimous agreement among the thirteen states. These two states did finally ratify the new government, but not until May of 1790, and at that, they barely ratified the new government by only a two-vote margin.

Prior to the revolution the ideology that prevailed was that government should be local, and directly represent the people. If a government was to be too large and to far from the people it served, it had the potential to become a dictatorship in its management of country affairs. But because of the economic strain of the war, the thirteen different economies and monetary systems were not adequate. Nor could they stabilize the economics of the confederacy.

A few politicians of the time (like James Madison and Alexander Hamilton) had a vision of a more powerful centralized government that would be able to bring the states in line with national policy and help to stabilize the local economies. While showing the world a unified front among the states. Several debates would develop over the idea of a more powerful government over such things as the definition of representation by population, the western territories, and the power of the states vs. the power of the federal government and Congress.

Compromises, persuasive arguments, and essays would have to be made by everyone. But finally, in May of 1790, the thirteen states would agree on a larger, more powerful federal government. Which had authority over the states in matters of taxation, trade, and fundamental laws that transverse state lines.

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Assertive Discipline

“Miss Collin was a nasty teacher that I had when I was 6 or 7 years old and, as a result of the psychotherapy I underwent in later years, I am now able to say that this teacher is responsible for most of the psychological damage I suffered with resulting suicidal tendencies. She used terror and humiliation to keep order in the classroom and did not hesitate to use the strap as her method of control” (Warnes 1). School children shouldn”t be afraid to attend their school because the teachers humiliate students, are mean and have strict rules.

The overall purpose of public schools is to provide a simple learning environment so a student can obtain a good education. All students should be treated equally no matter where they are and should have the same rights as adults so they can reach their goal of graduating. Discipline is more than keeping a group of children or young people quiet while being talked to. Preserving good behavior is certainly one aspect to discipline, for learning it in an atmosphere of confusion is difficult. Children have to learn to conform to the rules of behavior needed in a classroom.

Teachers have the right to ask for a quiet class, keep the students in their seats, and have the right to discipline them if they do not cooperate. When a teacher expresses his or her thoughts, feelings, and beliefs in direct, honest, and appropriate ways that do not violate the right of others, and when the message does not humiliate, degrade, or dominate the one being talked to, he or she is using Assertive Discipline. In order for a teacher to maintain control of his or her class they must use Assertive Discipline. In order for a teacher to have his or her needs met, they can influence the behavior of the children.

Without influence a teacher is “powerless” and will become “burned out. ” (Canter, 2) There is no simple answer to why this happens. A number of complex factors have combined to create an environment in which teachers are having trouble in getting personal and professional needs met. Until the past decade, the teacher was looked at as the main person in the classroom by students and parents. The teacher, simply because of their role status, had respect and authority. Thus, the teacher was a “powerful” figure in the eyes of the students and could easily influence the student’s behavior, often with just a look, smile, or a threat.

All of that is now changed. Today, a teacher has to earn the respect of both the students and their parents. A teacher’s basic techniques of influence, or discipline, is no longer as effective as getting the desired results. The discipline approaches of the 1950’s and 1960’s do not work with the students of the 1990’s. In addition, the teacher cannot rely on the strong support of the parents anymore. Many parents are openly questioning, the education that their children are receiving, and do not feel they want to support the needs of their child’s teachers.

Teachers cannot get their needs met in a classroom unless they have an effective method of discipline in which they thoroughly understand and comfortable utilize. An assertive teacher is: “One who clearly and firmly communicates his or her wants and needs to his or her students, and is prepared to reinforce their words with appropriate actions. ” (Canter,9) When a teacher is assertive, and clearly and firmly communicates their wants and feelings to a child, they send a clear message. This message simply states: “I mean what I say and say what I mean. (Collins, 155)

Lee Canter, a child guidance specialist, has found that while most teachers make lesson plans as a routine matter, very few make discipline plans. Planning is essential to teaching well. Lesson planning is second nature to teachers. Lesson plans are part of a professional routine, and are done almost automatically when the need arises. However, planning for discipline is an entirely different story. The vast majority of teachers have learned or have been exposed to the steps involved in planning discipline programs, especially those to be used specifically with disruptive students.

Because of teachers’ frustrations, all we often hear is their complaining about how difficult the students really are. Such complaining may help to relieve the strain of dealing with difficult students, but it in no way helps to solve the problem. Planning your discipline efforts, and utilizing assertive principles, are as essential to teaching as a lesson plan. (Charles,128) Discipline planning will structure and guide classroom management efforts the same as lesson planning for academic efforts. Discipline plans are important and helpful to all teachers.

Charles, urges to make discipline plans according to the following steps: Identify any existing or potential discipline problems, specify the behaviors you want the students to eliminate or engage in, decide on negative and positive consequences appropriate to the student and situation, and decide how to execute the negative and positive consequences. (Charles, 129) Discipline planning is the systematic applications of the assertive principles the teacher exhibits. It involves focusing your attention on any existing or potential discipline problems you may have.

These discipline problems may involve an individual student, or a group of students, or an entire class. Having good discipline enables the teacher to deal assertively with their students. He or she will know how to maximize their potential influence to get their needs met, with more difficult situations it may be useful for the teacher to engage in problem-solving and discipline planning with peers, school psychologist, principle or anyone who may be familiar with the students or have successfully managed similar problems.

One final area needed for discipline planning are special activities. Special activities are those activities the students do not consistently engage in, for example, field trips or assemblies. A day or so before such an activity, the teacher must have some basic discipline planning. Once again, the teacher must determine the behavior wanted and not wanted, the limit – setting and positive consequences, and how the program will be started. The assertive teacher recognizes the fact that he or she has wants and needs and has the right to get them met in the classroom.

The teacher is also aware of the limitations and realizes that they have the right to ask for assistance, whether it is from the principle, parents, or peers. (Charles,37) The assertive teacher should be aware of the child’s need for warmth and support. An assertive teacher is aware that a limit setting response must be delivered in as effective a manner as possible. Eye contact is very important when trying to get a point made. Whenever necessary, the teacher plans how to back up their limit setting statement with appropriate consequences.

This is done in order to maximize the influence that his or her response can have on the behavior of the child. (Canter, 28) Whenever required, teachers should be prepared to back up their words with consequences in order to motivate the behavior of more difficult children. He or she is aware some children need more support than others and is prepared to give that child as much as they can. (Canter, 32). The children learn to trust and respect an assertive teacher. The children clearly know the parameters of acceptable and unacceptable behavior.

This gives them an opportunity to choose how they want to behave while knowing fully what the consequences will be for their behaviors. This does not mean that every child will like an assertive teacher, and does not mean that every child will behave. Some children may still decide not behave for any reason. All that an assertive teacher can do by his or her behavior is try to establish an atmosphere where he or she maximizes the potential for a positive teacher – child relationship. The major area where being an assertive teacher helps a child is when the student has special needs or problems.

This when a teacher needs to step things up a notch and become more assertive. Some teachers may lose track of their assertive potential, but they have to teach the child how to behave in the appropriate manner. (Canter, 46) One problem area where a child needs assertive discipline is when he or she is confronted with peer pressure. This is when the student’s fellow peers force him or her to do something, like throw spit balls or make funny noises to win the approval of others. This problem can be solved by confronting the child and telling him what he or she is doing wrong.

This problem can also be solved by giving out a punishment like, writing on the chalkboard or may be standing in the corner with his or her back turned to the rest of the class. If all else fails, the teacher may want to call the child’s home and plan a conference with the student’s parents. Though most teachers feel threatened and overwhelmed by parents, especially if they are pushy or manipulative, they need to take a stand and thoroughly explain the situation going on with their child. (Rich, 145) The teacher has to be assertive with the parents and the child.

The teacher should not down grade the problems they are having with their child. Instead they should tell the parents the way things are. For instance a teacher should not call the child’s parents and say, “we have a little problem with your son,” when in actuality, the child had a violent tantrum. The teacher should let the parents know that they need their cooperation to discipline the child at home for his tantrum. If the teacher does not tell the parents what they truly feel then the child’s tantrum will be even worse the next time.

The corner stone of assertive discipline is the potential positive influence teachers can have on the behavior of their students. ” Hand in hand with influence goes responsibility. ” (Canter, 57) When teachers accept the consequences of their potential influence they accept the consequences of their potential influence they accept the responsibility to choose, or not to choose, to utilize this potential for the best interest of both themselves and the students. Assertive teachers recognize the responsibilities they have for the children.

They know they cannot assert themselves and get their needs and the children needs met. They know they can have the impact on their classrooms if they choose to do so. Other teachers choose not to accept the reality of their potential influence. Thus, they are confronted with the following situations: they place themselves in a powerless position. They view themselves as a helpless victim at the mercy of the students, their parents, the principle, and the school system. Such teachers become the complainers.

They complain about everyone and everything that “victimize” them. Charles, 120) They end up blaming all of their problems on others, and never on themselves. Mandatory uniforms is an answer that some give to stop the recent and alarming rise in violence and drop out rates in our public schools. Those that support uniforms argue that uniforms disguise economic and ethnic backgrounds, so students are no longer jealous of others. The financial burden on parents is lifted. But do uniforms really give all of these benefits? Can just one change in public schools make them so much better?

The wearing of uniforms in more of the nation’s public schools has been a much-talked about issue recently, with President Clinton and several members of Congress voicing their support. Supporters of school uniforms say social and economic classes would no longer be revealed by students’ clothing, schools will have more of a sense of community, and students’ self-esteem will improve. Some gang members have hurt or murdered innocent people because of a colored item of clothing they chose to wear. Proponents assert that uniforms will reduce this type of violence in schools and, therefore, make classes safe and orderly.

Uniforms have been shown to reduce absentee rates as well. In situations where there are several different financial backgrounds attending the same school students may be under pressure, and possibly ridiculed because of failure to conform to the latest fashion trends. Everybody wearing the same styles of clothes might eliminate that. In response to growing levels of violence in our schools, many parents, teachers, and school officials have come to see school uniforms as one positive and creative way to reduce discipline problems and increase school safety.

They observed that the adoption of school uniform policies can promote school safety, improve discipline, and enhance the learning environment. As a result, many local communities are deciding to adopt school uniform policies as part of an overall program to improve school safety and discipline. California, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, Louisiana, Maryland, New York, Tennessee, Utah and Virginia have enacted school uniform regulations. Even though social and economic barriers can be torn down, some schools have not had as much success.

In fact, implementing mandatory school uniforms can be dangerous because it provides the community with a false sense of security. It is like putting a small bandage on an enormous wound, instead of attempting to find ways to truly deal with the bleeding. Although this can happen, uniforms prove to continue to be a success. In a recent study of uniforms in Georgia Schools, eighty percent of students stated that they did not feel that the uniforms reduced fights and 68. % felt that uniforms did not help to make them feel a part of school. I myself would not feel at any way individually squashed if I were made to wear a uniform. Everyone must look at the main issue pertaining to this topic. Our lives, without our individuality is meaningless. I would be more than willing to wear a uniform to school and be safe and let my personality express my individualism, and be judged for what I am than to be judged and be put into a life threatening situation for what color I was wearing.

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Literature Essay: One Flew Over The Cuckoos Nest by K Kesey

It is suggested that Ken Kesey”s One Flew over the Cuckoo”s Nest contains examples of behaviour and attitudes displayed by characters within the clinical environment of the psychiatric ward which can be compared to behaviour found within contemporary American society. These include examples of leadership and hierarchy within a class or caste system, sexism and crime and punishment.

In the text, the theme of leadership is very prominent and important to the story. Arguably it is more important theme of the book, than the issue of mental illness, which forms the setting and the core of the novel.

The leader figure in the ward is Big Nurse, who has complete control over the ward. Any decisions that are made over a patient or with regards the running of the ward must go through Big Nurse first. She is seen by the Chief as being almost mechanical in her approach to her running of the ward:

She”s got that bag full of a thousand parts she aims to use in her duties today-wheels and gears, cogs polished to a hard glitter…(10)

The ward is run by her to a very strict daily routine, which is almost fanatically neurotic in it”s precision and dedication. Chief describes Big Nurse”s devotion to her daily routine:

‘The slightest thing messy or out of kilter in any way ties her into a little white knot of tight-smiled fury” (27)

When McMurphy enters the ward, the delicate equilibrium which the nurse has created is upset. This is because, like the nurse, McMurphy is a natural leader-figure. He takes over the control of the ward by manipulating the patients; seemingly for their own good, but it may be argued that he gets a feeling a control from being a leader over a large group of people.

This may be a feeling of control and power which has previously been absent in his life for some reason.

We are told, early in the book, of McMurphy”s admission to the ward doctor about his conviction for raping a fifteen year old girl, and his unwillingness to acknowledge that he had committed a crime:

‘Said she was seventeen, Doc, and she was plenty willin”… so willin”, in fact, I took to sowing my pants up” (40)

This could also be argued for Big Nurse; What is her motive for her total dedication to the job? It is possible that she also relishes the feeling of control over the patients in her care which her job allows.

She knows that she has absolute power over every patient in her ‘care”; The power to change any of her patient”s lives immediately wherever she might see fit.

Such behaviour can also be seen in contemporary society in an environment such as a school;

The school is a good example because it has a central leader in the position of the head teacher. The head teacher has full responsibility over every person within the school, and also sets the rules and regulations which everyone in that particular school must obey.

If a member of the school breaks any of the rules, the head teacher will decide an appropriate punishment. While the head teacher is answerable to the Governing Board of the school, they still have the most ‘power” and authority over the school.

It can also be shown within a large corporation with the position of a Managing Director. All other staff in the company are directly answerable to him. The Managing Director has the power to hire new staff, and also to make staff redundant. But, again, he is answerable to the owner of the company and perhaps the shareholders; so he can never have total power in his position

This can be contrasted with Big Nurse; She is, in theory, answerable to the Management Board of the hospital, and even to the doctors who work on the ward. But she appears to have the most control over the daily running of the ward, as if she were senior to the doctors, even though, in fact, she is only a nurse. She seems to have total and complete authority over every person in the ward.

The theme of leadership does not mirror the outside world very accurately, as in contemporary society a leader of a society or an organisation is almost always accountable to a person senior to him. This is not seen in the novel, as Big Nurse seems to be answerable to no one, in fact, it is arguable that everyone answers to her.

A hierarchy or class system operates inside the ward which can be clearly seen throughout the course of the novel. Patients living within the ward are ‘classed” according to the state of their mental health or to the condition of which they suffer from. Chief describes the method of discriminating patients from one another:

‘Across the room from the Acutes are the Chronics… Not in the hospital, these, to get fixed, but to keep them walking the streets…” (17)

Patients are divided into two categories of Acutes & Chronics:

Chronics are those patients who have a condition which is untreatable, “machines with flaws which cannot be repaired” (17) and can only be controlled with medical methods. They will spend the rest of their lives inside the ward of the hospital. Patients who are seen as being likely to recover from their illness, and will return to society.

Acutes are those patients e.g. Harding, who are seen as being likely to recover from their illness, and will return to society.

Chronics can either have full use of their bodies or can be again sub-categorised into Wheelers and Vegetables; Those whose movement is impaired to such an extent, they can only move by being pushed around in wheelchairs. Vegetables are patients who, through excessive ECT ‘Shock Shop” (18) or through the overperscription of tranquillising medications:

‘Ellis is a chronic came in an Acute and got fouled up bad when they overloaded him in the Shock Shop…” (18)

When McMurphy enters the ward, he assumes the role of a leader over all of his fellow patients in the ward. McMurphy has a strong, intelligent character and so he is able to manipulate others who are more vulnerable than he is. An example of his manipulation is when he shows some playing cards with pornographic photographs on them to Cheswick:

‘I brought along my own deck…Fifty-two positions”. Cheswick is pop-eyed already…those cards don”t help his condition. (16)

Personality types which can be seen in contemporary society can also be seen very clearly with regard to the characters in the ward setting:

McMurphy”s character is a rebel character who hates authority and authoritative figures. This is, perhaps, why he clashes so fiercely with Big Nurse.

Chief is the veteran of the ward. He has been there the longest, since the start of World War II, with the exception of Big Nurse. He has the mutual respect of everyone in the ward.

Billy Bibbit is insecure and has a stutter. His name is ironic in that it resembles a stutter when said. His problems have probably been caused by his overbearing mother, who was very protective and spoke for him whenever possible.

In a large group of individuals, these personalities are often seen; A rebel character who goes against the system is almost always present in a class inside a school; A veteran who has gained the respect of everyone in that particular grouping; A person who is lacking in confidence, often reluctant to speak out.

Today, in contemporary society, a class system is still very much a part of everyday life. People are classed on wealth, status and employment. Discrimination can also exist between classes; lower classes finding higher classes snobbish and elitist; higher classes perhaps seeing lower classes as ‘common” and uneducated.

The book mirrors hierarchy in contemporary society very well, as it shows different personality types and differentiates between the different classes of people within it very clearly and accurately. However, it does not show discrimination between the different classes which exists today in contemporary society and is quite important to the structure of modern societies.

The issues of Sexism and Sexuality are also raised within the book. Although they do not feature so prominently as the themes of Leadership and Hierarchy, they are nevertheless very important to the behaviour of the characters.

Taking the theme of sexism in the text, women are placed into two distinct stereotypical types. They are portrayed as either whores, sluts or nymphomaniac wives; or the book goes to the other extreme where women are held as asexual ‘machines”. This view is very important when referring to Big Nurse.

The prostitutes that appear during McMurphy”s fishing trip are a good example of the first way the book describes women. They are shown as amoral, trivialising sex so that it is seen only as a meaningless business transaction. It is also made clear of the loss of McMurphy”s at the age of nine:

‘The first girl ever drug me to bed wore that same dress. I was about ten…Taught me how to love, bless her sweet ass (201)”

Ruckly”s wife is another example of this such view of women as adulteresses. Ruckly has had an unsuccessful lobotomy, making him rather mentally unstable. The text portrays him very sympathetically, so the reader empathises with his character from the outset:

‘They brought him back to the ward two weeks later…you can see by his eyes how they burned him up in there” (18)

Ruckly had found out that his wife had been seeing other men; Every time she is mentioned he remembers what she did to him:

‘Memory whispers someplace in that jumbled machinery…He turns red and veins clog up…Fffffffuck da wife! Ffffffuck da wife!” (19)

This is not the only unfavourable way women are portrayed in the novel. Big Nurse is shown as a hardened and rather sterile asexual character. ‘

‘A mistake was made in manufacturing, putting those big, womanly breasts on her…and you can she how bitter she is for it” (11)

Whenever she is described by Chief, her attributes are likened to a piece of machinery which is cold and unfeeling. It appears that she is so dedicated to the ward that she is ‘married” to the job and sexual relationships have no place in her ‘plan”. It is arguable that this is why she becomes so enraged when she discovers McMurphy”s relations with the prostitutes towards the end of the book.

Today, in contemporary society, the view sometimes is still held that women inferior to men. They can be seen as incapable of carrying out work, and should stay at home to look after the children. Although the advent of feminism has almost vanquished these ‘male chauvinist” attitudes, women can still be stereotyped as above; as whores or nymphomaniacs or, like Big Nurse; ‘frigid”, asexual and cold. It can be seen, thus, the text of One Flew over the Cuckoo”s Nest shows sexism in contemporary society accurately.

Finally, the issues of crime and punishment are raised throughout the book and are very important from the outset and ultimately to the ending of the story. The ward, like the society outside, is run on a system of sanctions and rewards which are allocated according to a patient”s behaviour.

Punishments may be issued, by Big Nurse, for unwillingness to co-operate with the daily routine or with the staff. Punishments included ECT , the removal of privileges such as cigarettes or more serious, repeat offenders as a last resort, a lobotomy. A patient could also be sent to Disturbed, in effect a ‘hospital within a hospital” where a patient could be sent to recover from an outburst and they will return to the ward when Big Nurse sees fit.

A lobotomy is a surgical procedure in which the pre-frontal lobes of the brain are either removed or destroyed. This was thought to pacify aggressive patients, but in practise, it transformed them into inactive individuals:

“The installations they do these days are usually successful…a success they say…like Ruckly fumbling and drooling all over his picture” (18-19)

Rewards were also issued to by the establishment of the ward; Patients were give a ‘ration” of cigarettes every week, but this was stopped when McMurphy arrived in the ward as he used to win the others” cigarettes from them in gambling card games.

It is arguable that the security of the hospital could be seen as a reward. Patients, who through the result of their ‘mental illness ” could not cope in the outside world and require the constant daily routine to feel secure and safe.

Contemporary society has a system of rules, laws and legislations which must be followed to be a member of that society. Society also has the power, like the ward to issue sanctions for those who break the rules.

Although many countries have abolished the use of corporal or capital punishment for serious crimes, North America is one such a country where, depending on the state, a person may face capital punishment by lethal injection, electric chair or gas chamber. The ward applies corporal punishment in the form of the ECT and it may be argued that a lobotomy is a form of capital punishment because the patient has little or no quality of life left after the procedure, so they might as well have been killed.

Ken Kesey”s One Flew Over The Cuckoo”s Nest mirrors, in the behaviour of it”s characters, contemporary society very accurately and can still be relied on, as a contemporary text, an accurate display of the treatment of patients within a mental hospital today.

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Rights and Status of Women

Overall, the rights and status of women have improved considerably in the last century; however, gender equality has been threatened within the last two decades. Blatantly sexist laws and practices are slowly being eliminated while social perceptions of “women’s roles” continue to stagnate and even degrade back to traditional ideals. It is these social perceptions that challenge the evolution of women as equal on all levels. In this study, I will argue that subtle and blatant sexism continues to exist throughout educational, professional and legal arenas.

Women who carefully follow their expected roles may never recognize sexism as an oppressive force in their life. I find many parallels between women’s experiences in the nineties and Betty Friedan’s, cofounder of the National Organization of Women, in her essay: The Way We Were – 1949. She dealt with a society that expected women to fulfill certain roles. Those roles completely disregarded the needs of educated and motivated business women and scientific women. The subtle message that society gave was that the educated woman was actually selfish and evil.

I remember in particular the searing effect on me, who once intended to be a psychologist, of a story in McCall’s in December 1949 called “A Weekend with Daddy. ” A little girl who lives a lonely life with her mother, divorced, an intellectual know-it-all psychologist, goes to the country to spend a weekend with her father and his new wife, who is wholesome, happy, and a good cook and gardener. And there is love and laughter and growing flowers and hot clams and a gourmet cheese omelet and square dancing, and she doesn’t want to go home.

But, pitying her poor mother typing away all by herself in the lonesome apartment, she keeps her guilty secret that from now on she will be living for the moments when she can escape to that dream home in the country where they know “what life is all about. ” (Fetzer, 57) I have often consulted my grandparents about their experiences, and I find their historical perspective enlightening. My grandmother was pregnant with her third child in 1949. Her work experience included: interior design and modeling women’s clothes for the Sears catalog.

I asked her to read the Friedan essay and let me know if she felt as moved as I was, and to share with me her experiences of sexism. Her immediate reaction was to point out that, “Betty Friedan was a college educated woman and she had certain goals that never interested me. ” My grandmother, though growing up during a time when women had few social rights, said she didn’t experience oppressive sexism in her life. However, when she describes her life accomplishments, I feel she has spent most of her life fulfilling the expected roles of women instead of pursuing goals that were mostly reserved for men.

Unknowingly, her life was controlled by traditional, sexist values prevalent in her time and still prevalent in the year 2000. Twenty-four years after the above article from McCall’s magazine was written, the Supreme Court decided whether women should have a right to an abortion in Roe v. Wade (410 U. S. 113 (1973)). I believe the decision was made in favor of women’s rights mostly because the court made a progressive decision to consider the woman as a human who may be motivated by other things in life than just being a mother.

Justice Blackmun delivered the following opinion: “Maternity, or additional offspring, may force upon the woman a distressful life and future. Psychological harm may be imminent. Mental and physical health may be taxed by child care. There is also a distress, for all concerned, associated with the unwanted child, and there is the problem of bringing a child into a family already unable, psychologically and otherwise, to care for it. In other cases, as in this one, the additional difficulties and continuing stigma of unwed motherhood may be involved. ” (Goldman, 205)

I feel the court decision of Roe v. Wade would not have been made in 1949. Even in 1973, it was a progressive decision. The problem of abortion has existed for the entire history of this country (and beyond), but had never been addressed because discussing these issues was not socially acceptable. A culture of not discussing issues that have a profound impact on women is a culture that encourages women to be powerless. The right of abortion became a major issue. Before 1970, about a million abortions were done every year, of which only about ten thousand were legal.

Perhaps a third of the women having illegal abortions – mostly poor women – had to be hospitalized for complications. How many thousands died as a result of these illegal abortions no one really knows. But the illegalization of abortion clearly worked against the poor, for the rich could manage either to have their baby or to have their abortion under safe conditions. (Zinn, 499) A critic of the women’s movement would quickly remind us that women have a right to decline marriage and sex, and pursue their individual interests.

However, I would argue that the social pressure women must endure if they do not conform to their expected role is unfair. The problem goes beyond social conformity and crosses into government intervention (or lack thereof). The 1980’s saw the pendulum swing against the women’s movement. Violent acts against women who sought abortions became common and the government was unsympathetic to the victims. There are parallels between the Southern Black’s civil rights movement and the women’s movement: Blacks have long been accustomed to the white government being unsympathetic to violent acts against them.

During the civil rights movement, legal action seemed only to come when a white civil rights activist was killed. Women are facing similar disregard presently, and their movement is truly one for civil rights. A national campaign by the National Organization of Women began on 2 March 1984, demanding that the US Justice Department investigate anti-abortion terrorism. On 1 August federal authorities finally agreed to begin to monitor the violence. However, Federal Bureau of Investigation director, William Webster, declared that he saw no evidence of “terrorism.

Only on 3 January 1985, in a pro-forma statement, did the President criticize the series of bombings as “violent anarchist acts,” but he still refused to term the acts as “terrorism. ” Reagan deferred to Moral Majoritarian Jerry Falwell’s subsequent campaign to have fifteen million Americans wear “armbands” on 22 January 1985, “one for every legal abortion” since 1973. Falwell’s anti-abortion outburst epitomized Reaganism’s orientation: “We can no longer passively and quietly wait for the Supreme Court to change their mind or for Congress to pass a law. ” Extremism on the right was no vice, moderation no virtue.

Or, as Hitler explained in Mein Kamph, “The very first essential for success is a perpetually constant and regular employment of violence. ” (Marable, 40-41) This mentality continued on through 1989 during the Webster v. Reproductive Health Services (109 S. Ct. 3040 (1989)) case. “The Reagan Administration had urged the Supreme Court to use this case as the basis for overturning Roe v. Wade. ” (Goldman, 767) It is disturbing that the slow gains achieved by the women’s movement are so volatile and endangered when conservative administrations gain a majority in government.

