BIO 156 CHAPTER 12

BIO 156 CHAPTER 12

DNA profiling
the analysis of DNA samples that can be used to determine whether the samples come from the same individual
DNA profiling can be used
test the suspected criminals, identify tissue samples of victims, resolve paternity cases, identify contraband animal products and trace evolutionary history of organisms. Can also be used in courts.
DNA technology has led to other advances in the
creation of genetically modified crops and identification and treatment of genetic diseases.
Biotechnology
the manipulation of organisms or their components to make useful products
biotechnology is used
to make bread using yeasts and selectively breed livestock for desired traits
plasmid
extra ring of DNA and bacteria
biotechnology today means
studying and manipulating genetic material
modifying specific genes
moving genes between organisms
Plasmids
small circular DNA molecules that replicate separately from the larger bacterial chromosome
plasmids can carry
any gene
plasmids can act as
Vectors, DNA carriers that move genes from one cell to another
Plasmids are ideal for
gene cloning – the production of multiple identical copies of a gene carrying piece of DNA
Recombinant DNA
constructed when scientists combine pieces of DNA from two different sources to form a single DNA molecule
Recombiant DNA technology is used
in genetic engineering – the direct manipulation of genes for practical purposes
How can Proteins that are naturally present in only small amounts be produced in large quantities?
by transferring the gene for a desired protein into a bacterium or yeast.
DNA ligase enzymes
An enzyme, essential for DNA replication, that catalyzes the covalent bonding of adjacent DNA nucleotides; used in genetic engineering to paste a specific piece of DNA containing a gene of interest into a bacterial plasmid or other vector.
Restriction enzymes
cut DNA at a specific site, Nucleotide sequences called Restriction Sites, on a chromosome
Genome Library
The entire collection of DNA segments from an organism’s genome. Each segment is usually carried by a plasmid or phage.
another way to obtain a gene of interest is to
use reverse transcriptase and sytnthesize the gene by using an mRNA template
Another apprroach to DNA synthesizing is using
an automated DNA machine makeing Genes from scratch
In 1982 what was sold
the worlds first genetically engineered pharmaceutical product was sold
How do you test if two samples of DNA come from the same person?
Repetitive DNA – makes up much of the DNA that lies between genes in humans and consists of nucleotide sequences that are present in multiple copies in the genome
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
a techniques to copy quickly and precisely a specific segent of DNA and can generate enough DNA from small amounts of blood or tissue for DNA profiling
short tandem repeats (STRs)
are short sequences of DNA and repeated many times, tandemly in the genome
STR analysis
compares the lengths of DNA fragments and uses gel electrophoreses
Gel electrophorieses
a method for sorting macromolecules – usually proteins or nucleic acids – A mixture of molecules is placed on a gel between a positively charged electrode and a negatively charged one; negative charges on the molecules are attracted to the positive electrode, and the molecules migrate toward that electrode. The molecules separate in the gel according to their rates of migration.
Humulin
human insulin was produced by genetically modified bacteria
Humulin is continuously produced by
gigantic fermentation vats filled with a liquid culture of bacteria – used for Diabetes
DNA technology is used to produce
medically valuable molecules such as – human growth hormone (HGH), The hormone erythropoietin (EPO), Vaccines
Erythropoietin (EPO)
hormone that stimulates production of red blood cells
Vaccines
harmless variants or derivatives of a pathogen used to prevent infectious diseases
genomics
study of complete set of genes (Genomes)
Proteomics
study of complete set of proteins in an organism
Genetically Modified (GM) Foods
organisms that have acquired one or more genes by artificial means
transgenic organism
a gene from another organism ( different species)
SCID (severe combined immunodeficiency)
a fatal disease and caused by a single defective gene that prevents the development of the immune system
SCID theropy
Bone marrow transplant or gene therapy – this has cured 22 children with inborn SCID – tho four of the children has fatal side effects developing leukemia.
In the United States today
roughly half of the corn crop and more than three quarters of the soybean and cotton crops are genetically modified
Strawberry plants produce
bacterial proteins that act as a natural antifreeze, protecting the plants from cold weather
Potatoes and rice have been modified to produce
harmless proteins derived from the cholera bacterium and may one day serve as edible vaccines
Pharm animals
Animals whose genes have been modified for medical purposes of humans
EX: enter gene to code after a mammary gland promoter so that a protein is made and put into milk
Transgenic pig has been produced for what?
to carry a gene for human hemoglobin, which can be isolated and used in human blood transfusions.
Gene Cloning
the production of multiple identical copies of a gene-carrying piece of DNA
Recombinant DNA is produced by combining two Ingredients
a bacterial plasmid and the gene of interest that is spliced into a plasmid by process of restriction enzymes and DNA ligase
Recombinant DNA Techniques can help
biologists produce large quantities of a desired protein
Genetic Engineering
The direct manipulation of genes for practical purposes.
Genetic Markers
using PCR and gel electrophoresis. DNA profiling can be used to determine whether two samples of genetic material were derived from the same individual.
How can a researcher obtain DNA that encodes a particular gene of interest
A shotgun approach can yield millions of recombinant plasmids carrying many different segments of foreign DNA,
A collection of cloned DNA fragments that includes an organisms entire gnomic library
Once a genomic library is created, the bacterial clone containing the desired gene is identified by?
nucleic acid probe, consisting of a short single strand of DNA with a complementary sequence and labeled with either a radioactive isotope or a fluorescent dye
Another way to obtain a gene of interest is to use
reverse transcriptase and synthesize the gene by using an mRNA telate or use an automated DNA – synthesizing maching and synthesize a gene of interest from scratch
To produce a DNA profile scientists do what?
Compare sequences in the genome that vary form person to person, investigate Murder, Paternity and Ancient DNA
DNA fragments are visualized as
bands of gel
The differences in locations of the bands reflect
the different lengths of the DNA fragments
RFLP Analysis
DNA molecules are exposed to a restriction enzyme, producing fragments that are compared and made visible using Gel Electrophoresis
Human Genome Project
began in 1990, was a massive scientific endeavor to –
determine the nucleotide sequence of all the DNA in the human genomome
Identify the location and sequence of every gene
At the completion of the Human Genome Project
99% of the genome had been determine to be 99.999% accurate, about 3 million nucleotide pairs were identified, 21000 genes were found and 98% of the human DNA was identified as non-coding
The Human Genome Project helps map genes
for specific diseases, such as Alzheimer’s, and Parkinson’s