To put the problem into perspective: a woman’s right to have an abortion in this country did not come until 1973. Less than two decades later, the president of the United States was pushing to take that right away. It seems blatant that society is bent on putting women in their places. From the above examples, it appears American culture prefers women as non-professional, non-intellectual, homemakers and mothers. This mentality is not easily resolved, because it is introduced at a young age. Alice Brooks experienced inequality on the basis of her race and her sex.

In her autobiography, A Dream Deferred, she recalls the reaction of her father when she brought up the idea of college to him: “I found a scholarship for veterans’ children and asked my father to sign and furnish proof that he was a veteran. He refused and told me that I was only going to get married and have babies. I needed to stay home and help my mother with her kids. My brother needed college to support a family. Not only was I not going to get any help, I was also tagged as selfish because I wanted to go to college. ” (Fetzer, 234)

This is another example of women being labeled as selfish for wanting the same opportunities as men. Alice Brooks is seemingly a very courageous woman; having the ability to overcome any oppression she may encounter. She states that “women who succeed in male dominated fields are never mediocre – they are extraordinary achievers. ” Her insight encapsulates much of the subtle sexism that exists today. I feel that no one can truly be equal in a society when only the “extraordinary achievers” are allowed to succeed out of their expected social role.

This attitude of rising blatant and subtle attacks on women’s civil rights is further exemplified in recent reactions to affirmative action plans. These plans have been devised to try to give women and minorities an opportunity to participate in traditionally white male dominated areas. However, we see the same trends in legal action for the use of affirmative action plans as we saw in the 1980’s backlash against the Roe v. Wade decision. A few interesting points were presented in the case, Johnson v. Transportation Agency, Santa Clara (480 U. S. 616 (1987)). Mr. Paul E.

Johnson filed suit against the Santa Clara County Transportation Agency when he was denied a promotion, feeling the company’s affirmative action plan denied him of his civil rights. Some interesting facts were presented in this case: “Specifically, 9 of the 10 Para-Professionals and 110 of the 145 Office and Clerical Workers were women. By contrast, women were only 2 of the 28 Officials and Administrators, 5 of the 58 Professionals, 12 of the 124 Technicians, none of the Skilled Crafts Workers, and 1 – who was Joyce – of the 110 Road Maintenance Workers. ” (Goldman, 784)

The above statistics show women have been considerably underrepresented at the Santa Clara County Transportation Agency. These numbers are not uncommon and are found throughout business. It is interesting to note the current popular perception is that affirmative action precludes white males from finding employment with companies that implement these plans. The truth is in the numbers, however. The fact that Mr. Johnson felt he was denied his civil rights because an equally qualified woman was given a promotion, instead of him, is just a small window into the subtle sexism that exists today.

Most critics of affirmative action do not consider the grossly unequal numbers of men in management and professional positions. Secondly, it never seems an issue of debate that a woman may have had no other previous life opportunities in these male dominated areas. I do not intend to argue that affirmative action is good or bad, but only wish to point out that the current backlash against these programs is heavily rooted in sexism and racism. Often blatant violence or unfair acts against a group of people will cause that group to pull together and empower themselves against their oppressors.

The women’s movement has made large steps to eliminate many of these blatantly sexist acts in the last century. Now the real difficulty is upon us: subtle acts of sexism and the degrading social roles of women in today’s conservative culture. Alice Brooks so eloquently described her experiences with inequality, stating, “the worst pain came from those little things people said or did to me. ” (Fetzer, 236) As these “little things” accumulate in the experience of a young woman, she increasingly finds herself powerless in her relationships, employment, economics, and society in general.

The female child has as many goals as the male child, but statistically she is unable to realize these goals because of the obstacles that society sets in front of her. Society and media attempt to create an illusion that women have every right that men enjoy. However, women will never be equal until the day female scientists, intellectuals, professionals, military leaders, and politicians are just as accepted and encouraged to participate in all of society’s arenas as males.

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Anti Depressants: An Overview

We must limit the number of young children who are administered antidepressants, as we do not have sufficient, if any, data regarding the effects of these drugs on the developing brain. Greater involvement from parents, teachers, ministers, and friends, as well as counseling and psychotherapy must all be used extensively before turning to the “quick fix” of antidepressants.

In the last ten years, the psychiatric field has been flooded with a new group of antidepressants known as Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors, or SSRIs. Michele Laraia defines an SSRI as “a group of compounds that block the reuptake of serotonin by the pre synaptic neuron” (6). By adjusting the level of serotonin, the mood-altering chemical which our body naturally creates, that reaches the brain, we can control the stability of a person’s mood.

Tania Unsworth writes that “almost 600,000 children and adolescents in the US were prescribed SSRI antidepressants in 1996” (1). A more alarming statistic, reported by Joseph Coyle, is that “there has been a 10-fold increase in the prescription of SSRIs in the US for children under 5 years old between 1993 and 1997” (1). Parents, teachers, and psychiatrists across the country seem a little too anxious to jump on the antidepressant bandwagon. Apparently, many people are willing to turn first to the quick fix of drugs rather than the more time consuming approach of counseling and psychotherapy, although these have proven to be much more effective in the long run (McDougle 1).

The most common reason for the prescription of an antidepressant is depression. Until about ten years ago, depression was thought to be nonexistent in children. Depression is now found, using the same criteria used for adults, to be unquestionably diagnosable in children (Fishbein 1). Joyce Price notes that “the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry puts the number of significantly depressed children and adolescents at 3.4 million” (1). The consequences of depression for children include social dysfunction, academic underachievement, impaired self-image, and suicidal and anti-social behavior (Laraia 1).

Depression is also commonly linked to other problems such as conduct disorder, attention deficit disorder, and anxiety disorder. In a survey done by Judith Asch-Goodkin, she reports that “of over 600 physicians surveyed, more than half (57%) had prescribed an SSRI for a diagnosis other than depression” (1). In some cases, of course, medication is really necessary in order to correct a persisting disorder or complex which, if left untreated, would continue to grow. However, in young children, drug use should be reserved for a final remedy, and even then used with great moderation.

The problem with most prescriptions given to children is that these drugs are used simply as a quick fix. Claudia Kalb writes that “experts say frustrated parents, agitated day-care workers and 10-minute pediatric visits all contribute to quick fixes for emotional and behavioral problems” (1). Parents seem too eager to find an “excuse” for their child’s behavior. The easiest excuse for a parent to digest is the suggestion that their child has a natural chemical imbalance, correctable by medication. This helps to put the parents mind at ease, assuring them that it is not their fault. In most cases the parents are so relived to find out that their child’s condition is not their fault that they do not bother to look into other ways of helping their child; instead they put their trust in their doctor and do whatever he first suggests.

Of course, the scariest thing about giving an antidepressant to a child is that less than 20 percent of the drugs used in children have been tested on children (Price 2). As a matter of fact, none of the drugs which fall in the category of an SSRI have been tested on children. However, since the FDA has approved them for use in adults, doctors can legally prescribe them to children (Crowley 1). The courts have always left drug treatment to the physician’s “best judgment” (Fisher 1). In fact, Rhoda Fisher states that “prescribing physicians do not need any scientific proof that a particular drug is effective for the patient they have in mind to treat” (1).

In addition, general practitioners and pediatricians do not, for the most part, have the psychiatric knowledge necessary for the prescribing of antidepressants. Determining which medication to use and when to use it can be a confusing task for these doctors (McDougle 1). Without the proper education, prescribing an antidepressant can be a shot in the dark. Rebecca Voelker found in a study of over 600 family physicians and pediatricians that “72% had prescribed an SSRI for a patient younger than 18 years. Yet only 8% of the physicians said they had received adequate training in the management of childhood depression, and just 16% said they felt comfortable treating children for depression” (182). Surely some method of regulating which physicians can prescribe antidepressants can be established.

Furthermore, the vast majority of evidence, so far, suggests that antidepressants do not help childhood depression (Price 1). The body of a child grows far too rapidly for the drug level to remain constant in their body. Fisher goes on to put it more bluntly in saying that “in view of their negative side effects and clearly demonstrated lack of therapeutic effectiveness, it is inappropriate to treat the younger segment of the population with antidepressant medications” (2). Almost 80 percent of children who are put on medications were referred to doctors for school problems, yet antidepressants have been proven to be ineffective in treating school problems or nebulous behavior problems (Asch-Goodkin 1). Once again, another case where frustration in a child’s behavior is put above the child himself. A quick and easy answer to everything does not always exsist. With no empirical evidence to support drug treatment in young children, many could argue that it is not only dangerous but unethical as well.

Even in cases where medication is absolutely necessary, psychotherapy should always be a big part of the treatment. The goal of the medication should be to help the child learn to deal with their condition, hopefully drug-free at some point. Too many times the medication is used as the sole treatment. Christopher J. McDougle points out that ” the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, the AACAP, recommends psychotherapy as the initial treatment for mild to moderate depression” (1). He goes on to say that “the AACAP notes that SSRIs are never sufficient as the sole treatment” (2). It has been proven time and time again that most children are just reaching out and need an adult to show actual one-on-one attention to them. This is why psychotherapy is so very important. Children need that human contact.

Of course, the primary concern in treating children with antidepressants is that we have absolutely no data on how these drugs affect the long-term brain development (Kalb 2). We are shoveling pills into the mouths of little children whose bodies and minds are at the most sensitive stages of their development, and we do not even know how these drugs will affect that. The pharmaceutical companies remain as the major funding sources for the study of various drugs and their effects on the body (Allen 6). The problem is that the law only requires them to test the drugs on adults. After that, it is up to the physicians who prescribe them. Allen explains their lack of ambition in pursuing such tests by claiming that “there is little incentive for the industry to conduct premarketing or post-marketing controlled treatment trials in children, since they are very expensive and raise liability concerns” (6). What is the key word here? Money. The pharmaceutical companies are not willing to shell out the extra money no matter what the costs.

In his studies, McDougle found that “children and adolescents are more likely to have behavioral side effects; younger children being the most vulnerable” (5). Common side effects that are popular with younger patients are gastrointestinal distress, nausea, and anorexia (McDougle 3). Others common side effects are headaches, tremors, jitteriness, and nervousness (McDougle 3). Also, for some children hypomania, mania, and psychosis have all occurred (McDougle 4). On the other side of the mania disorders are the many different sleep disorders caused by these drugs. McDougle”s studies go on to show that “SSRIs, like virtually all antidepressants, alter sleep architecture, decreasing total sleep time, sleep efficiency, and the total duration of rapid-eye movement sleep” (3). The result of this is children who suffer daytime sedation, insomnia, and vivid, frightening dreams. In one of McDougle”s study groups, 42 percent had wild, vivid dreams that resulted in the subjects injuring themselves enough to require hospitalization (5).

Another concern, reported by Rhoda Fisher, is the scattered cases of children dying “suddenly and unexpectedly” (2). This may be linked to Serotonin Syndrome, a condition which can be derived from just one seronergic agent (McDougle 5). Children suffering from Serotonin Syndrome will experience fever, muscular rigidity, and a drastic mental status change. Also, they may be affected by hyper pyrexia (temperature above 105 degrees farenheight)mandating aggressive cooling, muscular paralysis, and intubation (McDougle 3).

The time has come when we must demand that the pharmaceutical companies, physicians, and psychiatrists be better regulated. The changes made would be minimal but their outcome would be incomparable to anything else. Certainly, we must protect the health and the rights of young people who may not be able to do so for themselves. Medication is just a part, and a small part at that, of the therapeutic process.

All options outside of medication should be thoroughly exercised before moving on to the next phase. Parents, teachers, and ministers must first do their part before recommending a child for professional care. After that, strict regulations must be put on doctors and psychiatrists to ensure that only those knowledgeable enough to prescribe antidepressants to children can do so. Furthermore, the pharmaceutical companies must be forced to test their products on any age group that might have access to these drugs. It is critical to the future of our society that we stop drugging are youth and look for more natural approaches.

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Define Communism

Communism has long been heralded in capitalist countries as the root of all evil. However, as with all phobias, this intrinsic fear of communism comes from lack of knowledge rather than sound reasoning. It is the same fear that gave the world the Cold War and McCarthy”s Red Scare. The purpose of this paper is neither to support communism over capitalism nor the opposite, rather it is to inform the reader of communism”s migration through time and hopefully assist the regression of such fear. The ideology of communism came out of the minds of two men, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels (Sowell, 11).

Since Marx is the most widely known influence, he will be the one most referred to. It was Marx”s belief that private property was the cause of poverty and degradation of the proletariat. Therefore, he came to settle on the idea that no one person should have control over production of goods, ownership of land, and management of funds. In that same token then, no one class should be allowed to have control over these things. He went on to comment that the exploitation of the working class must come to an end. That end would be achieved through revolution.

Once this was achieved, everybody would work according to their abilities and then be paid accordingly (Marx 586-617). Soon after, however, technical innovations would create such abundance of goods that “everyone works according to his abilities and receives according to his needs. ” Soon thereafter, money would ! have no place in society. People would be able to take what they want and in turn would be lacking nothing. Marx also believed that the pleasure of seeing the fruits of labor would be enough to cause man to work (Rieber, 56-62).

Countries and people were soon to catch on to this ideology. The two most well know places were Russia and China. Of the two, Russia was the first to adopt the communist beliefs. Russia already had a long history of peasant insurrections. Most of these uprisings though, were leaderless and highly unorganized. The motives of the rebels were vague and often confused. By the time the government made some improvements to help the peasants, it was too late. In 1917, due to the breakdown of the administration and military order, the peasants moved to carry out their own revolution.

They tore down any form of legal and territorial authority and distributed the land in a rough but equal fashion. During this time, a man by the name of Georgi V. Plekanhov had secretly come into Russia bringing Karl Marx”s books. Once there, these books influenced young students who saw the revolution dependent on the proletariat, not the peasant class. One of the people influenced by Plekanhov was a man going by the name of Nikolai Lenin. His revolutionary ardor was strong and he went on to creat a group called the Bolsheviks and they are the ones who would create the revolution needed to change the system.

It began on March 6, 1917 when bread riots erupted in Petrograd, Russia and did not end until the United Soviet Socialist Republic was organized on December 30, 1922. On January 21, 1924, Lenin died and this complicated matters since two people were interested in Lenin”s position. A power struggle ensued between Joseph Stalin and Leon Trotsky (Salisbury, xi). Stalin became the Bolshevik party general secretary in 1922, which was one step closer to being the next Lenin. In 1925, Stalin offered a more attractive solution to the Russian people than Trotsky (Rieber, 73-74).

Thus in 1927, Stalin scored the first major victory for himself when the Fifteenth All-Union Congress of the Communist Party denounced all deviations of the Stalinist line. Trotsky and any ally of his were banished to the Russian provinces. Here Stalin”s ruthless nature began to show. He completely expelled Trotsky from the Soviet Union and finally his fear of Trotsky-esque forced him to assassinate Le! on Trotsky in 1940 (Kaiser, 246). However, even after Trotsky was assassinated Stalin”s fears were never quite dissipated.

Stalin went on to establish a dictatorship, crushing any opposing voices within his party and his country. He would not stop there though, still being enough of a Marxist, he wanted to see the ultimate goal become a reality. He wanted to see a world wide socialist revolution. He and many other Soviet leaders held the furtherance of world revolution above the preservation of the dictatorship. It remained an important goal through the leadership of Khrushchev, Brezhnev, Andropov, and Chernenko. However, this came to the head during the leadership of Gorbachev.

Gorbachev had a country that was falling apart dumped into his lap. Dissension was widespread and in an effort to bring the country back to it”s former glory, Gorbachev implemented a program known as Perestroika, or reconstructuring. Its aim was to make good on the promises of socialism or else it would sink to the status of a third world country. One part of Perestroika that was particularly odd was called Glasnost. The purpose of Glasnost was to hear constructive criticism in order to possibly try to implement the ideas in an effort to help the country out of their difficulties.

This was much different from Stalin”s views. When western criticism said that Perestroika was slowing down, Glasnost went ahead at full speed, revealing not only the crimes of the Stalin era, but also the horrifying dimensions of the contemporary crisis. In foreign affairs, not only was there great progress on arms control, but also Soviet troops were withdrawn from Afghanistan. Most spectacular of all, in 1989, Gorbachev allowed Soviet control over Eastern Europe to evaporate, as communism was overthrown and independent governments were established in one satellite country after another.

In 1991, Gorbachev changed course as he came to realize that his only chance to preserve the union was to work with the leaders of the republics rather than against them. For many loyal members of the party and the security forces, as well as managers of industry and collective farms, the country as they had known it was on the brink of falling apart. The last stand of the old guard was an attempted coup in August 1991. It was easy for the plotters to take over the central government, but they found it impossible to topple Boris Yeltsin and the Russian Federation government.

The coup collapsed within days, and the Communist party was outlawed. The fate of the August showed how little vitality was left in the Soviet Union”s central government, and it was not long before appropriate conclusions were drawn. In another quieter coup in December, the leaders of Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus declared that a Commonwealth of Independent States would replace the Union of Soviet So! cialist Republics. The declaration only ratified the reality of republican independence. Gorbachev bowed to the inevitable and resigned at the end of the year. The seventy-four year history of the Soviet Union had come to an end (Grolier).

After Russia, China was the next major country to adapt to the communist system of beliefs. It was on October 1, 1949 that Mao Tsetung pronounced the establishment of the new Chinese Communist state: the People”s Republic of China. It was for this reason that Mao and over ten thousand people set off on what was to be called the Long March. They began in the Jiangxi province where their ranks rapidly grew and became known as the Fourth Red Army. It was comprised of peasants and soldiers who were in favor of a communist regime or were in opposition to Chiang Kai-shek”s nationalist views.

Mao”s army never numbered more than 85,000 peasants, while Chiang”s forces, the Kuomintang, numbered at least 200,000 well-equipped troops (Frankenstein 58-64). The odds were definitely against Mao. It was for this reason that he favored guerrilla warfare. Mao described these tactics in his Little Red Book: When the enemy advanced, we retreat. Our weapons are supplied to us by the enemy. In 1934, Chiang encircled the Jiangxi province in which Mao was camped and thus it was decided within his camp that they must break through Chiang”s blockade lines.

The 85,000 plus another 15,000 peasants poured through the breach that had been made. Within forty-eight hours, most of the people had broken through the lines. No one really knew what ahead, however, over six thousand miles, icy rivers, swampy marshes, and Kuomintang forces would leave only a handful alive at the end (Frankenstein 116-124). The Long March had begun. It would finally end in 1949, the same time the People”s Republic of China was formed. Mao had come out on top through extraordinary means. However, the civil war was not quite over.

While living in Taiwan, Chiang was still getting backing from the United States of America and again took the title of President in 1950. Mao recognized, however, that he would need to set up a government immediately in order to support the close to one billion people living in China. He then turned to the Soviet Union for financial assistance. Mao went on to create the Great Cultural Revolution: an effort to get China up to the status of a major world power. This was a major motivating force for Mao until his death in 1976 (Frankenstein, 161-165).

China and the communist party were without an outstanding leader for several years following Mao Tsetung”s death. Finally, Deng Xiaoping eventually emerged as the paramount leader they were looking for in 1978. He promptly launched his economic reform plan. Under his leadership, China tried moving their economy from a sluggish Soviet-style centrally planned economy to a more produ! ctive and flexible economy with market elements, all within the framework of Communist control. The result has been a strong surge in production with industry posting some major gains.

Deng”s reforms have improved the livelihoods of many Chinese living in urban areas. There is no doubt that Deng had lead China through greatest period of modernization and foreign contact. One of the saddest days in Chinese history was the death of Deng Xiaoping on February 19, 1997. While he had not been active for some time and had not appeared in public for three years prior to his death, the death of senior leaders had always had an unsettling impact on Chinese politics (CNN). On the other hand, Deng had retired in 1989 and he had placed Jiang Zemin in the powerful post of chairman of the Central Military Commission.

In 1993, Jiang was named president of China. Jiang”s policy, like that of his mentor, was to instill market reforms while still keeping the country politically and socially conservative (CNN). This was going to be difficult though with Hong Kong having been returned to China on June 1, 1997. President Jiang Zemin himself will preside as the motherland reclaims a piece of itself, instantly replacing the councils and crown symbols of Britain rule with the new authority of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. If only it were that simple.

The people of Hong Kong embrace neither of these extremes. They share pride in the reunification of China, but they harbor some misgivings about their new landlords, however, they are ready to give the new system a chance. Unfortunately the west is casting a skeptical eye. If Beijing is ready to be welcomed into the community of nations with the stature its size and wealth ought to command, China will have to convince the west that it is ready and able to live by the international community”s rules (McGeary, 186-192).

With the Soviet Union no longer in existence, the international community is turning their attention on to the last major communist nation that has influence. China will have to tread lightly, especially now with the return of a valuable port that was the refuge for millions of democratic citizens. China has promised a “one country, two systems” policy, but that is only drawing more criticism. Communism can no longer grow, it can only mature. However, this maturing process is turning it into more of a capitalist country.

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Environmental Protection Program

The collective action of humans – developing and paving over the landscape, clear-cutting forests, polluting rivers and streams, altering the atmosphere’s protective ozone layer, and populating nearly every place imaginable – are bringing an end to the lives of creatures across the Earth. Extinction of biological species is not necessarily a phenomenon initiated by human activity, some argue. Although the specific role of extinction in the process of evolution is still being researched and debated, it is generally accepted that the demise of any biological species is inevitable.

Opponents of special efforts to protect endangered species invariably point this out. They also suggest that the role of homo sapiens in causing extinction should not be distinguished from that of any other species. This position, most often espoused by individuals whose other views are curiously much more anthropocentric, is contrary to some well established facts. Unlike other creatures that have inhabited the Earth, human beings are the first to possess the technological ability to cause wholesale extermination of species, genera or even entire families of living creatures.

This process is accelerating. Wildlife management efforts initiated during this century have been unsuccessful in stemming the tide. Most public attention given to endangered species has focused on mammals, birds, and a few varieties of trees. Ecologists recognize a far greater threat to the much larger number of species of reptiles, fish, invertebrates, and plants that are being wiped out by human activity. In the past few decades, vast areas in several regions of the world have been cleared to make room for urban development or for food production.

Modern agriculture techniques and industries’ need for raw material have contributed to the epidemic of extinction. During the last few centuries, growth in the human population and intensification of our use of resources has greatly increased the rate of species extinction. Today, this rate is at least 1,000 times higher than it was when the genus Homo made its appearance about 2 million years ago. According to the best estimates, an average of 200 species vanishes from the Earth every day.

By the year 2025, an estimated 20 percent of Earth’s species may have been pushed to extinction – a loss of species unmatched since the end of the Mesozoic 65 million years ago. For human beings, the consequences of this extensive wave of extinction’s will be severe, whether they are viewed from a moral, aesthetic, scientific, or economic perspective. Scientists fear that the vitality of our ecology may be seriously threatened by the reduction of biological diversity resulting from the lost genetic resource contained in the extinct species.

They note that the ability of species to evolve and adapt to environmental change depends on the existence of a vast pool of genetic material. This problem joins the issue of endangered species with that of wilderness preservation. Unfortunately, the need to set aside vast undeveloped areas to prevent wholesale extinction is more acute in the poorer, more crowded regions of the world where people are pressured by both their own basic needs and the demand of the industrialized world for their resources.

The concept of biodiversity helps capture the magnitude of the problem. Biodiversity is the variety of, and interaction among, living organisms and the ecological complexes that they occur in, from the smallest habitat to the Earth as a whole. The concept also includes the genetic variability within these species, the raw material of both evolutionary adaptation and selective breeding by humans. In terms of biodiversity, extinction is more than the loss of individual species, it is the degradation of the ecological complexes that support all life on this planet.

The set of plant, animal, fungus and microorganism species that occur together at a particular place make possible the functioning of an ecosystem at that place. Undisturbed ecosystems, with their natural level of biodiversity – regulate the flow of energy and the cycling of nutrients, which all life depends on. The ongoing elimination of a sizable portion of the Earth’s biota is probably the clearest sign that the manner in which we use the natural environment is not sustainable. The intensity of our exploitation of natural resources is simply too great.

In the past 40 years, human beings have wasted over a fifth of the Earth’s topsoil, destroyed more than half of its forests, polluted most fresh and onshore marine waters, and profoundly changed the characteristics of the atmosphere. It is easy to put much of the blame on population growth. The human population has more than doubled over the past 40 years to reach the present level of more than 5. 5 billion. Each new person puts an added burden on the natural environment. Yet if we are to understand the roots of the problem and work towards real solutions, we need to look at other factors besides population growth.

As living organisms, we must utilize the natural environment to satisfy our basic needs. The manner in which we do this, however, is as variable as human culture. The problem is that present social, economic, and political structures encourage us to maximize our use of natural resources rather than use them wisely. In today’s world, economic resources are highly concentrated in industrialized countries, where most of the world’s goods are consumed by a minority of the global population.

Seventy-seven percent of the people in the world – most of whom live in less-developed nations – have only about 15 percent of the world’s wealth, consume only 10 to 15 percent of the world’s natural resources, and generate about 10 to 15 percent of the world’s pollution. This global inequality is one of the major factors contributing to overuse of resources and destruction of natural habitats.

At present, our ignorance of biodiversity is telling: scientists believe that the total number of species on Earth may be about 10 million, although only 1. million have been named and classified. Such knowledge is of great importance in itself, and of fundamental importance to achieving sustainable productivity. But it is only one of many prerequisites; another is a stable human population. Unfortunately – and only if we sustain our attention to family planning around the world – two to three times the current number of people may be alive when the human population levels out. At that point, the intelligent use of organisms and other natural resources will be absolutely essential for future stability.

A stable human population, however, will not in itself allow us to attain a stable world. We must also address much more effectively the problems of poverty and lack of social justice throughout the world. This must include pursuing sustainable agricultural development in a way that guarantees more people access to the land they must have to meet their own needs. The role of women must also be enhanced throughout the world, in relation to health and family planning, literacy and school involvement, and participation in the work force.

Another problem to confront is overconsumption of the world’s resources by people in industrialized countries. Plans to preserve biodiversity and utilize it sustainably will fail as long as the global community continues to promote growth and consumption rather than reduce them. In addition, it is important to augment the number of educators, scientists, and engineers who live in developing countries, only about one in twenty of the world’s scientists and engineers live there.

Without technical knowledge and expertise, the chances for most less-developed nations to achieve sustainable productivity are poor. All nations must be given the opportunity to explore multiple paths, consistent with their own social values, for making biodiverisity an indispensable ingredient of socioeconomic, cultural, and scientific development. Without the achievement of a stable global population and the implementation of social justice, it simply will not be possible to learn about, manage, preserve, and benefit from what is left of the world’s biodiversity.

Understanding the connections between biodiversity, human institutions, and our long-term survival is the first step in learning to manage the biological resources of the planet Earth, our common home, for our mutual benefit. The sixth extinction is not inevitable. If humans are the cause, they can also be the solution. Conservation law in this country has taken a new turn, and in many ways California is leading the charge. The next decade will be an exciting and critical time for this state and the nation.

The future of our natural resources and of our quality of life may well depend upon the choices and commitments we make over the next few years. If you travel the length or breadth of the state of California, you experience its diversity as a progression of distinct environments, each with characteristic plant species and climatic conditions. To highlight such contrasts, scientists have divided the state into large bioregions, each of which encompasses environments with broadly similar characteristics. A bioregion is itself a mosaic of unique aquatic and terrestrial environments-marshes, grasslands, woodlands, forests.

California is composed of 11 major biogeographic areas, or bioregions. The great diversity of habitats within the state has allowed California to serve as a final refuge for species once dispersed throughout the West. The isolation provided by restricted habitats has allowed them to act not only as refuges, but also as centers of evolution for new species. Hence, California has a remarkably high degree of endemism – of species found nowhere else – in much the same way that an island often has endemic species. The two most important arbiters of California’s natural landscapes are its Mediterranean climate and its varied topography.

These factors are interconnected: landforms modify the climate, producing local variations in temperature and precipitation, and climate determines the nature and rate of erosion and soil deposition. Over eons, these and other factors have interacted to produce an amazing diversity of both landscapes and species. More than a third of the plants native to California are endemic, either evolving here in response to the continual opening up of new ecological niches, or finding refuge here after geologic change had altered their homelands. In California, population growth is obviously a direct cause of spreading urbanization.

New housing developments and freeways overwhelm woods, meadows, and chaparral, destroying unique habitats full of evolutionary novelties, placing many native plant and wildlife species in imminent danger of extinction. It is tempting to blame our problems on overpopulation. The California that once supported 300,000 native Americans is now teeming with about 31. 5 million inhaitants-and their automobiles. It may be that the state’s environment cannot support this many people, but we also should remember that incredible environmental damage had already been done when the state’s human population numbered 1 million or fewer.

It may be more appropriate to look at the nature of our economic system, a system oriented toward and dependent upon continuous growth, and one that operates on the fixed assumptions that there are potentially unlimited resources at one end of our economic pipeline and, at the other, a bottomless sink for disposal of wastes. Of course, there is neither. The first inhabitants of California lived for centuries within the limits of their environment, and the Spanish and Mexican economy was oriented more toward stability than growth.

Unfortunately, the “get-rich-quick” mentality of the Gold Rush pioneers who followed them continues to play a role in California even now. The view of the natural world as a place to live, and therefore to care for, has not held its own against the view of nature as something to exploit. We have reached our present dilemma: Now we must balance the need to protect and maintain what is left of California’s once renowned biodiversity against the need to care for the well-being of its human population. Yet protecting nature is no longer merely an option; the survival of humanity depends on the survival of our cohabitants on Earth.

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European Economic and Monetary Union

Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) is a single currency area within the European Union single market in which people, goods, services and capital move without restrictions. It creates the framework for economic growth and stability and is underpinned by an independent central bank and legal obligations on the participating Member States to pursue sound economic policies and to coordinate these policies very closely.As trade between the EU Member States reaches 60% of their total trade, EMU is the natural complement of the single market.

This market will work more efficiently and deliver its benefits more fully with the removal of high transaction costs brought about by currency conversions and the uncertainties linked to exchange rate instability. EMU and the economic performance of the Euro area will have their largest external effects on neighboring economies in western Europe and on developing and transition countries with important trade and financial links to Europe, including countries that link their currencies to the Euro.

Among emerging market economies, those likely to be most affected are the transition countries of the central and Eastern Europe and the Baltics.The global environment has been favorable in a number of respects for the transition to EMU and the achievements of its objectives. The strong demand for euro-area exports from industrial countries at more advanced stages of the business cycle and the depreciation of the currencies of euro area countries over the past four years fostered a strengthening of growth in the euro area and helped to offset the effects of the Asian crisis.

There are also challenges for EMU in the global economic environment:

The crisis in Asia and other emerging market economies could produce adverse spillover effects and make the monetary policy more difficult to carry out.

The continuation of the crisis could result in weakening of the external demand, which, in turn, could dampen confidence and domestic demand.

The financial market volatility could increase the uncertainty in assessing the economic indicators.

The economic crisis in emerging markets could influence the commercial banks in the euro- area to make substantial provisions for non-performing loans.

It is, of course, impossible to predict the properties of the behavior of the exchange value of the Euro. With regard to broad trend, it seems likely that the Euro will tend to appreciate against the U.S. dollar and pound sterling over the next few years, but depreciate against the Japanese yen when Japan”s economic recovery begins.

The United Kingdom and the United States have reached relatively advanced stages of their cyclical upswings, with resources more fully utilized than in the euro area, the Euro”s initial value comparing to the pound and the U.S. dollar can reasonably be considered to be below its medium-term equilibrium. As the economic recovery in Europe proceeds and the growth in the U.K. and U.S. economies slows, the Euro will most likely appreciate against those currencies. On the other hand, Japan economy remains in the critical position. The resumption of moderate growth will lead to a recovery of the yen. Thus Euro is expected to depreciate against the yen over the next few years.

According to some widely made predictions:

Euroland’s capital markets, from equities to corporate bonds to municipal finance, will grow exponentially in coming years as the removal of cross-border currency risk drives pan-European markets.

The Euro will stand alongside the dollar as the second-most-important currency in the

world, reflecting its coming role in global trade and finance as well as its common usage by 290 million Euroland citizens.

The new central bank has been given the independence to pursue price stability as a

primary objective. This feature will affect the credibility of the ECB positively and thus the investors would see the Euro as a stable store of value in the next decade.

Once the single currency takes effect, the national central banks of the euro area will

reduce their international reserve holdings. Trade within the euro area will be denominated in a single currency and will no longer need to be backed by international reserves. Estimates of the EMU countries” resulting surplus of international reserves range from $50 billion to $230 billion.

The scenarios that are presented in the European Commission Forward Studies Unit”s report regarding the economic situation in Europe towards the year 2010, reflect the possibilities rather fairly. I personally find the report an accurate study containing precise predictions. Out of the five futures for Europe, I think the Scenario No.3 seems the most logical and possible theory to occur.

The reason I chose this particular scenario is because it focuses on the following issues:

Transformation of the public sector

Efforts to include Eastern Europe

Agreements on unemployment issues

Turning hierarchical pyramids on their heads

Although in some countries public administrations such as central, regional and local government have started to make preparations for the introduction of the Euro, in general the evidence is that such organizations have taken few practical steps to prepare for the changeover. The grounds mainly are that they have plenty of time because they operate largely at the ‘retail end of the marketplace’ and that they will need to await the circulation of the new notes and coins. The view of the Federation des Experts Comptables Europeens (FEE) is that this is a risky and potentially costly strategy and that early preparation is essential to reduce both risks and costs. Public administrations therefore ought to be preparing their own management and operations systems now for the changeover to the Euro according to advice issued by FEE.

In the near future, member states would often present the Commission with their convergence programs, which would also assess long term prospects for the public sector. These programs would indicate the durability of deficit cuts in the countries whose public economies have been urgently trimmed to meet Euro conditions. Economic growth and structural reforms to reduce cost pressures on the budget are permanent methods but, for example, special taxes need to be supplemented by corrective measures to ensure permanent

budget discipline. Indeed, the views of member states about the long term public economy could diverge when their euro-eligibility is assessed and the choice of euro members has to be explained to the public.

The European Union is currently being enlarged to include the transition countries of the Baltics and Eastern Europe. The countries that intend to join the union will need to show progress toward meeting the Maastricht criteria. Potential EU members must overcome a number of challenges. They need to progress with privatization and to continue to reduce government involvement in their economy while disassembling monopolies, removing trade restrains and developing flexible labor markets. Six countries-Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Poland and Slovenia-have received favorable opinions from the Commission on their applications. These countries have already made good progress in meeting the guidelines of the treaty.

In this particular scenario No.3, the accession negotiations of the Union with Turkey is mentioned. I personally think without the contributions of the Eastern Europe and the Baltics the future objectives of the Euro and the European Union can not be accomplished. Especially the future admission of Turkey to the Union is vital regarding the geographical position of this

country, which not only connects Europe to Asia but also, forms a bridge of culture, a common ground between people from different horizons. However the Union still ignores the importance of Turkey”s role in various agreements and settlements made between Europe and Asia which are vital for the future of EU. But in the next decade as it starts to see the big picture, the efforts of the Union to include the Eastern Europe in the game would increase remarkably.

Strong growth will allow further progress in reducing the euro zone’s high jobless rate. Some of the member”s unemployment rate decreased drastically by keeping the game close to the euro zone standards.

Job growth has been spurred by record low interest rates, a result of cuts from high levels to assure euro zone convergence. Low rates are fueling domestic demand, especially consumer spending and construction. Business investment is also gaining. Still, global weakness is depressing exports, and that’s why job growth is expected to slow a bit in the second half. Even as construction, agriculture, and services, especially tourism, post solid growth, manufacturing jobs fell .

The governments plan to cut prices in regulated utilities, likely to be followed by efforts to reform pricing in retail distribution and certain services. Some member countries have a lot of employees who want to work more hours. So automatically a connection is established between the government and the public. In 2010 the governments together with other businesses, local authorities and community associations would continuously try to move the obstacles in the way and make it easier for the unemployed citizens to find a job in a satisfying environment.

“Turning hierarchical pyramids on the heads”. That phase itself made this scenario No.3 look more real than the others. Europe has a long history and the Europeans have lived through more dramatic events than any other culture of the world. It is now time to give the people of Europe something special. Only but only if ” the hierarchical pyramids” are turned on their heads, will the Europeans thoroughly support the EMU and the Euro. Transformation of the public sector, efforts to include Eastern Europe and the efforts on the critical unemployment issue are all a part of the strategy in the new epoch ” Shared Responsibilities”. It is now time that people take the real issue in their hands and get in charge. The times when everything is expected from the governments are over.

For the professional organizations of Europe the launch of the Euro presents an important organizational and even philosophical challenge. By bringing down barriers to cross-border trade, the Euro makes a pan-European perspective crucial for efficient and effective operations. Many companies are, therefore, focusing on changing their culture, not their organizational structure. To be successful, Europeans will no longer be able to look at themselves as operating with complete autonomy; rather, they will have to see themselves as operating within a federation of businesses that, while independent, share common responsibilities.

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Decline of Education and the Rise of Mediocrity

According to “A Nation at Risk”, the American education system has declined due to a “rising tide of mediocrity” in our schools. States such as New York have responded to the findings and recommendations of the report by implementing such strategies as the “Regents Action Plan” and the “New Compact for Learning”. In the early 1980″s, President Regan ordered a national commission to study our education system.

The findings of this commission were that, compared with other industrialized nations, our education system is grossly inadequate in meeting the standards of education that many other countries have developed. At one time, America was the world leader in technology, service, and industry, but overconfidence based on a historical belief in our superiority has caused our nation to fall behind the rapidly growing competitive market in the world with regard to education.

The report in some respects is an unfair comparison of our education system, which does not have a national standard for goals, curriculum, or regulations, with other countries that do, but the findings nevertheless reflect the need for change. Our education system at this time is regulated by states which implement their own curriculum, set their own goals nd have their own requirements for teacher preparation. Combined with this is the fact that we have lowered our expectations in these areas, thus we are not providing an equal or quality education to all students across the country.

The commission findings generated recommendations to improve the content of education and raise the standards of student achievement, particularly in testing, increase the time spent on education and provide incentives to encourage more individuals to enter the field of education as well as improving N. Y. State responded to these recommendations by first mplementing the Regents Action Plan; an eight year plan designed to raise the standards of education.

This plan changed the requirements for graduation by raising the number of credits needed for graduation, raising the number of required core curriculum classes such as social studies, and introduced technology and computer science. The plan also introduced the Regents Minimum Competency Tests, which requires a student to pass tests in five major categories; math, science, reading, writing, and two areas of social studies.

Although the plan achieved many of its goals in raising standards of education in N. Y. State, the general consensus is that we need to continue to improve our education system rather than being satisfied with the achievements Therefore, N. Y. adopted “The New Compact for Learning”. This plan is based on the principles that all children can learn. The focus of education should be on results and teachers should aim for mastery, not minimum competency. Education should be provided for all children and authority with accountability should be given to educators and success should be rewarded with necessary changes being made to reduce failures.

This plan calls for curriculum to be devised n order to meet the needs of students so that they will be fully functional in society upon graduation, rather than just being able to graduate. Districts within the state have been given the authority to devise their own curriculum, but are held accountable by the state so that each district meets the states goals that have been established. Teachers are encouraged to challenge students to reach their full potential, rather than minimum competency.

In this regard, tracking of students is being eliminated so that all students will be challenged, rather than just those who are gifted. Similarly, success hould be rewarded with recognition and incentives to further encourage progress for districts, teachers and students while others who are not as accomplished are provided remedial training or resources in order to help them achieve success. It is difficult to determine whether our country on the whole has responded to the concerns that “A Nation at Risk” presented.

Clearly though, N. Y. State has taken measures over the last ten years to improve its own education system. In many respects the state has accomplished much of what it set out to do, but the need to continue to improve is still present. Certainly, if America is determined to regain its superiority in the world, education, the foundation of our future, needs to be priority number one. Teachers often develop academic expectations of students based on characteristics that are unrelated to academic progress.

These expectations can affect the way educators present themselves toward the student, causing an alteration in the way our students learn, and thus causing an overall degeneration in the potential Expectations affect students in many ways, not just academically, but in the form of mental and social deprivation which causes a lack of self-esteem. When educators receive information about students, mostly even before the student walks into their classroom, from past test scores, IEP”s, and past teachers, it tends to alter the way we look at the students potential for growth.

This foundation of expectation is then transformed on to our method of One basic fallout from these expectations is the amount of time educators spend in communicating with students. We tend to speak more directly to students who excel, talking in more matures tone of voice, treating them more like a grown-up than we do to the students who are already labeled underachievers. This can give the student an added incentive to either progress or regress due to the amount of As educators we tend to take the exceptional students “under our wing”.

We tend to offer knowledge in situations to help push the good students, in comparison to moving on to the next task for the others. We also tend to critique the work of our god students more positively than the others, offering challenges to the answers they The most obvious characteristic that educators present to the students is in the area of body language and facial expression. We tend to present ourselves in a more professional manner to our good tudents, speaking more clearly and with a stronger tone of voice. We tend to stand more upright, in a more powerful stance, than to the slouching effect we give to the underachievers.

The head shakes, glancing with our eyes, hand gestures, and posture all contribute to the way we look at certain students based on our first impressions which came before we even knew the student. One major way we can avoid these pitfalls and eliminate unfair expectations that help produce failure in our students is to restrict the past information on the students to a need to know basis. Instead f telling the teacher how the student did on past examinations, just present them with the curricula that the student must learn during the time they spend in that class.

This enables the educator to formulate their own opinions of that student. Also, instead of doing the IEP meetings during the middle of the year, we should wait till the end of the semester to inform the educators of certain aspects of the student instead of giving them all the information earlier in the year. Finally, it is up to the educator himself to evaluate their own teaching methods to be able to recognize, and change, the way they resent themselves to the entire class. To be able to know what we are doing, and how we are doing it, at different times in the day is crucial to the aura we present to the students.

Schools are often blamed for the ills of society, yet society has a major impact on our education system. The problems that schools are facing today are certainly connected to the problems that are society faces, including drugs, violence, and the changing of our family structure. There are many methods that schools have begun to use in order to deal with the problems they are faced with and still offer the best possible education to our youth. The use of drugs in the general population has become a very serious problem in society and within the school system.

There are two aspects to drug use that teachers are having to deal with now. The first is in trying to teach the new generation of crack babies that are now entering the schools. These students have extremely low attention spans and can be very disruptive in class. Early intervention programs designed to target these children and focus on behavior management within the school setting have been effective in preparing these students for school. Educators have also identified rug use among students as one of the most significant problems that our schools face today.

According to the text, the rate of drug use among students has declined in last few years, but recently there has been an increase in alcohol abuse among teenagers. Intervention programs such as APPLE, (a school based rehabilitation facility) have been implemented in many schools with the cooperation of school counselors and community agencies to treat drug using teenagers. Other programs, such as D. A. R. E have been implemented in many elementary schools to provide education about drugs to young students. Violence, both in society and in the school system has also been identified as a serious problem.

The influx of weapons in schools creates a dangerous situation for teachers, administrators and other students. One remedy for this problem has been introduced in many public city schools; the use of metal detectors. While this method is not foolproof it does send the message that violence will not be tolerated in schools and that severe measures will be implemented in order to curb it. Educators are also being trained to identify those students who may be violent and to provide non-violent risis intervention.

It is an undeniable fact that our society has a serious problem concerning violence and that the violence on the streets is certainly connected to the violence in the schools. It seems questionable that even these measures will significantly reduce the problem in schools, but certainly the process of teaching can continue in a less stressful atmosphere by having these measures in Unfortunately, there are other problems such as the changing family structure that do not have such clear cut solutions.

Some of the problems that teachers are faced with concerning the family nclude poverty, single parent homes, abuse and/or neglect and Statistics state that 41% of single, female headed households live below the poverty level and that students who live in single parent homes score lower on achievement tests, particularly boys whose mothers are the head of the household.

Obviously, single parent families are a fact in our society today, given the rising rate of divorce and single women having children, and it is true that this change is having a severe effect on students today, but this should not effect the quality of education that is provided, but rather, ncourage educators to be more aware of the difficulties these students face in order to adapt their teaching style, as well as the Similarly, child abuse and/or neglect has become a major issue in society and schools.

It is not clear whether there is a rise in the occurrences of abuse or whether better awareness has increased the statistics, but it cannot be argued that this a significant problem and one that effects those educators who have to help students who are either abused or neglected. Strict regulations concerning the accountability of teachers regarding the reporting of child abuse or eglect are in effect. Teachers are required to be trained on the ability to identify abuse.

Community agencies, shelters and child welfare agencies have begun working in conjunction with schools in order to deal with the problem with as little disruption in the Homelessness is another major problem in our society. The rate of homeless people has grown significantly since the early 1980″s deinstitutionalization movement and more recently due to the rising unemployment rate have led to more families and children being homeless than ever before. This social problem has become a significant problem for educators.

Low achievement, which may be in part due to low attendance as a result of a transient lifestyle, physical problems associated with living on the streets and child abuse are all issues that educators are confronted with when working with students who are homeless. Unfortunately, because of the lack of government funds, this problem continues to grow in America. On the other hand, schools have begun to deal with this problem by hiring additional counselors, some who work specifically to coordinate service with shelters in order provide assistance to these families and more precisely to the children.

This effort clearly demonstrates that educators are genuinely concerned about providing education to Clearly our schools and society face the same problems. It has become necessary for all people, not just educators, to be more aware of the problems. Although some intervention programs have been implemented and in some cases are very successful, it is becoming more apparent that these problems are going to continue and will have a direct consequence on our future in this country. Unfortunately, we as a society tend to look for the “quick fix” to our problems without realizing the consequences for the future.

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The Yankee Stadium’s History

Any discussion of the history of New York City without a history of the New York Yankees would be like describing Pavarotti without mentioning his voice. And any discussion of the Yankees without including Yankee Stadium would be farcical. And when you get right down to the nitty-gritty of historical realities encompassing the Yankees and Yankee Stadium you have to include Babe Ruth. The Babe, the “Bambino,” the “Sultan of Swat,” was the reason the Yankees built Yankee Stadium, and that is why they call it “The House That Ruth Built.”

The Yankees are beyond any reasonable doubt the premier team in Major League Baseball. They have been in the World Series 39 times since the American League was fashioned in 1900 – and they have won 26 of them. The teams tied for second most World Series Championships are the Cardinals and Athletics with 9.

The Yankees have been in New York since 1903; previously they were in Baltimore known as the Baltimore Orioles. They started out in New York as the Highlanders, playing at Hilltop Park (today, the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center sits where Hilltop Park was located). They played in the Polo Grounds (sharing it with its home team, the National League New York Giants) from 1913 to 1920.

The Yankees became popularly known as the “Yankees” around 1904; and when the New York Herald reported on April 15, 1906, “Yankees win opening game from Boston, 2-1,” it was more or less official they were no longer the Highlanders.

Meanwhile, tracing the origins of Yankee Stadium properly includes a brief recounting of how Babe Ruth got to the Yankees; he was the spark that lit the fire that put Yankee Stadium in the Bronx. By 1919, a strong rivalry had existed between the Boston Red Sox and the Yankees for several years. A young Boston pitcher who was also an unbelievable slugger, Babe Ruth, hammered the Yankees on many occasions, including Opening Day at the Polo Grounds on April 23, 1919. According to The New York Times (4/24/1919), “Babe Ruth won the game for the Red Sox in the first inning when, with Jack Berry on first base, he slammed out a lucky home run…” Final score, Red Sox 10, Yanks 0.

There had been some doubt as to whether the phenomenal Ruth would even play for Boston in 1919; Ruth had been a hold-out in the spring, following a sensational season as a pitcher and slugger, and a magnificent World Series for Boston in 1918, in which he won two games (hurling 13 scoreless innings in one game) and gave Boston power at the plate. It was to be Boston’s last World Series victory until 2004. In the spring of 1919, Ruth was holding out for $15,000 a year, according to a New York Times story (3/19/1919): “Ruth…wants $15,000 for one year or will sign a contract calling for $10,000 a year for three years.”

The headline in The New York Times on December 27, 1919 read, “Ruth Talks Of Retiring”; the story said Ruth is “‘through with major league baseball’ unless the management of the Boston American league Club is prepared to meet his demand for $20,000 a year.”

The New York Times reported on March 22, 1919, that “Babe Ruth Finally Signs with Boston,” for a reported $27,000 for three years. Boston owner Harry H. Frazee’s previous best offer had been $8,500, the Times reported. Contrasted with today’s dollar value $27,000 would be worth around $540,000; and even though $27,000 doesn’t sound like much compared to the $2.5 million original cost of building Yankee Stadium – or to the salaries today’s players draw. (To wit, Derek Jeter’s 2003 salary was around $15,000,000; he came to the plate 482 times; do the math and see Jeter earned around $30,000 per at-bat).

But to the average New Yorker in 1920, Ruth’s salary was a huge quantity of money. Hundreds of thousands of American boys were fighting in Europe in WWI (thousands of them dying), and 650,000 Americans had died recently due the influenza epidemic. Times were rough, to say the least.

Meantime, after Ruth clubbed 29 homers in 1919, an October 12th Times article hailed him as the “mastodonic mauler”; New York obviously was in awe of this superstar. And then, to the great surprise of Gotham, the one of the biggest sports events of the century hit the headlines of The New York Times with the clout of a Ruthian grand slam (1/6/1920): “Ruth Bought by New York Americans For $125,000, Highest Price in Baseball Annals.”

The story reported that Ruth’s acquisition gave the Yankees “the hard-hitting outfielder long desired.” After coming to terms with the Yankees, for $40,000 on a two-year deal, the Yankee owner Colonel Jacob Ruppert soon took out a $150,000 insurance policy on the Babe, unprecedented at that time.

And interestingly exactly one year to the day after the Times story hailing Ruth’s arrival in New York, the Times headline (2/6/1921) rang: “Yankees To Build Stadium In Bronx.” In the article, Yankee owners Colonels Jacob Ruppert and Tillinghast L. Huston announced they had purchased 10 acres “on the east bank of the Harlem River,” between 157th and 101st Streets, from the estate of the late William Waldorf Astor.

“On this terrain there will be erected a huge stadium, which will surpass in seating capacity any structure hitherto built for the accommodation of lovers of baseball,” the Times’ article continued, in typical dramatic style, albeit there was no byline so the author was unknown.

Excavation was to begin “in a few weeks and building will be expedited by every means known to human effort,” the article explained. The Yankees did not announce what they paid for the ten acres, but the Times had it “on good authority” the tab was $500,000, and the estimated cost of the projected stadium was $2 million. The “running time from Forth-second Street by subway is only about 16 minutes,” the story continued, and by “elevated train it will take about 2 minutes more to reach the Yankee’s stadium than is necessary to get to the Polo Grounds.”

The process of street-closings “will offer no obstacles,” the Times explained; and the stadium was projected to be “triple-decked,” which was made necessary “by the expectation of even greater patronage than that of the last season.” The obvious reference was to the fact that Babe Ruth is not only the greatest home run hitter in the game, but he was the biggest box office draw in all entertainment venues at that time. Prior to the decision to build the stadium on its present site, the Times (2/6/1921) reported that “until a few days” prior to February 5, 1921, Yankee owners “were inclined to favor the site of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum, between 136th and 138th streets, near Broadway.”

The stadium was to hold 75,000 fans eventually, though at first it would only hold 50,000 (5,000 of them bleacher benches); yet “when the cost of building materials becomes more nearly normal,” the Times explained, the capacity will be increased to the higher figure. This “massive and most attractive structure has been designed to adorn the new playing field of Babe Ruth and his pals,” the story went on. “Concrete and steel of the finest quality available will be used…”

Before any building could begin, and before contractors were to be hired to do the building, the approval from City Hall had to be obtained. And while New York City Mayor John F. Hylan first hedged on the decision for the city to “release its interest in the bed of Cromwell Avenue” in the Bronx, which ran directly through the site, he eventually signed off on the deal. However, the sub-headline on March 18, 1923, in the Times badgered the mayor a bit by shouting that “Mayor Hylan Holds Up Decision on closing of Street Running Through Site.”

“I am not going to put my signature on the official document,” the mayor said in the Times, “until I find out whether everything is regular.” The “Sinking Fund Commission” had already signed off on the street’s demolishment, and worried that the mayor’s delay “might prevent the Yankees from playing in their new stadium in 1923,” the article indicated.

Meantime, within a couple weeks, the mayor did sign off on the closing of two streets, which “came as a personal triumph for colonel Jacob Ruppert, President of the Yankees, who had labored for more than a year to obtain the necessary permission for the closing of the streets,” the Times reported in late March, 1922. [Note: the dates on the New York Times’ archival documents do not always reflect the precise date of publication.] Not only did New York political bureaucracies have to be hurdled by Ruppert, the Astor family lived in England, and since it was their property that was the site used for the stadium, their consent was imperative.

After official approval, the Times’ headline “Yankees Call For Bids on Stadium” had a little editorial slant in the sub-headline, “If Contractor Are Rational In Prices Work Will Begin at Earliest Possible Date.” The date on this article can’t be correct (it is 1/4/1922), so it must have been in late February. “Excavation, grading, masonry, sewers and downspouts, reinforced concrete, lathing and plastering, ornamental metal work, tile work, terrazzo floors, carpentry, toilets, roofing, sheet metal, steel sash, painting and wood bleachers” all went out to bid, the Times reported.

And it did seem like there was a limited amount of capital available for the huge project, because the newspaper article mentioned that bids “for the steel work have already been obtained,” and “they were fairly satisfactory…ranging from much below the prices of a year or two ago, but rather higher than had been hoped by the men who have to put up the money for this project.” The colonel did not plan to “get what they considered the worst of it financially” in case the bids “proved to be beyond the bounds of reason,” the story explained. Ground was to be broken around the first of March.

The White Construction Company of 95 Madison Avenue was selected as contractor of the stadium, the Times reported shortly after receiving city permission to go ahead. Work was to begin “on what will be the greatest baseball plant in the world” within a week, and the Osborn Engineering Company of Cleveland was chosen as overseer of general construction; the stadium was projected to be completed by September first, at that time. The number of seats available for fans, which had changed several times, in this article (“Yanks Pick Firm To Build Stadium”) it was listed at 60,000. A “double shift of workmen” will be employed, and the Osborn company predicted in the Times that “it will smash all records in the matter of speed.”

The actual construction of the stadium of course received a great deal of coverage in The New York Times. One story (4/1/1923) – headlined, “Yanks’ Stadium Big Engineering Task,” pointed to the massive construction effort being put forth, in order to meet an incredibly tight deadline, and listed the materials that would go into the stadium.

To wit: Thirty-thousand yards of concrete (from 45,000 barrels of cement, 30,000 yards of gravel and 15,000 yards of sand); 2,500 tons of structural steel and 1,000 tons of reinforced steel; 2 million board feet of lumber for bleachers and forms; 600,000 “linear feet” of lumber for the grandstand seats; 4 miles of pipe for railings in box seats, reserved seats and bleachers; 500 tons of iron for stadium seats; and about 500 workmen were brought in to put it all together.

In a story in the archival Times dated May 4, the cost of the stadium changed again, this time to $3 million, and the attendance capacity became 85,000. But all the inconsistencies notwithstanding, the Times’ story with the most pizzazz of all the archival coverage of Yankee Stadium was published April 19, 1923: “74,200 See Yankees Open New Stadium; Ruth Hits Home Run.” While 25,000 were turned away from the sold-out house, those in attendance were treated to this: “In the third inning, with two teammates on the base lines, Babe Ruth smashed a savage home run into the right field bleachers.” This shot by Ruth was made all the more dramatic because he had been quoted as saying he would give “a year of my life” to smack a round-tripper on opening day in the new stadium.

The 74,200 attendance figure that was reported by the stadium was, Times’ readers learned on the 20th, “merely an estimate” by Yankees business manager Edward Barrow. In fact, only around 52,000 paid to see the game, plus several thousand were admitted with passes. But the Times – obviously feeling somewhat duped – reported that the 74,200 figures “were accepted without question and were published in hundreds of newspapers in this country and in various places around the world.”

In addition to baseball, many sporting events have taken place in Yankee Stadium over the years, including: boxing matches with stars like Jack Dempsey (Muhammad Ali defeated Ken Norton on July 24, 1923); indeed over 30 championship fights have taken place at the stadium, according to the Yankees’ Web site; NFL games with the New York football Giants between 1956 and 1973; Army-Navy football games, religious conventions (including two visits by Popes).

Lights were installed at the stadium in 1946, and in the winter of 1966-67, the stadium got a $1.5 million update, consisting mostly of fresh paint. Starting in 1973, the stadium was torn down almost totally, and rebuilt; during that period, the Yankees moved to Shea Stadium for two seasons. The stadium has been the playground for American sporting icons like Joe DiMaggio, Lou Gehrig, Mickey Mantle, Roger Maris, Reggie Jackson, and many more.

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Fiber Optic Technology Used in US Airforce

The optic fiber owed its origin to the development of optical voice transmission system known a photophone by Alexander Graham Bell during the year 1880. The photophone applying free space light could carry the human voice 200 meters. The fiber optical technology has a significant progress during the second half of the twentieth century. The initial success in this regard occurs during the 1950s with the development of fiberscope, an image transmitting device.

This used first practical all-glass fiber and concurrently devised by Brian O’ Brien at the American Optical Company and Narinder Kapany, who first devised the terminology ‘fiber optics’ in 1956 and colleagues at the Imperial College of Science and Technology in London. The fiberscope soon applied in the inspecting welds inside reactor vessels and combustion chambers of jet aircraft engines as well as in the medical field.

The Fiberscope technology has evolved over the period of time to facilitate laparoscopic surgery considered as one of the great medical advance of the twentieth century. The development of laser technology was considered as the next significant application of fiber optics. The laser diode — LD or the light-emitting diode — LED, had the prospective to evolve large amounts of light in a spot tiny enough to be applied for fiber optics. (A brief history of Fiber Optic Technology) Gordon Gould fostered the idea of applying lasers, describing it as an intense light source.

Soon after, Charles Townes and Arthus Schawlow at Bell Laboratories worked on use of the laser in scientific circles. The laser evolved through many generations in terms of ruby laser and the helium-neon laser in 1960 until the realization of semiconductor lasers in 1962. The higher modulation frequency capability of the lasers attracted the scientists to apply this in the filed of communication engineering. Light is realized to have an information carrying capacity of 10,000 times that of the highest radio frequencies being applied.

The US military responded rapidly to apply fiber optics for improved communications and tactical systems. The US navy in the early 1970s established a fiber optic telephone link aboard the USS Little Rock. The Air Force developed its Airborne Light Optical Fiber Technology — ALOFT program in the year 1976. Such initial successes encouraged military R & D funding for development of stronger fiber, tactical cables, ruggedized, high performance components and several demonstrations starting from aircraft to undersea applications.

After the installation of fiber optic telephone system in Chicago and Boston by both AT & T and GTE marked the beginning of commercial application of Fiber optics. (A brief history of Fiber Optic Technology) Presently, the application of fiber optic technology including wave division multiplexing fiber optics is increasingly prevalent in commercial aircraft and satellite systems with the growth of many commercial suppliers. Now the 10 gigabit fiber optic Ethernet in the sphere of many systems and also in aircraft avionic systems is more prevalent.

Moreover, the Fiber Channel and Firewire systems also widely applied in aircraft systems presently. However, such systems are not sufficiently strong and do not quickly respond to deterministic real time necessities like 1553B and ARINC 429 and do not deal with multiple level of security. To cater to such needs, system architectures particularly are a combination of copper and fiber with redundancies for robustness or replication for various security levels/enclaves. (Multi-Level Secure High-Speed Fiber-Optic Data Bus)

A single optical fiber spread through out an aircraft in terms of ring architecture topology is seen have the prospective of meeting all the present and future bandwidth requirements, entailing solutions to different security level requirements, decline redundancies; accommodate all essential legacy and future protocol and timing necessities; being capable of maintenance over the life of the host platform, and significantly decrease weight power, cooling, electromagnetic interference/electromagnetic compatibility shielding and other confinements of prevailing remedies.

This anticipates more efforts in applying the prevailing technology and constructing the integration elements for example, protocol adapters to generate a fiber-optic system backbone appropriate for present and future aircraft systems with low-cost, open and commercially available technology. (Multi-Level Secure High-Speed Fiber-Optic Data Bus)

The next generation digital flight data recording system created by Raytheon Company, the Distributed Flight Data Acquisition Unit — DFDAU system depends primarily on fiber optic technology and remote sensors to gather and record quite considerable amounts of critical flight data on passenger aircraft. The application of technology will permit airliners to cater to the new Federal Aviation Administration regulations that necessitate digital flight data recorders to gather substantially more information than was earlier necessitated.

The new regulations necessitate new aircrafts to have flight data recorders capable to monitoring up to 57 flight testing, Raytheon anticipates the system to be FAA certified and it will start installing the DFDAU in its Beech 1900D, 19 passenger regional airliner. (Fiber optic networks for flight data recorders) The DFDAU has been designed to entail detailed and accurate recording of pilot actions and aircraft responses during a flight by accumulation of information from multiple channel sensing and regulation modules that are integrated by optical fiber instead of traditional shielded, twisted pair wiring.

Since intelligence can be collected from multiple sources distributed across the aircraft and shared through a single fiber optic cable, application of the system minimizes the cumbersome wiring and provides improved signal fidelity that is immune to electromagnetic interferences and failures in transmission. Additionally, the system can more easily safeguard one flight data recorder without the process of redundant wiring. Such advantage will entail considerable savings for airlines when additional flight data recorders are mandated for other destinations on passenger aircraft.

The DFDAU system is expected to apply distributed processing to translate and route data received from over 160 sources and interfaces located across the aircraft. The system is devised to translate the data into an industry standard open protocol -SAE AS-5370- and then thereafter route the data to the 1900D’s digital flight data recorder by applying a fault tolerant fiber optic network. The DFDAU system involves seven identical DFDAUs linked by fiber on the 1900D.

Each DFDAU is able to capture physical parameters up to 32 sources like engine sensors, navigation, traffic collision avoidance system, gyros, position and force sensors along with the warning, deicing and other important systems, cockpit controls, autopilot, flight instruments, altitude and the Global positioning system, flight control surface position sensors. (Fiber optic networks for flight data recorders) Practically, the aerospace platforms universally have the capacity to take advantage of the distributed fiber optic sensors that could be applied in varied range of parameters.

The military and commercial aircrafts presents bewildering maintenance costs presently soaring to tens of billions dollars in annual terms. The diagnostic system necessitates the system that can make way for the performance and the maintenance to be performed when required. This would permit improved levels of safety by insuring that essential tasks are being performed while reducing the amount of costs by eliminating the expensive and unnecessary amounts of procedures.

Additional enhancement in safety and performance can be generated by integrating such systems into control systems to improve over that of flight control and assessment of in-flight damage. The applications of test beds to demonstrate the usage of distributed fiber sensor systems are seen in terms of reusable launch vehicle development programs which are advanced. (Fiber Optic Distributed Sensing Systems for Harsh Aerospace Environments) Delta Clipper is one such application that had a system of fiber gathering based strain sensors integrated into its hydrogen fuel tank.

This system at the beginning operated as backup to a set of electrical strain gages to represent new technology. Practically, some of the program managers were very doubtful regarding its usage. By the end of the program the intention had varied from the ‘why to apply optic grating based strain sensors while we are having electrical ones on board’ to the ‘lets scrap the electrical strain gages that perform poorly and only use the fiber optic grating strain gages’. (Fiber Optic Distributed Sensing Systems for Harsh Aerospace Environments)

The advantages of this is seen in the possibility that the Fiber optic grating strain sensors can conveniently be grouped directly into a composite hydrogen tank becoming an important aspect of the structure, they do not fall when vibration and shock attacks; the fiber optic grating strain gages do not perform as an electrical hazard, they are light weight, superior in terms of environmental aspects, easy to install and can be multiplied in numbers through a single fiber line.

Since fiber sensors persistently applied and proven in such advanced systems, the persistent decline in cost as a result of advances in the telecommunication and optoelectronic industries will continue to provide more cost effective types of applications for the purpose of military transports, military fighters, and commercial aviation. (Fiber Optic Distributed Sensing Systems for Harsh Aerospace Environments) The in-Flight Entertainment has attained a high level of sophistication with the inception of a high bandwidth system by Rockwell Collins, Cedar Rapids, IA known as Passport.

The system facilitates varied passenger amenities and also the Internet access. The system involves a fiber optic structure, associated with expanded-beam fiber-optic interconnects, an ATM switch and a downstream copper distribution system. The system servers originate optical digital signals and travel on the fiber structure. In its path downstream it converts to a Fire Wire distribution network that provides the signals to electronics boxes at individual passenger seats. The system incorporates the fiber-optic expanded beam interconnection technology from Tyco Electronics, Harrisburg, PA.

Such connectors provide high dependability in extreme circumstances entailing thermal, vibration and mechanical stability for reliable transition of the light beams from one fiber to another. Other developments over a copper based system incorporate freedom from electromagnetic interference and crosstalk. (Fiber Optics Lift Aircraft Video-on-Demand Systems) The fiber system also declines considerably the weight and provides non-sparking contacts. The expanded beam technology safeguards and seals each fiber faces and ferrule behind a spherical lens instead of butting two fiber ends together.

Such interconnection entails a precision coupling of fiber-optic signals without having physical contact at the fiber-to-fiber interfaces. The connectors modular format simplifies manufacturing, making it to be competitive in economic terms with traditional interconnect technologies. The blind-mating is facilitated by the precision alignment pins; those which are quite integral to the connector. The Passport has already functioned successfully without flaws for a year in commercial aircraft and the technology has surpassed to military aircraft for in-flight networks.

Tyco also works towards the expansion of beam fiber optic connector technology to discover its wide application in the rugged industrial usages. Such new fiber optic connectors also cater to the avionics standard ARINC 628 for IFE systems. (Fiber Optics Lift Aircraft Video-on-Demand Systems) The fiber optic technology being developed by NASA Dryden Flight Research Center — DFRC, Edwards, California appears to be an integral element of future aircraft system in the development programs for fighter aircraft, and new large transport aircraft, and have considered fiber optic technology as an important part of future aircraft systems.

The traditional fly-by-wire system configurations sometimes necessitate unique interfaces for each fight control surface actuator that results in a large amount of wiring. The Fiber optics has been regarded as aerospace vehicle application due to its high bandwidth capability, immunity to electromagnetic interference — EMI, and considerable weight savings. This technology has been applied in a new smart actuator as the primary communication interface. The application of fiber optics makes easier system integration and considerably decreased the wire count.

The flight test outcomes revealed that fiber optics could be conveniently being applied in aircraft systems and identified critical areas of development of fly-by-light technology. The smart actuator flight test program has demonstrated the possibility of fault monitoring, in-flight local control and redundancy management of surface actuator. (Zavala, Eddie. Fiber Optic Experience with the Smart Actuation System on the F-18 Systems Research Aircraft Eddie Zavala Dryden Flight Research Center Edwards, California)

As the flight test reveals the presentation of the smart actuator was exceptional and compared very well to that of the standard F-18 aileron actuator. Irrespective of the fact that the serial interface of the smart actuator could have been traditional forms of electrical interface, valuable fiber optic experience was being attained via the means of application of 1773 communication links. The system integration becomes more effective and simple in terms of bringing about a reduction of both installation time and cable harness weight considerably.

The fiber optic interface, however, complicated the system of integration tests. The smart actuator program brought out the significant areas of development for the general application of fiber optics in aerospace vehicle systems. Such critical areas apply to a broad range of fiber optic applications and will thereby influence the system of operation and reliability unless specific attention and considerable progress is being made. (Zavala, Eddie. Fiber Optic Experience with the Smart Actuation System on the F-18 Systems Research Aircraft Eddie Zavala Dryden Flight Research Center Edwards, California)

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Feminism And Gender Equality In The 1990’s

Overall, the rights and status of women have improved considerably in the last century; however, gender equality has recently been threatened within the last decade. Blatantly sexist laws and practices are slowly being eliminated while social perceptions of “women’s roles” continue to stagnate and even degrade back to traditional ideals. It is these social perceptions that challenge the evolution of women as equal on all levels.

In this study, I will argue that subtle and blatant sexism continues to exist throughout educational, economic, Women who carefully follow their expected roles may never ecognize sexism as an oppressive force in their life. I find many parallels between women’s experiences in the nineties with Betty Friedan’s, in her essay: The Way We Were – 1949. She dealt with a society that expected women to fulfill certain roles. Those roles completely disregarded the needs of educated and motivated business women and scientific women.

Actually, the subtle message that society gave was that the educated woman was I remember in particular the searing effect on me, who once intended to be a psychologist, of a story in McCall’s in December 1949 called “A Weekend with Daddy. A little girl who lives a lonely life with her mother, divorced, an intellectual know-it-all psychologist, goes to the country to spend a weekend with her father and his new wife, who is wholesome, happy, and a good cook and gardener. And there is love and laughter and growing flowers and hot clams and a gourmet cheese omelet and square dancing, and she doesn’t want to go home.

But, pitying her poor mother typing away all by herself in the lonesome apartment, she keeps her guilty secret that from now on she will be living for the moments when she can escape to that dream home n the country where they know “what life is all about. ” (See I have often consulted my grandparents about their experiences, and I find their historical perspective enlightening. My grandmother was pregnant with her third child in 1949. Her work experience included: interior design and modeling women’s clothes for the Sears catalog.

I asked her to read the Friedan essay and let me know if she felt as moved as I was, and to share with me her experiences of sexism. Her immediate reaction was to point out that “Betty Friedan was a college educated woman and she had certain goals that never interested me. My grandmother, though growing up during a time when women had few social rights, said she didn’t experience oppressive sexism in her life. However, when she describes her life accomplishments, I feel she has spent most of her life fulfilling the expected roles of women instead of pursuing goals that were mostly reserved for men.

Unknowingly, her life was controlled by traditional, sexist values prevalent in her time and still prevalent in the nineties. Twenty-four years after the above article from McCall’s magazine was written, the Supreme Court decided whether women should have a right to an abortion in Roe v. Wade (410 U. S. 113 (1973)). I believe the decision was made in favor of women’s rights mostly because the court made a progressive decision to consider the woman as a human who may be motivated by other things in life than just being a mother.

Justice Blackmun delivered the Maternity, or additional offspring, may force upon the woman a distressful life and future. Psychological harm may be imminent. Mental and physical health may be taxed by child care. There is also a distress, for all concerned, associated with the unwanted child, and there is the problem of bringing a child into a family lready unable, psychologically and otherwise, to care for it. In other cases, as in this one, the additional difficulties and continuing stigma of unwed motherhood may be involved. I feel the court decision of Roe v. Wade would not have been made in 1949.

Even in 1973, it was a progressive decision. The problem of abortion has existed for the entire history of this country (and beyond), but had never been addressed because discussing these issues was not socially acceptable. A culture of not discussing issues that have a profound impact on women is a culture that encourages women to be powerless. The right of abortion became a major issue. Before 1970, about a million abortions were done every year, of which only about ten thousand were legal. Perhaps a third of the women having illegal abortions – mostly poor people – had to be hospitalized for complications.

How many thousands died as a result of these illegal abortions no one really knows. But the illegalization of abortion clearly worked against the poor, for the rich could manage either to have their baby or to have their abortion under A critic of the women’s movement would quickly remind us that omen have a right to decline marriage and sex, and pursue their individual interests. However, I would argue that the social pressure women must endure if they do not conform to their expected role is unfair. The problem goes beyond social conformity and crosses into government intervention (or lack thereof).

The 1980’s saw the pendulum swing against the women’s movement. Violent acts against women who sought abortions became common and the government was unsympathetic to the victims. There are parallels between the Southern Black’s civil rights movement and the women’s movement: Blacks have long been ccustomed to the white government being unsympathetic to violent acts against them. During the civil rights movement, legal action seemed only to come when a white civil rights activist was killed. Women are facing similar disregard presently, and their movement is truly one for civil rights.

A national campaign by the National Organization of Women began on 2 March 1984, demanding that the US Justice Department investigate anti-abortion terrorism. On 1 August federal authorities finally agreed to begin to monitor the violence. However, Federal Bureau of Investigation director, William Webster, declared that he saw no evidence of “terrorism. ” Only on 3 January 1985, in a pro-forma statement, did the President criticize the series of bombings as “violent anarchist acts” but he still refused to term them “terrorism.

Reagan deferred to Moral Majoritarian Jerry Falwell’s subsequent campaign to have fifteen million Americans wear “armbands” on 22 January 1985, “one for every legal abortion” since 1973. Falwell’s anti- abortion outburst epitomized Reaganism’s orientation: “We can no longer passively and quietly wait for the Supreme Court to change their mind or for Congress to pass a law. Extremism on the right was no vice, moderation no virtue.

Or, as Hitler explained in Mein Kamph, “The very first essential for success is a perpetually constant and regular employment of violence. (See This mentality continued on through 1989 during the Webster v. Reproductive Health Services (109 S. Ct. 3040 (1989)) case.

“The Reagan Administration had urged the Supreme Court to use this case as the basis for overturning Roe v. Wade. ” (See Endnote #5) It is disturbing that the slow gains achieved by the women’s movement are so volatile and endangered when conservative dministrations gain a majority in government. To put the problem into perspective: a woman’s right to have an abortion in this country did not come until 1973. Less than two decades later, the president of the United States is pushing to take that right away.

It seems blatant that society is bent on putting women in From the above examples, it appears American culture prefers women as non- professional, non-intellectual, homemakers and mothers. This mentality is not easily resolved, because it is introduced at a young age. Alice Brooks experienced inequality on the basis of her race and her sex. In her autobiography, A Dream Deferred, she recalls the reaction of her father when she brought up the idea of college to him: I found a scholarship for veterans’ children and asked my father to sign and furnish proof that he was a veteran.

He refused and told me that I was only going to get married and have babies. I needed to stay home and help my mother with her kids. My brother needed college to support a family. Not only was I not going to get any help, I was also tagged as selfish because I wanted to go This is another example of women being labeled as selfish for wanting the same opportunities as men. Alice Brooks is a very courageous woman; seemingly able to overcome any oppression she may encounter. During her presentation to our class, she said that “women who succeed in male dominated fields are never mediocre – they are extraordinary achievers.

Her insight encapsulates much of the subtle sexism that exists today. I feel that no one can truly be equal in a society when only the “extraordinary achievers” are allowed to succeed out of their This attitude of rising blatant and subtle attacks on women’s civil rights is further exemplified in recent reactions to affirmative action plans. These plans have been devised to try to give women and minorities an opportunity to participate in traditionally white male dominated areas.

However, we see the same trends in legal action for the use of affirmative action plans as we saw in the 1980’s backlash against the Roe v. Wade decision. A few interesting points were presented in the case, Johnson v. Transportation Agency, Santa Clara (480 U. S. 616 (1987)). Mr. Paul E. Johnson filed suit against the Santa Clara County Transportation Agency when he was denied a promotion, feeling the company’s affirmative action plan denied him of his ivil rights. Some interesting facts were presented in this case: Specifically, 9 of the 10 Para-Professionals and 110 of the 145 Office and Clerical Workers were women.

By contrast, women were only 2 of the 28 Officials and Administrators, 5 of the 58 Professionals, 12 of the 124 Technicians, none of the Skilled Crafts Workers, and 1 – who was Joyce – of the 110 Road Maintenance Workers. (See Endnote # 7) The above statistics show women have been considerably underrepresented at the Santa Clara County Transportation Agency. These numbers are not uncommon and are found throughout business. It is interesting to note the current popular perception is that affirmative action precludes white males from finding employment with companies that implement these plans.

The truth is in the numbers, however. The fact that Mr. Johnson felt he was denied his civil rights because an equally qualified woman was given a promotion, instead of him, is just a small window into the subtle sexism that exists today. Most critics of affirmative action do not consider the grossly unequal numbers of men in management and professional positions. Secondly, it never seems an issue of debate that a woman may have had no other previous life pportunities in these male dominated areas.

I do not intend to argue that affirmative action is good or bad, but only wish to point out that the current backlash against these programs is heavily rooted in sexism and racism. Often blatant violence or unfair acts against a group of people will cause that group to pull together and empower themselves against their oppressors. The women’s movement has made large steps to eliminate many of these blatantly sexist acts in the last century. Now the real difficulty is upon us: subtle acts of sexism and the degrading social roles of women in today’s onservative culture.

Alice Brooks so eloquently described her experiences with inequality, stating, “the worse pain came from those little things people said or did to me. ” As these “little things” accumulate in the experience of a young woman, she increasingly finds herself powerless in her relationships, employment, economics, and society in general. The female child has as many goals as the male child, but statistically she is unable to realize these goals because of the obstacles that society sets in front of her. Society and media attempt to create an illusion that women have every right that men enjoy.

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Economic Growth in Korea

The rapid growth and development in the newly industrialising economies (NIE”s) in recent decades has been nothing short of spectacular. Now among the world”s most dynamic industrialised economies, the NIE”s of Singapore, Taiwan Hong Kong, and South Korea which will be the focus, stand as perhaps the best examples of successful economic development. The economic development of South Korea, which has been among the most rapid in the world is typical of the ‘miracle” that is the NIEs.

Korea has come far since the days it was ‘a nation of hungry rice farmers”, by pursuing an industrialisation-led development commitment since 1961, which has since produced annual GDP growth of 8.4% per annum, second only to China. The success of South Korea, has been identified by a number of factors including the shift away from import substitution strategies towards export orientated industrialisation, and the effective managing of the economy and authoritarian rule adopted by the government in order to accelerate the pace of capital accumulation, technical progress and structural change to produce economic growth beyond what could possibly occur in a free market economy.

NIEs, South Korea, are now recognised as ‘export machines” boasting some of the highest trade/GDP ratios in the world. International economic relations began in 1964 with the recognition of these limitation of the domestic market and the ineffectiveness of pursuing substitution industrialisation strategies. As part of its new strategy for export expansion the South Korean government introduced new measures which included the devaluation of the won, which improved the competitiveness of its exports and introduced incentives designed to channel resources into export-orientated industries.

Exporters were also supported by direct cash payments, permission to retain foreign exchange earnings for the purchase of imports, and the exemption from virtually all import controls and tariffs. The government in consultation with firms, set up export targets for industries as well as individual firms. These targets appeared to have influenced firm behaviour and supporting this claim was from between 1961 and 1973 the volume of exports increased at an annual rate of 35% and today continues to consistently rank in the top twenty trading nations.

Over the last 30 years the share of manufactures in total exports has increased from 12% to 95%. Furthermore the manufactures exported have themselves changed with more advanced products, led by electronics dominating the list of major exports and hence the importance of the Samsung and Lucky Goldstar to the Korean economy. The direction of trade has also changed somewhat, where South Korean exports went largely to the USA and imports came from Japan, Asian countries excluding Japan are now South Korea”s major trading partners. The importance of China is also becoming of increasing significance.

South Korea”s economic success as noted can also be contributed to the high levels of savings and investment. South Korean”s save about 35% of GNP and thus sustainable economic growth has been driven by capital stock accumulation and expanded productive capacity. Indeed some figures show up to 60% of economic expansion in South Korea is a result of capital accumulation and increase infrastructure.

Undoubtedly one of the most important rationalisations for economic success is effective government intervention. Selective government intervention has promoted the development of new industries, many of which have become internationally competitive and also supported and advanced the growth of the private sector. The main aim of the government in South Korea has been to ensure that the behaviour of individual business accorded with the long term interest of the business class as a whole, and while applying authoritarian rule recognising when it was time to allow the market to operate on its own. Apart from the macroeconomic management, government in the NIEs have also sought to accelerate the pace of capital accumulation, technical progress and structural change beyond what would have resulted from “laissez-faire.”

All NIEs pursued trade policies, supporting industrial deepening and the development of national firms with selective incentives to promote exports. In South Korea for example, the government gave Chaebols preferential access to bank loans, relying on them to develop heavy and chemical industries capable of competing internationally. Indeed four decades of industrial development in

South Korea have been marked by what have been marked as ‘incestuous ties” between big business and government. In recent times government has been hostile to the conglomerates but the appointment of Mr Kim Suk Won to the ruling party has reopened an old wound over the role of big business and politics in South Korea.

The role of the Chaebols in the Korean economy was a substantial reason for Korea”s success over the last 40 years. The Chaebols are the large multi-company family owned business entities which are both horizontally and vertically integrated. Examples include Samsung, Hyundai, Lucky Goldstar and Daewoo, which together account for over half the total output. The Chaebols have played a major role in the economic development of Korea. They were given preferential access to bank loans and were relied upon to develop the HCIs (as they had the resources and ability to compete in foreign markets). Indeed, the period of the HCIs drive marked the most rapid expansion of the Chaebols.

The Chaebols engaged in fierce and even ruthless competition with one another on the many fronts of industry, with at least 4 or 5 competitors in each industry, which all contributed to the economic expansion of the economy.

The government in South Korea, as well as other NIEs has supported a technology policy. By providing a favourable tax environment, government has indirectly encouraged business research and development expenditure. The Korean government for example grants a tax credit equal to 10% of capital expenditures. Current policies are aimed at achieving a 5% share of research and development expenditure in total GNP by 2001. The government has also aided fundamental technological development in advanced materials, advanced vehicle technology, bio materials and nuclear reactors.

The role of the government in South Korea was also to provide these financial incentives to promote the development of particular industries. Interest Rates for example were kept generally low and stable in order to reduce the cost of investment. Designated industries received priority in allocation of bank credit, state investment funds and foreign exchange, The government in South Korea deliberately distorted prices and incentives as to improve the market outcome and accelerate economic growth.

The government in South Korea also actively pursued competition policies. This intervention works both ways. In other words competition policy restricted the competition or promoted competition policy in the areas depending on the circumstances. In South Korea the government granted exemptions to conglomerates from laws governing monopolistic practices. Competition policy has been married with industry policy. In this the role of government has been limited with government policy interacting with the competitive strategies of private firms.

Governments in the NIEs have been remarkably stable. This has had obvious benefits on the economy. There is no standard formula for government in the NIEs and there are differences between them across nations. Singapore for example has a paternalistic government whilst Hong Kong is essentially “laissez-faire” Stability is the only real link between governments of the NIEs.

As the South Korean economy reached a more mature stage of economic growth problems regarding the structural change in the economy began to surface. The agricultural sector in South Korea for example is now only a third of its original size. Most notably there has been a marked shift to the tertiary sector. There has been obvious problems and challenges resulting from this.

Most notably rapid growth has brought about labour shortages in key sectors such as electronics, heavy machinery and shipbuilding. Such shortage of labour in which employers have noone to fill vacancies made by expanded productive capacity will threaten South Korea”s booming exports, which is seen as the vehicle for growth in South Korea. The problem is further compounded by an increasing reluctance among school leavers to ‘dirty their hands” in industry and the inability and unwillingness to attract foreign labour.

After growth and development in South Korea for so long was driven by government intervention one of the most important challenges facing the matured economy was for the government to relinquish much of its influence over the economy and to allow market forces to operate effectively. If South Korea is to continue to growing as a truly advanced industrialised nation then obviously the market mechanism will have to be let to operate freely. This will take time and cause and also cause relative social unrest.

As the South Korean economy has reached a mature stage, it has recognised the old regulatory environment that led to high levels of inputs especially in manufacturing sectors but low levels of productivity must change. In manufacturing, Korea has massively invested in the best available technology but because of protectionism and poor corporate governance in banks and companies, it was not forced to adopt the best managerial practices. As a result labour and capital productivity are in most manufacturing sectors less that 50% of US levels and thus must be one of the challenges for future success of the Korean economy.

Other challenges that Korea has had to face, continues to face, and must overcome are the consistent current account deficits (CADs) and foreign debt which may put a constraint on South Korea”s future economic performance. South Korea”s economy relies heavily on high exports and thus is susceptible to global fluctuations. Secondly there is a pressing need in South Korea to use imports more efficiently.

Furthermore, the greatest of the challenges Korea has had to face to date was the Asian Financial Crisis of 1997. Up to this point in time many economists looked favorably upon the economic fundamentals of Korea. However, due to excess short term debt over the long term debts, excess debt over equity and the generating of wealth through asset price bubbles, which was clearly unsustainable, these vulnerabilities only required a small shock which was initiated by the devaluation of the Thai baht in July 1997.

As an advanced economy, South Korea now needs far more than simply hard work and determination to succeed in this new century, Companies in South Korea need to keep ahead of the profound social, economic and political transition. It is the inherent need for human capital that drives much of South Korea”s business and government spending. Many would agree that a well educated workforce is paramount to future success.

In the future, South Korea will need to reform its financial sector, remove the burden of excessive business regulation, provide a more favourable environment for foreign investment and restructure its economy away from declining manufacturing and agricultural industries towards services and sophisticated manufacturing.

The prospects for continued economic growth hinge on the success of the aforementioned drivers for economic growth. Deregulating services in addition to lowering barriers to imports, allowing FDI (which can reduce the risks of future financial crisis in the medium and long term) and improving corporate governance would be the key to restoring strong growth in Korea. This reduction would come mainly because fair competition with best practice together with more careful bankers and demanding shareholders would force Korean manufacturers to improve their return their return on investments. In an increasingly globalised economy higher productivity in manufacturing and low import barriers would allow domestic competition to increase due to lower prices. Opening the domestic market would not lead to an increase in the trade deficit or external debt as higher capital productivity would reduce the need to import capital.

In overall terms, prospects for South Korea”s economy are favourable, but the high rate of success from the growth performance in the 1980″s will be difficult to replicate. The next phase of the Asian miracle that will involve China emerging as the world”s largest economy within 10 years and the re-emerging Japanese economy will provide substantial benefits for the Korean economy. Some important strengths of the economy include: a well educated and motivated workforce, a growing level of R&D, continued rates of high savings, greater regional trade links and potential for domestic growth through increased infrastructure investment, housing and personal consumption.

In summation, South Korea is an economy which initially through selective government intervention and now through domestic and international reforms, sped to economic might. Although there are many challenges in the longer term making South Korea”s future uncertain, (including the reunification with the ailing, unstable North) the fact South Korea has come so far argues well for the future. If South Korea can make the necessary changes to its economy to become a sustained industrialised nation then it will certainly take its place as an economic leader in the near future.

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George Westinghouse’s Biography

Most people know the name Westinghouse as the name of an appliance, but where did the name come from? Many people may not know that George Westinghouse was not only an inventor, but a visionary. George Westinghouse’s many inventions fed the Industrial Revolution that swept through America in the latter part of the nineteenth century. The Industrial Revolution brought many changes to the United States. Even though America was progressing, many ill effects were brought on by this expansion. Westinghouse was one of the Industrialist that actually cared about the many problems he saw in urban America.

Westinghouse, at the age of forty-two, could no longer ignore “the evils of social upheaval created by too rapid industrial development”(Levine, 2). George Westinghouse wanted something done, but it looked as if he was the only one that would do it. George Westinghouse had influenced many areas of his era and ours. His many inventions, his good-willed policy toward his work! ers and his business practices have affected all of us; but nothing will compare to the influences that he left on our country’s upper-class – the concept that they had a responsibility toward the society that had made them who they were.

George Westinghouse was born eight of ten children into a middle class family on October 6, 1846. Westinghouse’s father ran a small machine shop in Schendectady, NY, that manufactured mostly farm implements; as a result, Westinghouse was introduced to the world of machines at a very early age. Due to curiosities he found during the Civil War, in which he served in both the Northern Army and the Navy, Westinghouse invented a rotary steam engine. At age nineteen, this was his first patented invention; however, the design proved to be impractical.

Despite his troubles, Westinghouse went on to invent a device for placing derailed railroad cars back on their tracks. The next year, Westinghouse was riding on a train that was suddenly brought to a stop to avoid a wrecked train on the tracks ahead. The brakes that were in use on trains around the world at this time were operated manually. Westinghouse knew that there must be a safer and quicker way to stop a train. After observing rock drills, that used compressed air to drill tunnels through mountains, Westinghouse wondered if the use of compressed air could be applied to brakes.

This led to one of Westinghouse’s most famous and most influential inventions ever. Westinghouse did not know it, but he was on his way to changing the course of the nation. However, at age twenty two, his new air brake and he got little attention. “If I understand you, young man, you propose to stop a railroad train with wind. I have no time to listen to such nonsense,” said Commodore Cornelius Vanderbilt, one of the most powerful railroad owners of the time (Compton’s,4). Finally, on a small railroad outside of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Westinghouse was able to try out his new air brake.

On the trial run, the train came to a crossing where a farmer’s wagon had broken down. Upon seeing this, the locomotive’s engineer applied the new braking system. Too everyone’s surprise, the train was jolted to a halt; furthermore, the train was stopped yards in front of the farmer’s wagon. Even though almost everyone did fall out of their seat, this was the beginning of Westinghouse’s influence on the world. Eventually, the Railroad Safety Act of 1893 would “make air brakes compulsory on all U. S. trains”(Britannica, 6). At this point, Westinghouse established the Westinghouse Air Brake Company.

By 1869, already, Westinghouse’s success was almost guaranteed. George Westinghouse’s next frontier was railroad signaling. With the ever increasing use and expansion of railroads, signaling became a major problem. He created a signaling system using compressed air and electricity; thus, the Union Switch and Signal Company was founded in 1882. Indeed, Westinghouse helped the railroads greatly. With his railroad inventions, railroads became safer; accordingly, leading to the instillation of railroad passengers with confidence.

He also created a more profitable operation for the railroads. The bigger profits that were made by the railroad barons, the more they invested and the faster the Industrial Revolution took place. In this fast growing economy, Westinghouse, who was now financially stable, started to tinker with electricity and natural gas. With a well drilled in his yard, Westinghouse developed and marketed a system for the control and distribution of natural gas in Pittsburgh.

Today’s natural gas industry “owes its existence to Mr. Westinghouse”(Shumaker, 4). Using the knowledge gained from his work in natural gas, Westinghouse developed a theory for the distribution of electricity. He imported both a motor and its inventor, Nikola Tesla, from Europe. With the help of Tesla and three American engineers, Westinghouse developed a new electrical transformer that allowed electricity to be carried over long distances; however, Westinghouse’s design used alternating current, while such people as Thomas Edison used and were promoting direct current electricity.

This started the “Battle of the Currents”, as it was called (Corporate, 1). The advocates and financiers, led by Edison, of the DC system immediately tried to discredit Westinghouse’s use of the AC system as soon as his Alternating Current components were made available on the market. These people charged that AC power was a menace to society. As if they did not do enough already to deface Westinghouse, they successfully had the state of New York install a Westinghouse AC generator as the official means of executing death sentences.

These charges were untrue; therefore, they were insufficient in the suppressment of the use of AC power. AC power was given credibility when Westinghouse won the contract to light the Columbian Exposition held in Chicago in 1893. It was said to be a “dazzling spectacle of a quarter of a million lights that stole the show”. Reflecting the “Battle of the currents”, Nikola Tesla later wrote, “George Westinghouse was, in my opinion, the only man on this globe who could take my alternating-current system under the circum! stances then existing and win the battle against prejudice and money power.

He was one of the world’s true noblemen, of whom America may well be proud and to whom humanity owes an immense debt of gratitude” (Corporate, 1) . On January 8, 1886, with a stroke of the Governor of Pennsylvania’s pen, the Westinghouse Electric Company was granted a charter. This company, which would turn out to be the most important of George Westinghouse’s many companies, had two-hundred employees and was located in a rented building in Pittsburgh’s Garrison Alley Section. By this point in his life, Westinghouse had founded a few other companies.

His air brake company had been expanded to France, England and Germany. This idea of a company going world-wide was relatively new. This led a surge of American companies to expand beyond the United States; American influence was being spread around the world. Westinghouse had also founded a machine shop in Pittsburgh in 1881. Westinghouse was very different from most of the other American Industrialist. From the start, Westinghouse was not motivated by money or power. He was motivated by knowing that his inventions and other work would be used to help mankind.

Within two years after the Westinghouse Electric Company was founded, the company had grown from the original two-hundred employees to more than three thousand employees by 1888. By 1890, the Westinghouse Electric Company sales totaled four million dollars; Westinghouse had also installed more than three-hundred electrical generators including Niagara Falls, by this time. Westinghouse’s business practices were very different than the business practices of they day. Westinghouse clearly was not a businessman, yet because of his dreams, he successfully ran his businesses in a way that baffled many businessmen.

From the start, Westinghouse was concerned with the welfare of his employees. His employees were his prime consideration in any business decision. Westinghouse’s workers had a six day, fifty-five hour work week. This work week included five ten hour days, Monday through Friday, and a five hour day on Saturday. It seemed strange to other employers of the time to give employees a half-day on Saturday, but this was part of Westinghouse’s philosophy. Another benefit of working for Westinghouse was the pension plan.

One of the earliest known, Westinghouse provided a pension for each of his workers. The employees of Westinghouse’s businesses also received medical coverage. If an employee fell sick or was injured, he and his family would receive money from the compensation fund to live, and the finest medical services available would be given to the worker. A Veteran Employees Association was formed. Any employee with twenty years or more of service could join. This evolv! ed into the formation of a Grievance Committee made up of three shop men and three management personnel.

The Grievance Committee would form to resolve such issues as the following: working conditions, working methods, and limits of the workers. Westinghouse’s Grievance Committee set the path for labor reform in America. Westinghouse revolutionized the way the American employee worked; hence, Westinghouse was received as the best boss in Pittsburgh. Consequently, he won the resentment of the other employers in Pittsburgh and eventually the country. Westinghouse became famous to every citizen by a means different than his inventions. Westinghouse actually created his own town.

Westinghouse became perplexed with the problems that he saw in Pittsburgh; The town had grew from a small city to a booming industrial mecca-center filled with smoky factories and pollution filled avenues. He watched the people work long hours, many were immigrants and others were Native Americans in search of a decent living; furthermore, they came home at night to horrible run down homes where sickly children played in piles of rubbish and rarely attended school. Crime, disease and alcoholism were becoming the image of the industrial world. Westinghouse knew that it could be better than this.

He knew that all this progress was not for the working class to become illiterate, diseased and delinquent and for the rich to become isolated and forgetful of what they see. George Westinghouse wondered why nobody did anything about it. Politicians ! would not address it, the upper class would not mention it, and the workers were too busy in their rat race to care. Westinghouse decided he must take action. Westinghouse began reading up on the problem. He read of experiments in Denmark and Sweden where model communities where being made by business and government officials.

Westinghouse knew what he would have to do, but it was a very risky move; nevertheless, George had learned not to be frightened off by bold ideas. George Westinghouse contacted a leading architectural firm and told them “I want you to design a factory and surround it with a town,”(Levine, 2). He visioned a town of state-of-the-art factories, a research laboratory, good schools, community centers, a hospital and inexpensive houses for the employees. Running water and electricity would be standard. In 1890, the Westinghouse Air Brake Company was completely moved to the new site, called Wilmerding, Pennsylvania.

The workshops had the “most modern lighting, heating, ventilation and safety facilities,”(Levine, 2). Each house in the town had a complete indoor bathroom, electric lighting, and natural gas out! lets for cooking and heating. The houses had a lawn with grass, shrubbery, and trees. The houses were rented to the workers with an option to buy. For the children, there were the following: schools that were brightly decorated to attract them to stay, a community center with gymnasiums, a library and meeting rooms.

Westinghouse had really out done himself this time thought the whole country; nevertheless, George Westinghouse felt that he had accomplished his greatest achievement, and indeed he had. Westinghouse’s model community sent a silent shock-wave to the upper class society of America. Westinghouse was telling these people that they had a responsibility to society. The age of a two class society was over. The American worker now had rights and had power. It took a decade or two, but Westinghouse’s vision of America as an Industrial power eventually took shape with the help of the labor movement.

Unfortunately, Westinghouse lost control of most of his companies in the financial panic of 1907; this was mostly due to the negative attitude toward him by other employers, his financial backers and his stockholders. Westinghouse died on March 12, 1914; it was a sad day at the Westinghouse companies. A man who cared, a man who listened, a great man was gone forever.

George Westinghouse and his wife Marguerite, to whom he credits his success, are buried in Arlington National Cemetery outside Washington, D. C. Overall, millions, if not billions of people have benefi! ted from his companies, inventions, and his visions. Would you have safe, odorless, and efficient lights in your house; would you see an illuminated advertisement on the highway; or would you have a paid vacation if it was not for George Westinghouse? He invented all those things. How about your pension? The hundred largest pensions in the U. S. “have assets exceeding two trillion dollars,”(Muhlenkamp, 3). That is something George Westinghouse would have enjoyed to see.

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Hamlet’s Madness

“I am but mad north-northwest: when the wind is southerly I know a hawk from a handsaw” (Foakes 213). This is a classic example of the “wild and whirling words” (I.v.134) with which Hamlet hopes to persuade people to believe that he is mad. These words, however, prove that beneath his “antic disposition,” Hamlet is very sane indeed. Beneath his strange choice of imagery involving points of the compass, the weather, and hunting birds, he is announcing that he is calculatedly choosing the times when to appear mad.

Hamlet is saying that he knows a hunting hawk from a hunted “handsaw” or heron, in other words, that, very far form being mad, he is perfectly capable of recognizing his enemies. Hamlet’s madness was feigned for a purpose. He warned his friends he intended to fake madness, but Gertrude as well as Claudius saw through it, and even the slightly dull-witted Polonius was suspicious. His public face is one of insanity but, in his private moments of soliloquy, through his confidences to Horatio, and in his careful plans of action, we see that his madness is assumed.

After the Ghost’s first appearance to Hamlet, Hamlet decides that when he finds it suitable or advantageous to him, he will put on a mask of madness. He confides to Horatio that when he finds the occasion appropriate, he will “put an antic disposition on” (I.v.173). This strategy gives Hamlet a chance to find proof of Claudius’s guilt and to contemplate his revenge tactic (Burton 2). Although he has sworn to avenge his father’s murder, he is not sure of the Ghost’s origins: “The spirit that I have seen May be the devil” (II.ii.596-7).

He uses his apparent madness as a delaying tactic to buy time in which to discover whether the Ghost’s tale of murder is true and to decide how to handle the situation. At the same time, he wants to appear unthreatening and harmless so that people will divulge information to him, much in the same way that an adult will talk about an important secret in the presence of a young child (Boyce 232). To convince everyone of his madness, Hamlet spends many hours walking back and forth alone in the lobby, speaking those “wild and whirling words” which make little sense on the surface but in fact carry a meaningful subtext. Although he appears to have lost touch with reality, he keeps reminding us that he is not at all “far gone, far gone” (II.ii.187) as Polonius claims, but is in fact very much in command of himself and the situation.

With his ranting and raving and his seemingly useless pacing of the lobby, Hamlet manages to appear quite mad. The naive and trusting Ophelia believes in and is devastated by what she sees as his downfall:

“O, what a noble mind is here o’erthrown!

. . . The expectancy and rose of the fair state

. . . quite, quite down!” (III.i.152,4,6).

Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are also fully convinced. They are Hamlet’s equals in age but are far inferior in intellect and therefore don’t understand that he is faking. However, although Hamlet manages to convince these simple friends and Ophelia of his insanity, other characters in the play such as Claudius, Gertrude and even Polonius eventually see through his behavior.

Claudius is constantly on his guard because of his guilty conscience and he therefore recognizes that Hamlet is faking. The king is suspicious of Hamlet from the very beginning. He denies Hamlet permission to return to university so that he can keep an eye on him close by. When Hamlet starts acting strangely, Claudius gets all the more suspicious and sends Rosencrantz and Guildenstern to spy on him. Their instructions are to discover why Hamlet is pretending to be mad:

“And can you, by no drift of circumstance,

Get from him why he puts on this confusion

Grating so harshly all his days of quiet

With turbulent and dangerous lunacy” (III. i.1-4).

The reason Claudius is so reluctant to believe that Ophelia’s rejection has caused Hamlet’s lunacy is that he doesn’t believe in his madness at all (Kirsch 2: 507). When Claudius realizes through the play-within-the-play that Hamlet knows the truth about his father’s death, he immediately sends him away to England. The prevailing piece of evidence demonstrating Claudius’s knowledge of Hamlet’s sanity is the fact that he feels threatened enough by Hamlet to order him killed by the king of England:

“For like the hectic in my blood he rages

And thou must cure me: till I know ’tis done

Howe’er my haps, my joys were ne’er begun” (IV.iii.67-9).

In the scene in his mother’s bedroom, Hamlet tells Gertrude that his insanity is assumed:

I have utter’d: bring me to the test

And I the matter will reword, which madness

Even without this confirmation, the Queen has seen through his act (Burton 2). While Hamlet is reprimanding her, she is so upset that she describes his words as “daggers” (III.iv.98) and claims, ” Thou hast cleft my heart in twain” (III.iv.158). The words of a madman could not have penetrated her soul to such an extent. The queen takes every word Hamlet says seriously, proving she respects him and believes his mind to be sound. Furthermore, she believes Hamlet’s confession of sanity immediately. She does not question him at all but instead promises to keep it her secret. “I have no life to breathe What though hast said to me” (III.iv.200-1).

Even Polonius can see that Hamlet has not completely lost touch with the world. Although he frequently misses the meanings of Hamlet’s remarks and insults, he does recognize that they make some sense. When asked if he recognizes Polonius, Hamlet promptly replies, “Excellent well; you are a fishmonger” (II.ii.172). Although the response seems crazy since a fish-seller would look completely unlike the expensively dressed lord Polonius, Hamlet is actually criticizing Polonius for his management of Ophelia, since “fishmonger” is Elizabethan slang for “pimp” (Boyce 237).

He plays mind-games with Polonius, getting him in crazy talk to agree first that a cloud looks like a camel, then a weasel and finally a whale, and in a very sane aside, he then comments that “they fool me to the top of my bent” (III.ii.375). After the confusing conversation with Hamlet he remarks, ” Though this be madness, yet there is method in’t” (II.ii.205). When his theory of rejected love proves wrong, he becomes very suspicious of Hamlet’s behavior and offers to test it by hiding behind the “arras” in Gertrude’s bedroom so that he can listen in on Hamlet’s private conversation with his mother. Polonius’ suspicions about the legitimacy of Hamlet’s madness lead to his death when Hamlet stabs the “arras” in the mistaken belief that the eavesdropper is Claudius.

Hamlet’s soliloquies, his confidences to Horatio, and his elaborate plans are by far the most convincing proof of his sanity. Throughout the play, Hamlet’s soliloquies reveal his inner thoughts, which are completely rational (Kirsch 511). In one such speech, Hamlet criticizes himself for not having yet taken action to avenge his father’s murder:

“O what a rogue and peasant slave am I

Prompted to my revenge by heaven and hell,

Must, like a whore, unpack my heart with words” (II. ii. 545, 581-3).

Hamlet calls himself a “dull and muddy-mettled rascal” (II.ii.563), a villain and a coward, but when he realizes that his anger doesn’t achieve anything practical other than the unpacking of his heart, he stops. These are not the thoughts of a madman; his emotions are real and his thoughts are those of a rational man. Even when he contemplates suicide in the “to be or not to be” soliloquy, his reasons himself out of it through a very sane consideration of the dangers of an unknown afterlife: “And thus the native hue of resolution Is sicklied o’er with the pale cast of thought” (III. i. 85-6).

A further important proof of his sanity is how patiently he devises plans to prepare for his revenge. As he explains to Horatio, his “antic disposition” is a device to test his enemies. His mounting of the play-within-the-play is another well-laid plan to trap Claudius into admitting guilt: “The play’s the thing Wherein I’ll catch the conscience of the king” (II.ii.602-3) and even when the play brings him concrete proof, he is careful not to rush to take his revenge at the wrong moment.

He could easily kill Claudius while he is praying but restrains himself so that there is no chance of Claudius’s entering heaven. Although Hamlet’s patience can be seen as an example of his procrastination, the Foakes think that it is rather a sign of rationality. Hamlet shows himself perfectly capable of action, as well as of rational thought, in escaping the king’s armed guard, dispatching Rosencrantz and Guildenstern to their deaths in England, dealing with the pirates and making it back to Denmark. In addition, the letter Horatio from him through the ambassador bound for England is clear and precise and shows no signs of a befuddled mind (Burton 1).

Finally, we are convinced of Hamlet’s sanity by his very normal reactions to the people around him. He is perfectly sane, friendly and courteous with the players, giving them good acting tips, which they appreciate and respect. When Polonius and Claudius test the rejected love theory by “loosing” Ophelia to him, Hamlet acts completely rationally. He greets Ophelia sweetly, gets a little cold when he remembers that he has not seen her “for this many a day,” is very hurt when she returns his remembrances, and becomes completely furious, insulting womankind in general, when she lies to him about her father’s whereabouts and he realizes he is being spied on. He reacts the way any hurt young rejected lover would. This shows that he is very sane and rational indeed

Throughout the play, Hamlet”s calculating mind lets him get away with all of his actions. He is the most sane person in the play and he uses his “antic disposition” to manipulate people, confuse everyone, and investigate anything he wants. He is fully aware of all of his actions and the consequences that they will have on the other characters in the play. Shakespeare”s genius shows through in the character of Hamlet. He was able to show Hamlet outwardly as a madman, but still keep the audience believing that he was still very sane underneath. Hamlet puts on his antic disposition very well. He is, in fact, “sane throughout the entire play” (Boyce 239).

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An Effective Strategy Negotiation

Crouching behind a tight cordon of panda cars, the weather-beaten SWAT team leader, complete with cap, bulletproof vest and loud-hailer, looks up to the third-floor window, clears his throat, and announces: ‘You might as well give yourself up, Kowalski, we’ve got the place surrounded. ‘ His craggy face is bathed in the soft amber glow of the street light and a small bead of sweat moves slowly down his temple. Kowalski, a wily old stager with deep pockmarks and a broken nose, is having none of it.

After all, he has the (rather attractive blonde) hostage securely tied up and there happens to be a fridge full of beer in the office he’s holed up in. So it’s a complete stalemate. Kowalski and his nemesis are simply going to have to start negotiating. In this case, negotiation is more likely to be resolved in a bloody shoot-out. In the workplace, of course, negotiations generally don’t tend to be conducted under such tense or dangerous circumstances. They do, however, take place on a daily, even hourly, basis.

In fact, they have become such a regular and ingrained part of working life that participants can readily enter into them without even realising that’s what they’re doing. Before we proceed, it is probably worth defining our terms, or at least borrowing a definition from personnel consultant Alan Fowler’s book, Negotiating, Persuading and Influencing. Fowler explains that ‘negotiation occurs whenever there is an issue that cannot be resolved by one person acting alone; it occurs when the two (or more) people who have to be involved begin with different views on how to proceed, or have different aims for the outcome.

There are two situations in which negotiation does not or cannot occur: when one of the persons immediately agrees to what the Other is asking or suggesting; and when one of the two adamantly refuses to even discuss the matter. ‘ You can see that the term covers a multitude of scenarios, from the widely reported collective pay-bargaining conducted by union officials and management representatives, to the more mundane business of negotiating a lease on a property or a supplier’s contract.

Negotiation is also a key component in inter-office relationships, in instances where managers have no linear authority over a particular colleague but need to persuade them to perform a specific task. Here, the negotiation is a tacit IOU- you’ve done me a favour, so I’ll return it at a later date when you might need it. ‘Managers are doing it all the time,’ confirms Roger Moores, an associate of the Industrial Society, who runs courses in negotiation and associated skills. ‘I usually start my courses by asking how many of the people there are negotiators.

Not many hands go up but, by the end of the session, they realise they do it all the time. We use the language of negotiation all the time too. It’s a language that even children understand, based on the words “if” and “then”. “If you do this for me, then I’ll do that. ” In theory, it’s all wonderfully simple. ‘ Scores of self-help and how-to books have been written on the subject but the theorists by and large fall into two camps. There are experts, such as authors Fowler and Gavin Kennedy, who look at negotiation as a stage-by-stage process, comprising preparation, discussion, proposal, bargaining and finally closing.

And then there’s the American model, epitomised by the seminal text, Getting to Yes by William Ury, which is more focused on personal relations within the workplace. As Moores rightly points out, the two approaches are by no means mutually exclusive. Though representative bodies such as the Institute of Personnel and Development and the Industrial Society offer dedicated courses on negotiation skills, the majority of managers in small to medium-sized businesses don’t have the time or inclination to attend them.

A few common-sense pointers, however, go a long way. The first is to recognise when it is actually appropriate to negotiate. ‘If managers negotiated everything, there wouldn’t be time to do anything,’ reasons Moores. “There are occasions when orders and dictatorship are required too. ‘ If a matter or issue is definitely worth negotiating, the next step is toassess its merits and how much time you can afford to devote to it. According to all the various pundits, the key to successful negotiation is all in the preparation.

They insist that skills and techniques are generally acquired through practice and experience, and that preparatory work and patience will generally stand you in better stead than the gift of the gab or an aggressive stance. There is no point walking into an important negotiation session hoping to wing it. ‘Some people are naturally better [at negotiating] than others,’ says Fowler. ‘It requires a certain amount of quick thinking and ability to respond quickly. You also need the confidence to be able to say “Look, you’ve raised something new.

Can we adjourn this meeting and continue tomorrow, by which time I’ll have been able to gather my thoughts? ” It’s important to know your own style and be comfortable with it. If you’re stepping too far outside of yourself, you can end up seeming artificial. ‘ Yet Chris Grice, an assistant director of ACAS, the conciliation and arbitration service which has dragged countless industrial relations negotiations back from the brink, believes negotiation skills are more about nurture than nature.

‘There’s a question as to whether negotiating is an art or a science,’ he says. You can be taught good negotiation, so I’d say it’s a science… Being taught how to mix colours doesn’t make you an artist. You can learn about negotiation strategy, how to read a situation, when the tune is right to confront an issue and when to apply a variety of different processes. Preparation is an often neglected area. If you’re negotiating about pay, for example, you should be aware of the going rate, affordability and any other interested parties before you go in. You need to be able to anticipate the other party’s moves.

‘ While Grice admits that some of the negotiations he is called in to rbitrate are conducted in what he – with admirable understatement – describes as an ‘adversarial atmosphere’ (potentially explosive in other words), he reckons that overall he has witnessed as much civility as hostility. This, he believes, is because most of the participants at this level of negotiation tend to be astute practitioners, who realise that prickliness and emotional involvement will only hamper their efforts. ‘Some of the best negotiators are mild-mannered but persuasive people,’ says Grice. ‘They know exactly where they want to be and realise they can get there in a civilised manner.

After all, you’ve got more in your toolbox than a hammer. ‘ One problem often leads to another. A manager may feel it necessary to cut overtime. The employees are unhappy and threaten industrial action but the manager should avoid the immediate reaction to sack the ringleader. By doing so, the manager would have two problems to cope with instead of one. It is important to keep one topic in focus at a time. An ‘easy does it’ ethos is especially important in small to medium-sized businesses, which rely on establishing and maintaining an ongoing network of reliable suppliers and subcontractors.

If parties leave a negotiation feeling hard done by, the relationship is unlikely to be sustainable for any length of time. ‘The main point is to make the person you’re negotiating with think that they have achieved the best deal possible,’ says Frank Kings, managing director of Sovereign Contracts, a Midlands-based shop-fitting concern, whose clients include IBM, SmithKline Beecham and Warwick University. ‘I’m always looking for repeat business, so negotiation is as much about building a long-term relationship as striking the best deal at that particular moment.

One should always try to take a longer-term view. ‘ Susan Croft, a trainer at the Aziz Corporation, which specialises in spoken-communication skills training for business, shares Kings’ views. Negotiations, she maintains, are not necessarily confrontational, just a necessary means of ensuring that two or more parties are satisfied with their lot. ‘In a “win-lose” situation, you may have won the battle but not the long-term war,’ Croft says. ‘You don’t want the person you’re negotiating with to be checking for their arms and legs on the way out. ‘ A degree of emotional detachment is a must.

Losing your cool may mean losing the thread and the advantage. Concentration is also essential. The best negotiators are good listeners and observers too. By keeping your eyes and ears open, you can pick up valuable clues as to where the other side is prepared to compromise or where there are flaws in their argument, which you can exploit later. If you are so utterly determined to put across your own points, you may not hear what the other side is saying. Their position may have changed and your initial standpoint may no longer be relevant or valid.

Similarly, the other party should not be given too many hints. It is worth keeping your cards close to your chest in a negotiation. Don’t give away more information than you have to. Release nuggets sporadically and tactically when you feel they will make the most impact. Be aware of your body language because you might be revealing more than you think through your movements and mannerisms. If you look hard enough and think laterally, there are usually ways and means of clinching a mutually beneficial deal through negotiation.

Phil Jones, managing director of Real Time, the London-based interactive design studio, recalls two recent instances where new clients wanted to launch internet web sites but didn’t have the requisite budgets. They were the type of high-profile clients and creatively challenging projects that Real Time was keen to get involved in, however. ‘If it’s a job you really want to do, you can always find a way of doing it,’ maintains Jones. The first was for the Formula 1 motor-racing team, Williams Motorsport: ‘They made the balance up in contra deals, mainly in tickets to some of the major

Formula 1 meetings. ‘ The tickets are like gold dust, of course, and can be used as a pat on the back for staff, or as an opportunity to pamper existing clients or woo new ones. Diesel, the Italian clothing manufacturer, which is quietly stealing a march on its rivals in the UK jeans market, approached Real Time towards the end of the financial year, when its promotional budget was running perilously low.

Real Time managed to negotiate further projects the following year for completing the initial job an e-commerce site that allows ordering of clothes over the internet – at a cut-price rate. Every job is like that. You have to be flexible to get the business,’ says Jones. Indeed, he is currently negotiating a deal with the Football Association for an e-commerce web site dedicated to the UK bid for the 2006 World Cup. Real Time was responsible for the bid’s logo and original web site. ‘The FA have a limited budget to spend across a range of media, so I’m talking to them about perhaps receiving a percentage of what’s sold from the new site,’ he explains. ‘That’s really putting your money where your mouth is. ‘

Negotiation, then, is primarily about effective communication. Communicating what you want and what you have to offer, and then marrying that up with another party’s requirements. A bit of imagination, flexibility and a well-considered strategy can go along way to meeting these ends. It is also worth remembering that how you put it is often as important as what you’re actually saying. ‘You should always try to express things in ways the other parties find palatable, so that no one loses face,’ says Grice of ACAS. ‘Packaging is half the battle. ‘

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The Impacts of Dams on the Hydrologic Regime

The earliest remains of dams that archaeologists have unearthed date back to around 5000 A.D.They were constructed as part of a domestic water supply system for the ancient town of Jawa in Jordan. Over the next few millennia, the building of dams for water retention spread throughout the Mediterranean, the Middle East, Southern Asia, China, and Central America. Later, as technologies increased and industrialization took hold in Europe, dam mechanisms advanced to incorporate watermills. With the advent of the water turbine in 1832 and developments in electrical engineering, the first hydropower plant began running in Wisconsin in 1882 (IRN n. pag.). Over the next few decades, while structural engineering techniques improved, dams multiplied in size, strength, and numbers worldwide.

Today, although the construction of new dams is halting ( albeit with less vigor in underdeveloped countries) (de Villiers 146; Pielou 206), they are still being built around the globe for a multitude of social and economical reasons: flood control, hydroelectric power production, river navigation, irrigation, human consumption, industrial use, emergency water reservation, tourism, and flat-water recreation (e.g., NPDP n. pag.; Trout Unlimited 11). For all the benefits that dams provide, however, there are adverse effects and concerns that arise from manipulating the environment in such an unnatural manner.

Impacts of Dams on the Hydrologic Regime

Dams are ultimately created as a water reservoir. This impounding of water impedes the circulation of a river and subsequently changes the hydrology and ecology of the river system and its contiguous environments.

Behind a dam, the rise in water level submerges the landscape; often displacing people and engorging culturally valuable ruins. Furthermore, biodiversity of the region is constrained by the destruction of vegetation and loss or extinction of wildlife (Power et al. 887-895). In essence, both the aquatic and land-based ecosystems are damaged by the advent of a dam (Pielou 209).

Upstream of the barricade, the once flowing water that housed the riverine habitat becomes still, oxygen depleted, deepens into darkness, temperature stratified, and susceptible to enhanced evaporation which adjusts the entire hydrologic cycle (e.g., Pielou 207, 210; Ocean Planet n. pag.; Leopold 157). Moreover, drowned vegetation in the stagnant water is subject to rotting and may thereby pollute the atmosphere and reservoir with methane and carbon dioxide (Leopold 158; Pielou 208).

Another change in the water chemistry that alters many river-based systems is the inclusion of heavy metals (and minerals) such as methyl mercury due to reactions between the reservoir bed and the standing water (Pielou 114, 207). If undetected, these toxins may bioaccumulate by moving through the trophic levels of the food web, eventually reaching humans.

Aside from the changes in the chemical constituencies of the water, a dam will also physically augment the river by modifying the shape of the channel. This is primarily due to the retention of sediments behind the dam wall. Water that was once entrained with silts has the increased erosive power to degrade the riverbanks downstream while upstream, the deposition process is shallowing and narrowing the river reaches (e.g., Moffat 1116; Pielou 210). These alterations in channel shape can also shift the elevation of the groundwater table and can amplify the severity of the floods that the dams may have been built to prevent (de Villiers 155-56; PCFFA n. pag.).

The silting process, though, can have other effects on riverine environments. With the deprivation of sediments, valuable nutrients are withheld from the floodplains and the delta of the river. Ultimately, agricultural land suffers from fertility loss and coastlines recede (e.g., DRIIA n. pag.; Pielou 212). In addition to the above noted deterioration of wetland environs, major fish spawning and nursing grounds are harmed by the lack of continual silt and gravel replenishment (e.g., Chambers n. pag.).

Fish species, nevertheless, are not simply affected by the decreased deposition that occurs below a dam. These, and other aquatic based biota adapted to the natural pulsations of seasonal flooding, can be strained by the regulation of stream flow afforded by a dam (Pielou 145; Leopold 156). Furthermore, moderating the flow may actually retard the entire regime of the river by delaying spring break-up (Pielou 212).

Apart from the precipitous effects on the hydrologic cycle and river-based ecosystems thus far noted, there are an extensive number of further reasons to remove a dam. Briefly, a few of these are (Ocean Planet n. pag.; Pielou 208-09; Trout Unlimited 17; Leopold 156):

ƒx the restoration of anadromous fish migration and subsequent reliant fisheries

ƒx ameliorate conditions associated with damming which promote epidemics such as bilharzia and milaria

ƒx damming has accelerated the rate of earth¡s rotation, displaced the axis of the earth, changed the shape of earth¡s magnetic field, increased the occurrence of seismic events, and influenced sea level changes

ƒx dam removal has been shown to improve recreation, tourism, and aesthetics to the associated riverside communities

ƒx amend the river and groundwater quality

Yet for all of the reasons that a dam may be removed, it is often economic and, in part, safety purposes that prompts the decommissioning of a dam. Whether the reservoir has filled with silt, wear-and-tear has taken its toll, or the dam has become obsolete, the benefit of removal may outweigh the cost of maintaining dam operation (PCFFA n. pag.).

Consequences Associated with Dam Removal: A Case Study of the Elwha River

Early in the 20th century, two hydroelectric dams were built on the Elwha River within the Olympic Peninsula of Washington State. The Elwha Dam, the first to be constructed (1910), created the Lake Aldwell reservoir 4.9 miles from the mouth of the Elwha river [fig. 1]. Respectively, 8.5 miles upstream, Lake Mills is contained by the Glines Canyon Dam (1926). Despite their continued success as a viable resource for Bonneville Power Administration (Meyer n. pag.), the existence and utilization of the Elwha and Glines Canyon dams causes detrimental besetment for the ecosystem and native anadromous fish populations of the Elwha River basin (U.S. Dept. of the Interior, 1995, n. pag.). Thus, per restitution stipulations, the 1992 Elwha River Ecosystem and Fisheries Restoration Act (the Elwha Act) authorized the Secretary of the Interior to appropriate the two dams (e.g., Winter n. pag.). Measures to remove the dams will be undertaken as sanctioned from the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIS) that followed in 1995.

Fig. 1. Map of the Elwha River, Clallam County, Olympic Peninsula, Washington.

(Olympic National Park n. pag.)

In an effort to remove the dams in a ¡§safe, environmentally sound and cost effective manner¡ (U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Apr. 1996, n. pag.), various procedural alternatives are being considered prior to the implementation of the scheduled 2004 deconstruction. Under the River Erosion alternative, which is the proposed action, the Elwha and Glines Canyon dams would be incrementally removed in succession over a two year period with the controlled regulation of natural sediment erosion (e.g., U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Aug. 1996, n. pag.). A dredge and slurry system, a further method of sediment disposal, is an action alternative that has also been analyzed by the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) Team (e.g., U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Apr. 1996, n. pag.).

Between the inauguration of the Elwha River dams and 1994, it is estimated that 17.7 million cubic yards of sediments has become trapped in the Lake Aldwell and Lake Mills reservoirs (U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Aug. 1996, n. pag.). Of that total deposition, some 4.8 to 5.6 million cubic yards of fine-grained alluvium (silts and clays less than 0.075 m in diameter) and 1.2 to 2.6 million cubic yards of coarse grained sediments (sands, gravels, and cobbles greater than 0.075 mm in diameter) will be reintroduced into the Elwha River system through the proposed action (U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Apr. 1996, n. pag.; U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Aug. 1996, n. pag.).

In comparison, approximately 6.9 million cubic yards of the fine-grained sediments stand to be directly pumped via a pipeline into the Strait of Juan de Fuca if the dredge and Slurry alternative is undertaken (U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Aug. 1996, n. pag.). Incremental removal of the dams will be the primary regulation on the rate of sediment withdrawal and will partially effect the resulting term of biological and physical impacts felt on downstream reaches of the Elwha River (U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Aug. 1996, n. pag.).

An increase of alluvium transport will renew the natural sediment distribution and hydrological flow patterns to their pre-dam character while new channels and wetland habitats will be created in the freshly drained areas (Foster Wheeler 17). Aggradation of stream load materials will be most prominent in the low-lying and less circulating shoals, including a revitalization of the Ediz Hook [fig. 1] and estuarine beaches (U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Aug. 1996, n. pag.). In response to these raised river beds, water elevations are expected to rise, thereby threatening the resources that fall within the 100-year floodplain (U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Apr. 1996, n. pag.).

Surface water quality is likely to be hampered for two to six years after dam abstraction as turbidity, suspended sediments and dissolved solids flow through the system. Furthermore, water temperatures, dissolved oxygen concentrations, and pH levels will be affected for the interim of dam removal (U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Apr. 1996, n. pag.). Turbidity, in turn, will be the chief cause of groundwater contamination by infiltration into underlying foundations or well and septic systems (removal (U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Apr. 1996, n. pag.).

The implementation of either the Proposed Action or Dredge and Slurry alternatives will also impact the native anadromous (indigenious?) and resident populations on the Elwha River. The high sediment regimes, especially those of the River Erosion Alternative (the proposed action), will encumber the migrating fish over the deconstruction process.

However in the long term, runs will improve with the staged delayed of dam destruction, fisheries management (including the supplementation fish stocks through hatchery intervention), unrestricted passage up the full stretch of the Elwha River, and the formation of quality spawning grounds and rearing habitats from the released sediments (U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Aug. 1996, n. pag.). (steph, this last paragraph seems akward) Moreover, apart from the obvious economic profits of salmon run restoration, the heightened decomposition of dead fish after spawning will significantly enrich nutrients cycling through the riparian area (Munn et al. n. pag.).

Magnified numbers of anadromous fish will, too, eventually increase the biotic diversity down the length of the Elwha Basin. In the future wildlife will be drawn to the decaying remains of dead fish and their young even though the immediate disturbances during the removal period may ward off certain animals (U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Apr. 1996, n. pag.). Vegetation and marine organisms will benefit from the circulation of organic remains; those primarily adapted to sandy substrates will flourish after the initial strain of post-dam sediment conditions (Winter, 2000, n. pag.; U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Aug. 1996, n. pag.).

Prospective temporary consequences to the environment will also include air, traffic, and noise pollution in conjunction with dam destruction and debris conveyance (U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Apr. 1996, n. pag.).

This Elwha River case study exemplifies the foremost probable impacts on the hydrologic cycle and the environmental ecosystems which it encompasses. Successful removal of a dam can, in the end, rehabilitate a region to its natural state. Recovery, however, is not without adverse consequences to the existing regimes and full restoration may take many years.

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Child Abuse Cases in US

Many children suffer at the hands of adults – often their own parents. They are beaten, kicked, thrown into walls, and/or burned with cigarettes. They have their heads held under the water of toilet bowls, are scalded by hot water or they are forced to stand in freezing showers until they pass out. A child could be stuffed into running washing machines or sexually molested, suffer from neglect in the forms of starvation and lack of medical attention, and still go unnoticed by outsiders.

In fact, it is estimated that three children die every day in the U. S. alone from one form of child abuse or another. It is a sickening practice that has no set standard of rules to finish off the persisting problem. Different states have different methods and agencies to help prevent abuse in the home, some work quite well while others bomb – a dangerous gamble when it comes to the life or mental state of a child. The precise number of deaths each year is not known because of the extent of most fatality investigations that could be suspected as child abuse but are seen as open and shut death cases.

A report from the National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect, however, depicts more than three million reports of alleged child maltreatment practices in the year of 1995 alone. Many more children are living with abuse rather than dying from it, too. So what steps are being taken to protect our nation’s children? All states have a Child Protective Services (or CPS) system. This is the governmental system responsible for investigating reports of child abuse or neglect. In state after state, the CPS agency lacks the resources to respond adequately to the overwhelming number of reports it is legislatively mandated to investigate.

All fifty states have child abuse reporting laws requiring reports of suspected abuse to be made by specified professionals and others whose work brings them into regular contact with children. Any citizen may report suspected abuse as state laws provide for reports to be made to the CPS agency or its equivalent, or to a law enforcement agency. In most states, investigations are conducted by CPS personnel, although law enforcement officers may also be involved. The basic concern of child welfare workers is for the safety of the child.

Assessment of the risks involved in leaving a child with its family must be made quickly because children cannot be removed from their families arbitrarily. Once a child has been removed, the goal of child welfare agencies is to return the child to the family. Ideally, caseworkers develop a plan to provide parents with the education of the care that children need, free from abuse or neglect. This plan is not always carried out to its full intention. No state has the financial resources to provide all the services to the children and families who need them.

A problem is that in state after state, CPS workers have excessive caseloads, are paid low salaries, and lack adequate training for the sensitive work involved in investigating abuse reports, and participating in decisions to remove children from their families then placing them in foster care. The turnover rate among child welfare workers is exceptionally high. A report done by the United States Department of Health and Human Services showed the rate of 30 percent to be the norm, annually.

Whatever the reason – inadequate funding, unavailable services for children and families, high turnover rates, lack of training, overwhelming numbers of reports – questions are being raised about the CPS system. The system is based on the assumption that removal from a troubled family, followed by a return to the family when that can be done safely, is best for the child. A different approach to the problems created by child abuse involves Family Preservation Services (FPS). Removal of the risk, rather than the child, is the goal of Family Preservation Services.

FPS programs seek to modify the home environment or behavior of other family members so that it is at least as safe for the child to remain in the household as to be removed. Family preservation is based on the assumption that out of home care hurts children, and on the recognition that most families referred to Child Protective Service can and want to learn new ways of coping with stress. Rather than breaking families apart in order to treat them, intensive family preservation services seek to protect children and heal families by keeping them whole.

Specifically, FPS provides intensive services in the home to all the members of a troubled family for a relatively short time – four to six weeks. Professional staffs are usually assigned two, but no more than four, families at a time. Caseworkers are available to families twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week. A worker can stay as long as necessary to stabilize the household, whether that means six, ten, or twelve hours. Ten states have initiated FPS programs by legislation including: California, Colorado, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Iowa, Kentucky, New York, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, and West Virginia.

Homebuilders, an FPS program based in Tacoma, Washington, provides the longest running assessment of the effectiveness of family preservation services. From 1981 to 1994, Homebuilders saw 3,497 children. Evaluation data indicted that three months after completing the program, an average of 94 percent of the families had avoided out of home placement. Twelve-month follow up data showed that placement had been averted in 88 percent of the cases. Furthermore, the cost for Homebuilders’ family services was only $3000 per case while the costs for an average foster family home placement in the state was $7586.

There is a down side to the Family Preservation Service, though. The track record of FPS seems impressive, but a closer look at another side reveals it’s not doing such a great job. According to the Clarke Foundation, there has never been a case of parental abuse or neglect causing serious injury or the death of a child while receiving family preservation services. But since the FPS provides services for a relatively short period of just a few weeks, there is no way of accurately predicting if after that short amount of observation that the parents are suddenly fit to care for a child.

A worker only stays in the house for a maximum of twelve hours – that is not long enough to assess whether the child is in danger and the true nature of the parents. Of course no one is going to kill or seriously injure a child in front of a human services official. No studies are available that show whether the abuse reoccurred after the Family Preservation Service’s four to six weeks with the family was finished. The Division of Family Services takes another approach to preventing child abuse. The staff is divided into units, working a variety of shifts and functions to best provide the services needed by the children and families.

The response unit is responsible for receiving all reports of child abuse, neglect, and dependency. They determine the nature of the allegations and the appropriate response time for initiating investigation of the allegations. Once abuse or neglect is found or significant risk of its occurrence is identified, cases are transferred to the treatment unit. Workers in these units are responsible for assessing family needs and connecting the family with appropriate resources and services to address those identified areas.

They are also responsible for monitoring the family’s success at utilizing the available services, and communicating with various service providers to assess the ongoing safety of the children and the progress of the family. They close cases when significant progress has been achieved to eliminate or minimize the ongoing risk of abuse to the children. The Statewide Unification Unit is responsible for providing intensive reunification services for children who can potentially return home within six months.

Staff work closely with the children, their natural family, and the care provider to facilitate smooth transitions and successful reunification. When the goal of returning children to their natural families is no longer appropriate, the social workers write Termination of Parental Rights (TPR) petitions, which, once approved by Family Court, allow children to become free for adoption. They develop long term foster care plans for those children whose parental rights have been terminated, but for whom adoption or returning them to the home is not an appropriate goal.

They are also responsible for providing assistance throughout the adoption process to support successful adoptive placements. It has been shown that through most personal accounts, that parents never really learn to take care of their children without using abuse. Because of this, it seems quite logical to make the main focus on protecting the child, then if returning them to their family is assessed as being completely logical, that is the way to go. I propose that a system of “three strikes-your out” be implemented. With this, the parent will lose rights to the child for a short time while they go through training and counseling.

If they are deemed not insane, then they may care for the child again with the warning of what will happen to them. They will have a sort of parole officer that will check up on the family annually. On the second offense, there will be further counseling, jail time, and other means of reform. If they are granted custody again, they will be checked on frequently and unscheduled. If they can not handle the child without abuse from there, the child will be put up for adoption. There are very long waiting lists for parents who would love to adopt a child and will provide a loving family that should be utilized.

The state would let the new parents take care of the child financially, but would pay for counseling of that child and training for the rest of the family on how to love on the abused. If in later years, the parent has redeemed him/herself, then they will be allowed to visit and take the child on trips and be allowed to be a friend. After the child has reached the age of eight-teen the will be allowed to decide who they would like to stay with. No system for child protection is going to be full-proof. There are steps that can be taken to improve them. Any system is only as good as the people who implement it.

Representative Kaye Steinmetz of Missouri is proposing legislation to require additional training for Child Protective Services workers, establish a state team to assist with investigations of difficult cases, and provide for statewide protocols to ensure proper investigations. Representative Debbie Stabenow of Michigan advocates early identification of parents at risk of becoming abusers. Michigan Perinatal Coaching project is an example of this. Developed by the state’s Children’s Trust Fund, the project matches parent volunteers with parents of newborns.

Through the child’s first year, the volunteer provides support to the parents, whether that involves advice about discipline or other areas that new parents may find difficult. A similar program called Family Skill-Builder is offered in the state of Massachusetts. It offers an in home case management series for families who are at risk of abusing and neglecting their children. It’s designed to prevent child abuse and neglect and to help families function independently. Deborah Daro, director of research for the National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse, has several suggestions for legislators to consider.

She maintains that states need to provide more services for victims of abuse, especially therapeutic, remedial and support services. She says, “States also need to look at the quality of foster care. Foster care ought to be more than just giving a child a place to live. ” The goal in preventing child abuse should be permanency and stability for the child, whether that means a return to the family or, in some cases, termination of parental rights and adoption. The sooner that can be achieved the better.

This can be accomplished by setting up time tables for review of foster care cases, and by establishing specific criteria for permanency planning and termination of parental rights. Another key in preventing child abuse is evaluating each situation case by case. Placing a child in foster care may be the best decision for that particular case, while intensive family preservation services might be best for another. The best answer may lie in a combination of the ideas of different organizations. Individual attention to each case would personalize a plan to get each family on the road to a good, stable, and loving family life in less time.

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The Definition of Euthanasia in Different Perspectives

Euthanasia is defined by The American Heritage Dictionary as “the action of killing an individual for reasons considered to be merciful” (469). Here, killing is described as the physical action where one individual actively kills another. Euthanasia is tolerated in the medical field under certain circumstances when a patient is suffering profoundly and death is inevitable. The word “euthanasia” comes from the Greek eu, “good”, and thanatos, “death,” literally, “good death”; however, the word “euthanasia” is much more difficult to define. Each person may define euthanasia differently.

Who is to ecide whether a death is good or not? Is any form of death good? All of these questions can be answered differently by each person. It is generally taken today to mean that act which a health care professional carries out to help his/her patient achieve a good death. Suicide, self-deliverance, auto-euthanasia, aid-in-dying, assisted suicide — call it what you like — can be justified by the average supporter of the so-called “right to die movement” for the following reasons: The first reason is that an advanced terminal illness is causing unbearable suffering to the individual.

This uffering is the most common reason to seek an early end. Second, a grave physical handicap exists that is so restricting that the individual cannot, even after due care, counseling, and re-training, tolerate such a limited existence. This handicap is a fairly rare reason for suicide; most impaired people cope remarkably well with their affliction, but there are some who would, at a certain point, rather die. We say that there is a second form of suicide; justifiable suicide, that is a rational and planned self-deliverance from a painful and hopeless disease which will shortly end in death.

I do not hink the word “suicide” sits well in this context but we are stuck with it. Suicide is the taking of one’s own life. Why does the term euthanasia even exist? Is euthanasia not suicide? A differentiation must be made between the two. Suicide is condoned by society as being unacceptable but euthanasia is viewed as moral and acceptable in most instances. The term “self-deliverance” is difficult to understand because the news media is in love with the words “doctor-assisted suicide”. This is because the news media is dissecting the notion of whether or not doctors, who are supposed to preserve life, should artake in euthanasia.

The media is failing to look at the actual issue of euthanasia, but instead, they are looking at the decision of whether or not doctors should assist in euthanasia. Also, we have to face the fact that the law calls all forms of self-destruction There are ethical guidelines for euthanasia. If the following guidelines are met, then euthanasia is considered acceptable. The person must be a mature adult. This is essential. The exact age will depend on the individual but the person should not be a minor who would come under quite different laws. Secondly, the person must have learly made a considered decision.

An individual has the ability now to indicate this with a living will (which applies only to disconnection of life supports) and can also, in today’s more open and tolerant society, freely discuss the option of euthanasia with health-care professionals, family, lawyers, etc. The euthanasia must not be carried out at the first knowledge of a life-threatening illness, and reasonable medical help must have been sought to cure or at least slow down the terminal disease. I do not believe in giving up life the minute a person is informed that he or she has a terminal illness.

Life is precious, you only live once, and it is worth a fight. It is when the fight is clearly hopeless and the agony, physical and mental, is unbearable that a final exit is an option. The treating physician must have been informed, asked to be involved, and his or her response been taken into account. The physician’s response will vary depending on the circumstances, of course, but they should advise their patients that a rational suicide is not a crime. It is best to inform the doctor and hear his or her response. For example, the patient might be mistaken. Perhaps the diagnosis has been misheard r misunderstood.

Patients raising this subject were met with a discreet silence or meaningless remarks in the past but in today’s more accepting climate most physicians will discuss potential end of life actions. The person must have a Will disposing of his or her This shows evidence of a tidy mind, an orderly life, and forethought, all things which are important to an acceptance of rational suicide. The person must have made plans to die that do not involve others in criminal liability or leave them with guilty feelings. Assistance in suicide is a crime in most places, although he laws are gradually changing, and very few cases ever come before the courts.

The only well-known instance of a lawsuit concerning this is the doctor-assisted suicide of Dr. Kevorkian. The person must leave a note saying exactly why he or she is taking their life. This statement in writing removes the chance of misunderstandings or blame. It also demonstrates that the departing person is taking full responsibility for the action. These are all guidelines for allowing a euthanasia to take place. By this, I mean the doctor is involved in the patient’s decision and actively performs the euthanasia. I believe that passive euthanasia would show a lack of interest on the doctor’s part.

Simply allowing a patient to die does not require a doctor’s Passive euthanasia should not even exist. Euthanasia is defined as “the action of killing… ” James Rachels states in his “Active and Passive Euthanasia” that “The important difference between active and passive euthanasia is that in passive euthanasia, the doctor does not do anything to bring about the patient’s death. The doctor does nothing and the patient dies of whatever ills already afflict him. In active euthanasia, however, the doctor does something o bring about the patient’s death: he [actively] kills him” (1024). Is allowing a patient to die considered to be an action?

Rachels states “… the process of being allowed to die can be relatively slow and painful, whereas being given a lethal injection is relatively quick and painless” (1020). Disconnecting respiratory devices is not an acceptable method of euthanasia. It causes the patient to starve for oxygen and gasp for it, but when he/she cannot breathe, the body is starved of oxygen and suffocates. This is not merciful by any means. Rachels also states, “One reason why so many people think that here is an important moral difference between active and passive euthanasia is that they think killing someone is morally worse than letting someone die” (1022).

The idea that a patient utilizes a medical device and has grown dependent on it for life is a grim one indeed; however, relieving a patient who relies on this machine for his/her life by simply cutting it off is not acceptable. Leon Kass states in his “Why Doctor’s Must Not Kill,” “Ceasing medical intervention, allowing nature to take its course, differs fundamentally from mercy killing. For one thing, death does not ecessarily follow the discontinuance of treatment” (1034). This states my point exactly.

Euthanasia is the physical action of putting someone to a painless death who is suffering tremendously. The passive nature of allowing someone to die is not euthanasia. This is not an physical action taken by a doctor to ease a patient’s suffering and The doctor should decide whether the ailment is curable and if it is not, he/she should decide whether the patient will live productively for months or even years to come. If the ailment is not immediately fatal, will it cause pain and suffering for the rest of he patient’s life? How old is the patient?

Will he/she live much longer anyway? All these factors should come into play when deciding whether a patient should be euthanized; however, the doctor’s answers to these questions may differ from those of the patient and his/her family. It is up to the patient’s doctor to decide whether the patient’s ailment is indeed curable. The patient should be presented with the facts. The doctor should tell the patient exactly how it is and not project the false hope that the patient may recover. With this information, the patient can make an informed decision and feel that t is the best one.

Sidney Hook states in his “In Defense of Voluntary Euthanasia” that “Each one should be permitted to make his own choice- especially when no one else is harmed by it. The responsibility for the decision, whether deemed wise or foolish, must be with the chooser” (1028). This is evidenced quite simply by the mere fact that everyone has civil rights and liberties. No one can decide who should die and who should not. Everyone is in complete control of his/her own life and; therefore, should be free to decide. Having considered the arguments in favor of auto-euthanasia, he person should also contemplate the arguments against it.

First, should the person go into a hospice program instead and receive not only first-class pain management but comfort care and personal attention? Put simply, hospices make the best of a bad job, and they do so with great skill and love. The right-to-die movement supports their work, but not everyone wants a lingering death, not everyone wants that form of care. Today many terminally ill people take the marvelous benefits of home hospice programs and still accelerate the end when suffering becomes too much. A few hospice leaders claim that heir care is so perfect that there is absolutely no need for anyone to consider euthanasia.

While I have no wish to criticize them, they are wrong to claim perfection. Most, but not all, terminal pain can today be controlled with the sophisticated use of drugs, but the point these leaders miss is that personal quality of one’s live is foremost to some people. If one’s body has been so destroyed by disease that it is not worth living, that is an intensely individual decision which should not be swayed. In some cases of the final days in hospice care, when the pain is very serious, the patient is drugged nto unconsciousness.

If that way is acceptable to the patient, then so be it, but some people do not wish their final hours to be in that fashion. There should be no conflict between hospice and euthanasia, both are valid options in a caring society. Both are appropriate to different people with differing values. The other consideration is related to religion: does suffering glorify a person? Is suffering, as related to Jesus Christ’s suffering on the cross, a part of the preparation for meeting God? Are you merely a steward of your life, which is a gift from God, which only He may take away.

If your answers to these questions is yes, then you should not be involved in any form of euthanasia. Remember that there are millions of atheists, as well as people of differing religions, and they all have rights, too. Many Christians who believe in euthanasia justify it by reasoning that the God whom they worship is loving and tolerant, and would not wish to see them in agony. They do not see their God as being so vengeful as refusing them the Kingdom of Heaven if they accelerated the end of their life to avoid prolonged, unbearable suffering. A doctor should not be allowed to “play God” and ecide who should live and who should die.

In fact, even the patient should not be allowed to, but it is the patient’s life and he/she has to live it. So, it is only logical to allow the patient, and no one Another consideration must be that, by ending one’s life before its natural end, is one is depriving oneself of a valuable period of good life? Is that last period of love and companionship with family and friends worth hanging on for? Even the most determined supporters of euthanasia hang on until the last minute; sometimes too long, and lose control. They, too, gather with their families and riends to say goodbyes.

There are important reunions and often farewell parties. Euthanasia supporters enjoy life and love living, and their respect for the sanctity of life is as strong as anybody’s. Yet they are willing, if their dying is distressing to them, to give up a few weeks or a few days at the very end and leave under their own control. Ultimately, the decision lies with the beholder. It is the right of a person to make his/her own choice, with some limitations. It is the doctor’s responsibility to provide the patient with an accurate prognosis so that the patient may make an educated decision.

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Influence of Athletes to People

Picture this scene: The best athletes in your community are gathered for the annual high school varsity letter awards banquet. Halfback Henry and Jumpshot Jenny already have received accolades from the Master of Ceremonies for their accomplishments, but the attention is now focused on Susan Strike, Central High’s varsity bowling superstar. Bowling is Central High’s newest varsity letter sport,” he proclaims, “and we’re extremely proud to announce Susan Strike has not only earned All-Conference honors for leading the Little Nine with a 206 average, but she led Central High to ts first state bowling championship.

A standing ovation follows. You beam because Susan is a product of your youth league program. She is the first of a new generation of Varsity Bowling letter winners and she’ll serve as an inspiration for hundreds of young bowlers in your This scene may sound like a dream to you, but it’s a reality in some areas of the United States where a handful of dedicated proprietors have laid the groundwork to launch the nation-wide Varsity Bowling program during the 1998-99 bowling Varsity Bowling is going to be a two-pronged attack: 1.

From the Top Down – Five states have been selected to participate in a targeted Varsity Bowling program during the 1998-99 with a focused effort to secure state high school athletic association approval for the sport. 2. From the Bottom Up – Every local/regional proprietor group in any area of the United States is invited to “test” the Varsity Bowling waters on their own.

A comprehensive organizational kit, including detailed manual, videotape and support materials, is available today from the Young American Bowling Alliance and the Bowling Proprietors Association of America to help your proprietor group and local association volunteers get a eadstart in organizing a “high school club conference” to demonstrate the program’s feasibility. Varsity Bowling is a program that cannot succeed without the commitment and dedication of the proprietors. You own the arenas, you have the expertise and it’s your youth bowlers who will benefit the most.

Varsity Bowling is one of the most comprehensive step-by-step organizational programs ever developed in bowling (or any sport). It is based upon 10 years of experience and research in Northern Illinois and Michigan’s Upper Peninsula, culminating in resounding success. Be Part of Bowling’s Biggest Success Story in Decades Varsity Bowling will become our sport’s most significant success story in decades, with your help. Mark these figures down and watch them grow: In 1996-97, only 728 of America’s more than 16,000 high schools offered any kind of bowling program.

Out of 6. 1 million high school students who participated in athletics in 1996-97, only 15,600 were able to bowl for their schools. Only seven of America’s 50 states had as many as 30 high schools offering bowling as an extracurricular activity. Bowling has nearly 500,000 young people participating in Young American Bowling Alliance leagues and tournaments. They know and love bowling, and most of them are denied the opportunity to experience the thrill and excitement of bowling for a letter for their high school teams.

American Sports Data states interest in bowling is at an all-time high among young people, with a 15% increase in interest among pre-teens and 17% growth in interest among high schoolers. As a proprietor, you will never experience any program as rewarding as you’ll discover by becoming a part of the Varsity Bowling team. Send for your comprehensive Varsity Bowling organizational kit, including detailed manual, videotape and support materials, today! order your kit now Send for your comprehensive Varsity Bowling organizational kit, including detailed manual, videotape and support materials, today!

To order your Varsity Bowling kit, please send an email to Jennifer Williamson or call her at the Young American Bowling Alliance (414 423-3398. The Scholarship Management and Accounting Reports for Tenpins (SMART) program will help locate and secure existing bowling scholarships for YABA’s membership. SMART will also help any organization start and manage a new bowling scholarship program while relieving new and existing bowling scholarship providers from the burden of administering their scholarship funds.

YABA has developed two service levels to accomplish this mission: Level one is SMART’s information and assistance level. This SMART level can be contacted in one of three ways – telephone, mail or email. SMART Level One will provide the following services: Information on how to start a bowling scholarship league, tournament or written Information on how to manage the scholarship dollars collected. Advise, assist and support organizations regarding any problem encountered in conducting or administering their scholarship programs.

A booklet containing location of scholarship leagues, tournaments, and written cholarships offered worldwide; universities and colleges that offer bowling scholarships and those offering bowling as a scholastic or club sport; and national scholarship applications. In Level Two, the organization forwards their scholarship dollars to SMART, and SMART will manage their scholarship dollar on a daily basis. SMART charges no fee to use the program. SMART operates off the interest made on the scholarship funds.

At the end of each bowling season (July 31st) SMART will deduct the operating expenses from the total interest earned. The remaining interest will be credited to each organization. The amount each organization receives will be determined on a percentage basis by the total amount of scholarship funds in their account. The organization then may use the interest as new scholarships at their discretion.

For more SMART information, write to SMART 5301 S. 76th St. , Greendale, WI 53129, call 414/423-3343, fax 414/421-3014 or e-mail Ed Gocha at [email protected] com. 999 Youth and Collegiate Bowlers Scholarships SMART’s 1998 Youth and Collegiate Bowling Educational Guide is provided here for Junior Olympics Program To help young bowlers progress from their first visit to a center o becoming a Junior Olympic Gold member, YABA has created a pipeline (to be released in July 1999), to guide them through the different stages of development and prepare them for active roles as participants in the adult membership With this road map, youth bowlers will be guided through five different levels of bowling;

Introduction to Bowling, First Organized Program, League Participation and Introduction to Tournament Competition, Purely Competitive and Elite Competition (TEAM USA). Who are Gold members? The Gold Program is the highest level of the USA Junior Olympic Bowling Program. To become a Junior Olympic Gold member, athletes must carry a minimum 165 average for girls and 175 for boys based on at least 21 games and be YABA members in good standing. Only Gold members are eligible to participate in the Junior Olympic Program’s pinnacle event, the Junior Olympic Gold National Championships.

More than 500 athletes competed in the National Championships held in July in Orlando, Fla. Complete Coverage of the 1999 Junior Olympic Gold National Championships. Gold members (YABA members with minimum average of 165 for girls and 175 for boys) may qualify to compete for a spot on the Junior Olympic Bowling TEAM USA hrough the Junior Olympic Gold National Championships. The program’s goals are to emphasize advanced training, coaching and team bowling. In addition, the program will help develop more elite bowlers to feed into collegiate or professional bowling and become future members of American Bowling Congress or Women’s International Bowling Congress. How does the Junior Olympic Gold National Championships work?

Athletes qualify for the National Championships by winning or finishing high enough in a Gold Event. (Entries paid by the Event sponsor. ) The five-day competition is conducted on multiple lane conditions and consists of ouble elimination match play. The top 16 boys and top 16 girls advance to round-robin finals to compete to win the six boys and six girls spots available on the Junior Olympic TEAM USA. The Junior Olympic Bowling Program was created from YABA’s partnership with USA Bowling, and in conjunction with the United States Olympic Committee. The Junior Olympic program focuses on athletes’ skill levels rather than age and gender and offers several player development levels.

Gold members have the opportunity to become members of Junior Olympic TEAM USA, chosen annually at the Junior Olympic Gold National Championships. Being a Junior Olympic TEAM USA member offers several benefits, including representing the United States in national and international competition, access to scholarships, training at the United States Olympic Training Center in Colorado Springs, Colo. , all-expense paid travel and competition fees, uniforms, recognition from other skilled bowlers and being part of a feeder system for future TEAM USA members. Canadian members are eligible to be Junior Olympic Gold members, compete in the National Championships and earn scholarships. They are unable to be Junior Olympic TEAM USA members.

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Cellphones and Digital Networks

Cell phones have been around for nearly 15 years and are now everywhere you look. Over a quarter of Americans and a half of Europeans own cell phones and the numbers have been increasing exponentially. With the continuing increase in technology cell phones have become smaller, cheaper, and thanks to the move from analog to digital the calls are much clearer. They offer a great amount of convenience, and can be very economically for the busy businessman on the go. Advancements in cell phones are always being made, giving a clearer sound and lighter feel, as well as a longer life.

The cell phone industry has been one of the fastest growing in the world. The electronics are fairly simple, but they are so small that they are truly and engineering marvel. This paper will discuss in depth the many different components of the average cell phone, and talk about how it converts your voice into something that can be sent through a digital network. The paper will also look at how the inner workings allow for a phone to act as a microcomputer, with Internet access, address books, and even games.

Finally, it will review the many exciting ideas for this growing market and look to the future of the industry, and how the industry plans on overcoming various limiting factors. Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone in 1876, 18 years later Guglielmo Marconi created the first radio. It was only natural that these two great technologies would eventually be combined to create the cellular craze. In the 80’s few people used radiophones, these phones were the precursor to cellular, but they had several limiting factors preventing them from every becoming a major part of everyday society.

In the radio telephone system, there was one central antenna tower per major city, and no more than 25 channels available on that tower. Each phone needed a powerful transmitter, big enough to transmit 40 or 50 miles. It also meant that not many people could use radiotelephones due to the lack of channels. With the current cellular system any none adjacent cell can use the same frequency, so the amount of phones that can be used are nearly limitless. These cells also mean that each phone does not need a strong transmitter, so the phone can be a lot smaller.

With the innovation of digital phones, many great features are now available, such as caller id, Internet access, and several other new features. It also meant that the phone would need a microprocessor to convert from analog to digital, this complicated the circuitry, but left it with new technology available the industry was able to make the phone as small as possible. The only restriction in size became the user-input devices, and the screen size. Usefulness of the Digital Cell Phone

The digital cellular phone offers many advantages to today”s society. The conveniences that it offers over simply not having one are obvious and they vary from person to person. But there are many advantages over other types of phones as well. The cellular phone not only allows people to communicate with others while they are on the go, but it also offers many other features to help people. With the services that digital provides, people can access email and find information almost anywhere in the world for a reasonable fee.

In the future, as the integration of phones and computers grow, people will be able to access tutorials in the field, and use them to communicate with specialists saving a great amount of time for many researchers. Today digital cell phones, such as the one shown in Appendix C figure 1, can process millions of calculations per second in order to compress and decompress the voice stream. In order to do this each phone is equipped with a circuit board that contains many different chips. The circuit board of a common phone is shown in Appendix C figure 2.

Two chips described earlier are the Analog-to-Digital and Digital-to-Analog conversion chips that translate the outgoing audio signal from analog to digital and the incoming signal from digital back to analog. There is also a Digital Signal Processor that is highly customized processor designed to perform signal manipulation calculations at high speed. The microprocessor controls the keyboard and display and deals with command and control signaling with the base station, it also coordinates the rest of the functions on the board.

This microprocessor is as powerful as the super computer of the 70’s that took up whole rooms, but is now the size of a finger. By using its arithmetic/logic unit or ALU it can perform all mathematical operation that run many of today features in phones. It is also responsible for the transfer of data throughout the phone. It will also make decisions and then run a new set of instructions. In Appendix C figure 3 a very simple microprocessor is shown. Cell phones use microprocessors that are much more complex, but the use the same idea.

The ROM and flash memory chips provide storage for the phone’s operating system and customizable features, such as the directory and various simple games. (Appendix C figure 4) The RF and power section handles power management and recharging, and also deals with the hundreds of FM channels. Finally, the Radio Frequency amplifiers handle signals in and out of the antenna. The Radio Frequency amplifier is the same device as you would find in your car’s radio. The display has grown considerably in size as the number of features offered by cell phones has increased.

Most phones currently available offer built-in phone directories, calculators and even games. It some new products that will be discussed later, cell phone counter as PDA’s offering very large screen and offer all of the benefit you would find in today’s hand held computers. The display is a liquid crystal display (LCD). It is made of thousands of tiny crystals with two possible colors. They have recently announced that they will be offering color screens on some new phones that work like the display of a laptop computer.

Very small speakers and microphones, about the size of a dime, amplify the analog waves. These devices are just like that of a portable radio and the microphones used on television talk shows. They are both wired to the microprocessor. In order for digital cell phones to take advantage of the added capacity and clearer quality, they must convert your voice into binary information. This means that it must break it down to 1’s and 0’s. The reason that this is so advantageous is that unlike analog, digital is either on or off, 1 or 0, instead of oscillating between the two.

For the conversion, the device must first record an analog wave, such as the one in Appendix B figure 1. To create the highest fidelity possible, it records number to represent the wave, instead of the wave itself as represented in Appendix B figure 2. The cell phones analog-to-digital converter, a device that is also found in a CD player, does this process. On the other end a separate digital-to-analog converter is used for playback. The quality of transfer depends on the sampling rate, that controls how many samples are taken per second, and the sampling precision.

The precision controls how many different levels are possible in the sample. The better these two are the clearer the sound, but it takes a higher speed processor and requires a greater amount of data transfer. In Appendix B the benefits are shown in figure 3. Most common digital cellular systems use Frequency Shift Keying to send data back and forth. This system uses one frequency for 1’s and another for 0’s and rapidly switching between the two. This requires optimal modulation and encoding schemes for recording, compressing, sending, and then decoding without loss of quality.

Because of this digital phones contain an amazing amount of processing power. The cellular network is web of towers covering areas, generally thought of as hexagonal cells as shown in APPENDIX A Figure 1. The genius of the cellular system is because cell phones and base stations use low-power transmitters, so the same frequencies can be reused in non-adjacent cells. Each cell is about 10 square miles and has a base station that consists of a tower and a small building containing the radio equipment. As more people join the cellular world, companies are quickly adding more towers to accommodate them.

Every digital carrier is assigned different frequencies, an average carrier may get about 2400 frequencies per city, and this number is about three times the amount as analog. The reason that more channels are available is because digital data can be compressed and manipulated much easier than analog. Each tower uses one seventh of the available frequencies, so none of the surrounding 6 towers interfere. The cell phone uses two frequencies per call, called a duplex channel. The duplex channel allows one channel to be used for listening and the other for talking, so unlike a CB or walkie-talkie, both people can talk at the same time.

This system currently allows for about 168 people to talk in each cell, for each system. The cellular approach requires a large number of base stations in a city of any size, but because so many people are using cell phones, costs remain low per user. Every cell phone has a special code associated with it, called an electronic serial number (ESN). It is a unique 32-bit number programmed into the phone when it is manufactured. When the phone is activated another five digit code called a system identification code (SID), a unique 5 digit number that is assigned to each carrier by the FCC, is imprinted in the phones memory.

When you first power up a cell phone, it checks a control channel to find the SID. If the phone cannot find any control channels to listen to, it knows it is out of range, and displays a no service message. After finding the SID, the phones check to see if it matches the SID programmed in the phone, and if it does not match it knows that the phone is roaming. The central location that the cell phone is registered to keeps track of the cell that your phone is in, so that it can find you when someone calls the phone. When the phone is turned on it sends its ESN to the control channel.

If the phone goes out of range, it will take a short while to locate your phone when it enters back into service. This can cause loss of calls, even though the phone is in service, but this problem is very temporary. When someone does call your phone it is sent to the central tower called the Mobile Telephone Switching Office (MTSO). This office is continually communicating with the cell phone. It sends and receives the calls, as well as telling it what frequencies to use. This is all done through the control channel, so it does not impair any calls.

As you move toward the edge of your cell, the cell’s tower will see that your signal strength is diminishing. At the same time, the base station in the cell you are moving toward, which is listening and measuring signal strength on all frequencies, will be able to see your phone’s signal strength increasing. The two base stations coordinate themselves through the MTSO, and at some point, your phone gets a signal on a control channel telling it to change frequencies. There are three common technologies used by cell phone providers.

These are Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA), Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA), and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). In FDMA every call is done on a separate frequency. FDMA separates the spectrum into distinct voice channels by splitting it into uniform chunks of bandwidth. This is very similar to the way that radio stations operate. Each station is assigned a signal at a different frequency within the available band. FDMA is used mainly for analog transmission, so it is slowly being phased out. It is capable of carrying digital information, but it is not considered an efficient method for digital transmission.

Time Division Multiple Access gives each call a certain amount of time on a frequency. The Electronics Industry Alliance and the Telecommunications Industry Association use TDMA. In TDMA, a narrow bandwidth that is 30 kHz wide and 6. 7 milliseconds long is split time-wise into three time slots. (Appendix D, figure 1) Each conversation gets the radio frequency for one-third of the time. This is possible because voice data that has been converted to digital information is compressed so that it takes up significantly less transmission space. Therefore, TDMA has three times the capacity of an analog system using the same number of channels.

TDMA systems operate in either the 800 MHz or 1900 MHz frequency bands. Some phones have the ability to switch between bands. This function is called simply Dual-Band, and is important when traveling between different band frequencies. TDMA is also the access technology for Global System for Mobile communications. The Global system uses different frequencies in different areas of the world and is not compatible with other TDMA systems. GSM operates in the 900 MHz and 1800 MHz bands in Europe and Asia and in the 1900 MHz band in the United States. GSM systems use encryption to make phone calls more secure.

GSM is the international standard in Europe, Australia and much of Asia and Africa. In covered areas, cell-phone-users can buy one phone that will work anywhere else the standard is supported. To connect to the specific service providers in these different countries, GSM-users simply switch SIM cards. SIM cards are small removable disks that slip in and out of GSM cell phones. They store all the connection data and identification numbers you need to access a particular wireless service provider. Unfortunately, the 1900 MHz GSM phones used in the United States are not compatible with the international system.

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Continuous Human Activities Towards Global Warming

The phenomenon described as global warming has been well studied and documented by researchers throughout the world for several years. It is a phenomenon that has the potential to destroy our planet and all life on it. This essay will briefly define global warming, provide evidence of global warming, outline the main causes of global warming and discuss both the known and potential impacts of global warming on the planet earth. Comments are also made concerning actions being taken as well as others that need to be taken to protect our planet from the potential catastrophic consequences of continued global warming.

For thousands of years the earth has gone through many changes in climate. In the last decade however, the earth has experienced notable increases in temperature, resulting in rising sea levels, changes in precipitation as well as other climate changes. The earth has not experienced such dramatic climate changes before in it’s history as it has in the last one hundred years. Some of these climatic changes have been blamed on global warming. What is this phenomenon referred to as global warming? Global warming is the term used to describe a moderate increase in the earth’s temperature as a result of human activities.

Examples include, the burning of fossil fuels and the production of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) which build up greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The greenhouse effect is a term used to describe the warming of the earth’s surface due to the presence of carbon dioxide and other atmospheric gases, which trap radiant heat at the earth’s surface. Diagram 1 illustrates the greenhouse effect. The denser these gases the more heat that is trapped. Energy from the sun drives the earth’s weather and climate, and heats the earth’s surface; in turn, the earth radiates energy back into space.

Atmospheric greenhouse gases (water vapour, carbon dioxide, and other gases) trap some of the outgoing energy retaining heat. This is not unlike the glass panels of a greenhouse. (EPA 1) The increase in the amounts of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane from industries and cars causes energy to be trapped in the earth’s atmosphere resulting in a rise of global temperatures. Without a little greenhouse effect though, life as we know it could not possibly exist on the earth.

The natural greenhouse effect causes the mean temperature of the earth’s surface to be approximately 33 degrees Celsius warmer than it would be if natural greenhouse gases were not present in the earth’s atmosphere. (The Greenhouse Trap, 1) However, scientists are worried that human activities are intensifying the greenhouse effect. Cairncross writes, “global warming is likely to be the result of the build-up of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide” (Cairncross 111). The three main greenhouse gases produced by human activities are carbon dioxide, methane and nitrogen gas.

Carbon dioxide is the most common greenhouse gas produced by humans. It is responsible for over half of the increase in greenhouse gases present in the atmosphere. This is primarily due to the burning of fossil fuels. Each year, the burning of fossil fuels releases 5. 5 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. (footnote) The main sources of carbon dioxide include, electric utilities (35%), transport (30%), industry (24%), and the other 11% is produced by residential buildings (Brisbane Adventist College www. ozkidz). The graph below shows the dramatic increase in carbon dioxide gases in the atmosphere.

It is believed that since the Industrial Revolution began about 250 years ago, atmospheric carbon dioxide has increased from a value of about 275 parts per million before the Industrial Revolution to about 360 parts per million in 1996, and the rate of increase has speeded up over this span of time (Hartmann). Scientists have determined this by measuring the carbon dioxide levels in the air that became trapped in glaciers, hundreds of years ago. They then compare this to the amounts of carbon dioxide in today’s air. Global warming was first predicted in 1896, by a Swedish chemist named Svante Arrhenius.

Arrhenius realized that the amount of carbon dioxide being released into the atmosphere was increasing rapidly due to industrialization. Arrhenius predicted that doubling the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere would raise the earth’s average temperature by about 5°C (Herring). Though no one really paid any attention to him, Arrhenius’s prediction was surprisingly accurate. He was only off by about 2 to 3 degrees. This is very remarkable, considering he had to make the calculations by hand without the aid of scientific equipment.

It was not until the 1980’s that it was determined global warming was actually occurring, almost a hundred years after it was first predicted by Arrhenius. Global warming has already raised the average temperature of the earth’s surface by about 0. 5 degrees within the last one hundred years (Bates 6). The top ten warmest days in recorded history have all occurred within the 1990’s. Global temperature changes between 1861 and 1996 are outlined in Diagram 2. It has been estimated that global average temperatures will increase of as much as 9 degrees F (5 degrees C) before the year 2999 (6).

Up until recently most of the carbon dioxide produced was absorbed by the world’s oceans, trees and soils. The rest remained in the atmosphere. Unfortunately, now we are producing more carbon dioxide and our oceans, trees and soils are absorbing less. This is partly attributed to the fact that our forests are being destroyed. Research has been done to show that as many as 60 acres of rain forest are being destroyed, every hour, every day of the year. (The Rain forest Trust Inc. ) In the world, only 22% of the old growth forests are still alive.

This is because more forests are being cleared to make room for farming and the trees are not being replaced. This destructive process is called deforestation. Deforestation has been going on since man began clearing land for agriculture and has increased substantially during the industrialization period. The dramatic decline in the earth’s forested areas can be seen on Figure 1. Figure 1 shows that between the years 900 and 1990 the earth’s forested area has declined from 40% to 20%. The rain forests of the world are being destroyed at an alarming rate. Their loss is very concerning because they do not grow back easily.

Forests are important because they absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and release oxygen back into the atmosphere. Forests help reduce carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. If current trends continue, the world’s rain forests could disappear in the next few decades. As a result of the loss of these forests, global temperatures are rising faster than they ever have because less carbon dioxide is being removed from the atmosphere. Should global temperatures continue to increase at present day rates, scientists believe that there may be many negative impacts from global warming.

For example, should temperatures continue to rise, polar ice caps and glaciers will melt, causing the sea and ocean levels to rise. Many beaches will sink beneath the water and many parts of low lying counties will be submerged below water. It is also possible that some coastal areas will be completely covered by water. The world’s ocean levels have already risen about four to six inches since 1990 and it is expected to rise another six inches by the year 2100. (Leatherman) This could flood many coastal cities, leaving thousands of people homeless.

Maps 1 and 2 show the potential impact of raising sea levels on North Carolina and Florida respectively. Another potentially disastrous effect of global warming is a reduction to the general health of people. There are some diseases that only affect people that live where the climate is extremely warm. As a result of a general increase in temperature there will be more people dying everyday because of heart problems related to heat exhaustion. Hospital admissions show that death rates increase during extremely hot days, particularly among the very old and very young people living in cities.

Diseases in tropical areas, like yellow fever and malaria would be more common in areas like Canada and the United States should temperatures rise. This would cause thousands to die each year from these tropical diseases. Global warming trends will also change rainfall patterns. Some areas of the world will become wetter while others will become drier. Historical evidence suggests that the grain-growing areas of North America are likely to have less rain (Bates 19). This would result in the Great Plains becoming a grassland or desert and the corn belt would experience more frequent droughts.

These changes in rainfall patterns will test the agricultural and water management skills of many countries. It is still possible for both industrialized and developing countries to stop global warming. To prevent serious environmental problems associated with global warming we will have to bring together widely different cultural, political and economic interests to pursue the majority of the world’s people to make sacrifices for the sake of future generations. In December 1997, an agreement was made between 160 countries, in Kyoto, Japan, to cut greenhouse emissions by 5. % below 1990 levels by the 2008-2012 period.

This means that the United States and Japan will have to lower their greenhouse emissions by 7 and 6 percent respectively. This reduction is to be accomplished by a blend of taxes and regulations, with some subsidies for implementing green technologies. (proquest article) Most companies are trying to work well ahead of the agreement date and reduce greenhouse emissions now. Should a company cut their emissions to the point where they reduce their emissions by more than 5. 2%, they can receive pollution credits, which can be sold to other companies.

Stopping global warming will not be an easy task. There are going to have to be many initiatives taken to stop global warming. The only way we will be able to accomplish this is by getting the whole world to work together and reduce the production of carbon dioxide. This is especially true for the United States, a country which is the biggest polluter on the planet. The most effective way to prevent global warming is to stop emitting dangerous greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. A good way to reduce carbon dioxide emissions is practice the three R’s; reduce, reuse and recycle.

Purchasing food and other products in reusable and recycled packaging can help reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 230 pounds per year, while recycling all household waste newsprint, cardboard, glass and metal can reduce carbon dioxide emissions by an additional 850 pounds per year (http://www. p2pays. org/ref/01/00183. htm). Less use of automobiles, greater use of bicycles and more reliance on walking would also help to reduce carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere. There are other gases like nitrogen and oxygen that have little or no effect on greenhouse warming.

We need to find ways to replace the dangerous fossil fuels with these less harmful gases instead. We should immediately start implementing alternative energy sources like solar power, hydropower, and wind power. These sources of energy do not add to global warming but are very expensive to implement today. When we entered the 20th century, the human race did not have the technology to greatly alter the delicate balance of our planet. During the 20th century the human race quickly developed technologies and industrial processes that began to affect the balance of our planet.

The problems related to global warming, which we face at the start of the new millennium cannot be separated into compact, well defined groups. The issues we face today are not just increased carbon dioxide levels, deforestation, increased sea levels, or increased polar ice melting. These issues are all interrelated and global in nature. They are also not just problems of science, they are political, economical and cultural problems. Global warming will only became a political and cultural priority when people see it as a serious problem which is likely to affect them personally.

We first need to be able to understand clearly the direct impacts which global warming will bring before we will begin to change our values and lifestyles to one based on sustainable development practices. Sacrifices will have to be made from our current high standards of living in industrialized countries. While there does not appear to be any agreement on the scope and timing of the effects of global warming, we as a civilization face an uncertain future if we do not change our ways. Bates writes, “we stand at the edge of an onrushing catastrophe” (Bates 190).

The human race needs to collectively act to avoid a global crisis. We as humans have the ability to change and adapt to change around us and to decide what our life will be like. Governments of the world will need to work together to stop global warming. There is only one planet that we can live on right now, so we need to respect it and protect it. We must stop destroying our only home. Are we as Canadians prepared to make the sacrifices needed to change our attitudes about our high standard of living and the pursuit of personal wealth in order to save our planet?

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Realities on Teen Pregnancy in America

Although the rate of teenage pregnancy in the United States has declined greatly within the past few years, it is still an enormous problem that needs to be addressed. These rates are still higher in the 1990’s than they were only a decade ago. The United State’s teenage birthrate exceeds that of most other industrialized nations, even though American teenagers are no more sexually active than teenagers are in Canada or Europe. Recent statistics concerning the teen birthrates are alarming. About 560,000 teenage girls give birth each year.

Almost one-sixth of all births in the United States are to eenage women are to teenage women. Eight in ten of these births resulted from unintended pregnancies. (Gormly 347) By the age of eighteen, one out of four teenage girls will have become pregnant. (Newman 679) Although the onset of pregnancy may occur in any teenager, some teens are at higher risk for unplanned pregnancy than others. Teenagers who become sexually active at an earlier age are at a greater risk primarily because young teenagers are less likely to use birthcontrol.

African-American and Hispanic teenagers are twice as likely to give birth as are white teenagers. Whites are more likely to have abortions. Teenagers who come from poor neighborhoods and attend segregated schools are at a high risk for pregnancy. Also, teenagers who are doing poorly in school and have few plans for the future are more likely to become parents than those who are doing well and have high educationsl and occupational expectations.

Although the rate of teenage pregnancy is higher among low- income African-Americans and Hispanics, especially those in inner city ghettoes, the number of births to teenagers is highest among white, nonpoor young women who live in mall cities and towns. (Calhoun 309) In addition to the question of which teenagers become pregnant, interest is shown in the social consequences of early parenthood. Adolescent parents (mostly mothers) may find that they have a “lost or limited opportunity for education. (Johnson 4)

The higher a woman’s level of education, the more likely she is to postpone marriage and childbearing. Adolescents with little schooling are often twice as likely as those with more education to have a baby bafore their twentieth birthday. Some 58% of young women in he United States who receive less than a high school education give birth by the time they are twenty years old, compared with 13% of young women who complete at least twelve years of schooling. (Tunick 11) Teens who become pregnant during high school are more likely to drop out. Calhoun 310)

A teen mother leaves school because she cannot manage the task of caring for a baby and studying, and a teen father usually chooses a job over school so that he can pay bills and provide for his child. (Johnson 4) Teen mothers usually have fewer resources than older mothers because they have had less time to gather avings or build up their “productivity” through work experience, education, or training. (Planned Parenthood 1) Because of this, teen mothers are generally poor and are dependent on government support. Newman 679)

The welfare system is usually the only support a teen parent will receive. Welfare benefits are higher for families with absent fathers or dependent children. (Calhoun 309) In some cases, teen mothers may also receive help like Medicaid, Food Stamps, and “Aid to Families with Dependent Besides educational and financial problems, teenage mothers may face a great deal f emotional strain and may become very stressed. Teen mothers may have limited social contacts and friendships because they do not have time for anything other than their baby.

Lack of a social life and time for herself may cause the teenage mother to become depressed or have severe mental anxiety. (Johnson 5) Depression may become worse for a teenage mother because she usually does not know much about child development or about how to care for their children. Children who are born to teenage mothers usually suffer from poor parenting. (Berk 188) Also, children of teenage parents start being exually active before their peers and they are more likely to become teenage parents themselves.

These children may also suffer from financial difficulties similar to that of their parents. Children whose mothers are age seventeen or younger are three times as likely as their peers to be poor, and are likely to stay poor for a longer period of time. ” (Calhoun 311) The children born to teenage mothers sometimes score lower on development tests than the children of older mothers. It seems that “rather than declining over time, educational deficits increase in severity and the children show lower academic chievement, higher drop out rates, and are more likely to be held back in school. ” Teenage pregnancy comes with not only a child, but also many consequences.

Teen mothers face greater health risks than older mothers, such as anemia, pregnancy induced hypertension, toxemia, premature delivery, cervical trauma, and even death. Many of these health risks are due to inadequate prenatal care and support, rather than physical immaturity. The teenage mother is more likely to be undernourished and suffer premature and prolonged labor. (Calhoun 311) The death rate from pregnancy omplications are much higher among girls who give birth under age fifteen. (Gormly 347)

Poor eating habits, smoking, alcohol and drugs increase the risk of having a baby with health problems. Johnson 3) The younger the teenage mother is, the higher the chances are that she and her baby will have health problems. This is mainly due to late prenatal care (if any) and poor nutrition. (Planned Parenthood 1) An adolescent mother and her baby may not get enough nutrients and, because the mother’s body is not fully mature, she may have many complications throughout the duration of the pregnancy. Along with the mother, the children of teenage parents too often become part of a cycle of poor health, school failure, and poverty.

Infants born to teenage mothers are at a high risk of prematurity, fragile health, the need for intensive care, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, and mental retardation. (Johnson 5) Low birth weight is the most immediate health problem. Babies born to teenagers are often born too small, too soon. Low birthweight babies may have immature organ systems (brain, lungs, and heart), difficulty controlling body temperature and blood sugar levels, and a risk of dying in early infancy that is much igher than that of normal weight babies (five and one-half pounds or more). Calhoun 310)

“The death rate for babies whose mothers are under fifteen years of age is double that of babies whose mothers are twenty to thirty years old. ” (Johnson 5) Because of these extremely serious problems, many government, as well as local, organizations are fighting to stop the occurence of teenage pregnancy by helping to educate children of the risks involved and the consequences after. Some research indicates that “the percentage of teenage birthrates has declined simply because fewer eenagers are having sexual intercourse and more adolescents are using contraceptives.

Researchers say that the recent trends in sexual activity and contraceptive use are the result of a number of factors, including greater emphasis on abstinence, more conservative attitudes about sex, fear of contracting sexually transmitted diseases, the popularity of long-lasting birthcontrol methods such as the contraceptive implant (Norplant) and the injectable (Depo-Provera), and even because of the economy. In addition, researchers say that young people have become somewhat more conservative in their views about casual ex and out-of-wedlock childbearing.

Some attribute this change in attitude mainly to concern about sexually transmitted diseases. Others say that it is because of the involvement of conservative religious groups in the public debate over sexual behavior. Many researchers believe that the strong economy and the increasing availability of jobs at minimum wage have contributed to fewer births among teenagers. (Donovan 32) Americans, however, seem to be against some of the methods used by these various organizations to reduce the teen pregnancy rates.

The most controversial aspect of adolescent pregnancy prevention is the growing movement to provide teenagers with easy access to contraceptives. ” Most Americans believe that giving teenagers birthcontrol pills and/or condoms is the same as telling them that early sex is allowed. Some studies that were conducted in Europe show that some clinics in Europe that distribute contraceptives to teenagers have the same sexual activity rate as in the United States. However, in these European studies, it is apparent that teen pregnancy, childbirth, and abortion rates are

Teenage pregnancy does cause many problems for the mother, child, and economy. There are, however, some incidences where the mother overcomes this down-hill trend and makes a successful life for her and her child. The outcome of teenage pregnancy turns out better if the mother goes back to school after she has given birth. (Berk 190) Staying in school may help to prevent teenage mothers from having a second pregnancy. (Planned Parenthood 2) The outcome is also better if the mother continues to live with her parents so that they can help to raise the child.

Young, teen mothers need health care for themselves as well as their children. An adolescent mother also needs a great deal of encouragement to get her to remain in school. Single teenage mothers also need job training so that they can get a good job to support themselves and their children. Teen mothers need to be taught parenting and life-management skills and also need high quality and affordable daycare for their children. Schools that provide daycare centers on campus reduce the incidence of teenagers dropping out of school. These school programs also ecrease the likelihood that the teen mother will have more children. Berk 189)

Because the government has begun to take action in preventing teen pregnancies, the rate has continued to decline. The large numbers of young people in America–as well as the values, health, education, skills they gain–will greatly affect the future of society. Therefore, increased attention should be given to the well-being of adolescents. Since greater care is being given to the young people, improvements are already occuring. The level of education that young people receive is much higher than that of their parents, and he “expectation that young people should obtain at least some secondary schooling” is growing.

The numbers of women who have a child during their teen years is declining, and recognizing the impact of childbearing on education, parents and communities are continuing to discourage sexual activity, marriage, and motherhood at a young age. (Tunick 13) These recent trends, if continued, will more than likely educate the adolescent population about the risks and consequences of teenage pregnancy and reduce the incicence of teen pregnancy and childbirth altogether.

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Free Essays

The McDonaldization

“McDonaldization” — as used by George Ritzer, author of The McDonaldization of Society — refers to the creation of “rationalized systems” to perform everyday functions such as food preparation, retail sales, banking, home construction, entertainment, news delivery and so on. He calls it McDonaldization because such methods were used to famous effect by Ray Kroc, who built McDonald’s into a fast-food empire — and because in many people’s minds McDonald’s represents the results, both good and bad, that occur when rationalized systems take over.

But has this transition affected other businesses either positively or negatively? Why sure, thanks for asking! I think the best way to examine McDonaldization is to compare the analysis of McDonalds to its effects in the same industry. The way I plan to do this is to see if the effects of McDonaldization have effect the Wendy”s franchise. The information that I know about this business comes from my brother working for this company for many years and partaking in a triple-cheeseburger or two in my short college career.

The way that Wendy’s Old Fashioned Hamburgers does business and markets it’s product to consumers is due to the change in our society to where the consumer wants the biggest, fastest, and best product they can get for their money. This change in society can be attributed to a process known as McDonaldization. Although McDonaldization can be applied to many other parts of our society, this paper will focus on its impact on Wendy’s Old Fashioned Hamburgers.

My belief is that the process of McDonaldization, where the ideology of McDonald’s has come to dominate the world, has caused Wendy’s Old Fashioned Hamburgers to emulate McDonald’s style of running a franchised restaurant chain in terms of efficiency, calculability, and control. However, since McDonald’s has become the embodiment of “fast-food” in our society, Wendy’s Old Fashioned Hamburgers has had to change their focus to giving the consumer a higher quality product in a relatively fast amount of time.

So, Wendy’s still caters to a McDonaldized society in terms of giving them a meal as fast as possible but making quality their number one priority to give people a viable option from McDonald’s. In addition, as mentioned before, I have used my brother who managed to keep a job at Wendy’s for a short period and observations I gathered while at McDonald’s as further information for this paper. First, before I discuss the impact of McDonaldization on Wendy’s Old Fashioned Hamburgers, I will define what McDonaldization is.

McDonaldization is the process by which the principles of fast-food restaurants are coming to dominate more and more sectors of American society, as well as, of the rest of the world. George Ritzer created this concept of McDonaldization as a continuation of Max Weber’s theories on bureaucracies (I hope). Max Weber defines a bureaucracy as a large hierarchical organization that is governed by formal rules and regulations and has a clear specification of work tasks.

Its three main characteristics are that it has a division of labor, hierarchy of authority, and an impartial and impersonal application of rules and policies (see what I got from Sociological Theory). Thus, from that definition of a bureaucracy, one would conclude that both McDonald’s and Wendy’s Old Fashioned Hamburgers are bureaucracies. The fact that both restaurants are bureaucracies is supported by the fact that each assigns workers to a specific job where each worker individually contributes to the overall success of the restaurant by doing his or her job.

For example, workers at each restaurant could be assigned to working the grill, making fries, working the front register, or taking orders at the drive-thru window. Both restaurants have a hierarchy of authority from worker, crew chief, shift manager, salary manager to owner of the store. Also, each restaurant enforces an impartial and impersonal application of rules and policies. Both McDonald’s and Wendy’s have standard, impersonal greetings at the register and at the drive-thru window.

The exception when this impersonal attitude towards the customer is changed is when a worker knows the customer outside the restaurant. In this case, the worker will probably ask their acquaintance how they are doing or what they are up to. The worker might even throw in an extra cheeseburger that a regular customer might not get. Despite this exception where standardization is broken, both these restaurants have become bureaucracies because they are the most efficient means of managing large groups of people.

That leaves one to wonder why the process of McDonaldization has been so successful for both companies. The first reason is that it offers efficiency where consumers know that it means the quickest way to get from one point to another. In the case of McDonald’s, it offers the best available way to get from being hungry to being full. This is so important in today’s society because so many people are in a rush to get from one place to another. Therefore, the quick, efficient setup of McDonald’s allows consumers to eat a fast-food meal without having to leave their car.

On the other hand, Wendy’s strives for as efficient service as possible without affecting the quality of their product. This is because McDonald’s already has imprinted on people’s minds throughout the many years of its existence that they will get the same burger each visit in the quickest amount of time. They reinforce this idea on the minds of consumers through advertising and other clever tools. For example, on every McDonald’s sign is a tally of how many people in the world have eaten there, which is currently at 99 billion served.

The use of this sign reinforces to people that McDonald’s is an icon in our society and many people will equate that large number with McDonald’s being the best restaurant. As a result, Wendy’s has tried to make quality their number one priority but with no serious deficiencies in the speed of their product. This can be attributed to the fact that they do not pre-make their burgers and leave them under heat lamps to sit like McDonald’s does. Instead, they have their staff assembled to make the burger as the customer orders it.

This is an especially important benefit because many people like to “customize” their burger and the process that Wendy’s uses allow them to do that. This allows them to target another group of society, which McDonald’s product doesn’t appeal to. For example, older people who would rather sit down and have a quality meal would most likely rather go to Wendy’s Old Fashioned Hamburgers. Even, the name of Wendy’s Old Fashioned Hamburgers suggests that their style is more like how things used to be done many decades ago in terms of making quality the number one priority for a restaurant.

Therefore, they would provide an alternative for people who were not interested in getting a burger that has been slopped together and sitting under a heat lamp for an hour. This would be reflected in which demographic of people each restaurant targeted. McDonald’s traditionally has targeted families as their key demographic but recently they have shifted to make their product more appealing to teenagers as well. This can best be demonstrated in their new style commercials that use many young adults and refers to McDonald’s as “Mickey D’s” as a hip place to hang out.

So, for young people who are in a rush to get from place to place, McDonald’s provides a fast, cheap meal that they can eat on the run. On the other hand, Wendy’s Old Fashioned Hamburgers targets people who aren’t in such a rush and would rather sit down and eat a slow, relaxing meal (is this ageism). They still cater to those who are in a rush by offering a drive-thru. However, they know that most of their business will come from people looking for a quality alternative to McDonald’s. Another aspect of McDonaldization that has made both companies successful is calculability.

This is where each restaurant puts an emphasis on quantitative aspects of products sold like portion size and cost. For example, McDonald’s has burgers like the “Quarter Pounder” and “Big Mac” while Wendy’s Old Fashioned Hamburger has burgers like the “Double Bacon Cheeseburger”. This use of descriptive adjectives suggests to the consumer that they are getting the most amount of food for their money. Both McDonald’s and Wendy’s have the option to “Supersize” or “Biggiesize” an order. This makes the companies successful in our society because of our belief that bigger is better.

Finally, both companies use control, especially through the substitution of non-human for human technology. For both companies that means using soft drink machines that automatically shuts off when the glass is full, french-fry machines that rings and lifts itself out of the oil when the fries are done, and the preprogrammed cash registers that eliminate the need for the cashier to calculate any prices. The main reason that this is done is because,” [people are] The great source of uncertainty, unpredictability and inefficiency in any rationalizing system.

Thus, by increasing control, through increased mechanization, both companies maintain a better control over the entire organization. Also, this leads to employees not having to think about their job because the tasks they are asked to do are very repetitive. In conclusion, it is obvious that both restaurants have adopted a style of running their restaurants that makes them successful. McDonald’s style is to give the public the same burger that they have always had so that they can come to depend that they will get the same meal as they did last time.

They have been a pioneer in the fast-food industry and the model that other restaurants try to imitate. On the other hand, Wendy’s style is to make a quality product that reminds people of the “good old days”. They have been directly influenced by McDonald’s in terms of how to run their fast-food restaurant to maximize speed and efficiency. However, since Wendy’s Old Fashioned Hamburgers would not have a chance of competing with McDonald’s at their own game, they have developed their own niche in the market of making a quality product efficiently.

What concerns me is the way these companies are phasing out the roles of their employees to the point where they are doing nothing but mindless, repetitive tasks. To me, the consequence of this will be that someday all human workers will be replaced because it is more efficient for machines to do the work. So, although McDonaldization has made both these companies very successful, there is a very serious potential downside that could have an effect on everyone. Now there is no doubt that this text can be read on a number of different levels, some of which are far more satisfactory than others.

Ritzer is clearly an accessible and engaging writer. For an undergraduate audience, which is unfamiliar with the language, and indeed, critical project of radical social theory, this text provides a worthy, and indeed somewhat enjoyable introduction. Keep in mind, though, that those four principles are not necessarily pursued from the point of view of the consumer. Efficiency, for example, may entail the placing of great inconveniences upon a consumer for the sake of efficient management. Calculability may involve hiding certain information from the consumer.

Predictability and control may involve a company’s ability to predict and control consumer behavior, not the consumer’s ability to predict what kind of product or control what kind of service he gets. Ritzer calls such breakdowns “the irrationality of rationalization. ” Even so, there is a great perception among American consumers in particular that McDonaldized systems succeed from their own point of view based on those criteria: the systems are perceived to be more efficient, the benefits calculable, the goods and services predictable. But it’s rare that the consumer will ever feel himself to be more in control.

McDonaldized systems take away a great deal of consumer autonomy (which I love), making decisions and implementing processes on a mass-market scale with little room for individual involvement on the part of a single customer or even a single store or plant manager. The benefit of control is one that accrues exclusively to the company. Regardless of who benefits or to what extent, the universal result is homogenization. Rationalized systems have a pronounced tendency to squash-individual tastes, niche markets, small-scale enterprise and personalized customer service.

Differences are leveled, wrinkles smoothed, knots cut off — convenience at the expense of character. An overwhelming normlessness develops, along with a decrease in responsiveness among the people of our society that are involved. The system that seeks to mimic a machine becomes a machine, incapable of making exceptions or taking risks. McDonaldization is taking over our society. In the future, our wishes of fast, more efficient services will be fulfilled; but whom in the world will we ever talk too?