Bio Ch 13

NOT a goal of biotechnology
creating humans with higher intelligence levels
biotechnology
the term for manipulating the molecular basis of inheritance via recombinant DNA technology
NOT a use for biotechnology
Altering the intelligence levels of newborn infants
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history of biotechnology spans
at least 10,000 years
Recombinant DNA
results from inserting foreign DNA into an organism to produce a new gene combination
transgenic
An organism that contains foreign DNA, which was inserted into its own genetic material
polymorphic
does not contain altered genes
earliest example of biotechnology
use of selective breeding to provide better, more nutritious food
plasmids
-small, accessory chromosomes found in bacteria that are useful in recombinant DNA procedures
-small, replicating rings of DNA found in bacteria.
-used to insert foreign DNA into bacteria
bird flu viruses & human flu viruses
caused massive, widespread epidemics that affected the global human population several times in 20th century
NOT an example of genetic recombination between different species in nature
sexual reproduction
Recombinant DNA technology
involves combining existing genes from different organisms
DNA from different bacteria may be combined using all of the following
-transformation
-plasmids
-viruses
-NOT cloning
NOT a natural means of DNA recombination
polymerase chain reaction
gel electrophoresis
DNA fragments created by restriction enzyme action are separated from one another by it
PCR essential for:
making many copies of a small amount of DNA
How many copies of a gene of interest are produced from one template DNA strand after three cycles of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)?
EIGHT
correct sequence of PCR
heat to 90 c (to separate DNA), cool to 50 c (to bind primers), reheat to 70 c (to synthesize DNA)
DNA moves within an electric field bc it is:
negatively charged
PCR does NOT enable scientists to:
sequence the bases within a gene as it is being copied
STR (single tandem repeats)
-Modern forensic biotechnology labs analyze these (such as D16) to determine the number of specific genetic repeats in the samples
-used by US Department of Justice as form of fingerprinting
DNA probes
specific fragments of DNA on a gel can be visualized
If the DNA fingerprint of a suspect does not match a blood sample from a crime scene, what can you conclude?
The blood sample had to come from another person, but the suspect may still have been there.
phosphate groups
makes DNA have a negative charge
amplifies a certain region of DNA
PCR
how does DNA move during gel electrophoresis?
smaller pieces of DNA move faster toward positive electrode
“DNA replication in a tube”
PCR
restriction enzymes
cut genes in recombinant DNA research
transfecting
inserting the gene of interest into the host organism
Which pair of enzymes is necessary to make recombinant DNA?
restriction enzymes & DNA ligase
In order to join a fragment of human DNA to bacterial or yeast DNA, both the human DNA and the bacterial or yeast DNA must first be treated with the same:
restriction enzyme
Restriction enzymes are useful in recombinant DNA studies because they
cut DNA only at specific locations
restriction enzymes produce:
single-stranded DNA fragments with “sticky ends”
what is the advantage to farmers using an insect-resistant crop plant?
less pesticide use & better crop yield
Suppose ENZ-1 and ENZ-2 are two different restriction enzymes. If various pieces of DNA from different species are cut with these enzymes (as follows), which would most easily form recombinant molecules?
Human DNA cut with ENZ-2 and gorilla cut with ENZ-2
If you cut out a gene using the restriction enzymes EcoRI and BamHI, what enzyme(s) will you need to insert the gene into another chromosome?
BOTH EcoRI and BamHI
more than 85% of ______ grown were transgenic
corn, cotton, soybeans
Which of the following applications of biotechnology results in an insect-resistant plant
Bt toxin production by soybeans
NOT a benefit of sequencing the human genome
every genetic disorder is now curable
human genome contains ____ genes
20,000-25,000
sequencing genes of humans is important bc:
knowing the nucleotide sequence of human genes will aid in treatment of diseases
has NOT been produced by inserting human genes into bacteria
cancer-cell killing hormones
what can be used to detect genetic disorders?
restriction enzyme fragments & DNA probe arrays
If you want to develop a procedure for identifying a genetic disorder caused by 20 different alleles, what method would be most likely to be useful?
arrays of DNA probes on filter paper
involves use of human genes
insulin production by bacteria
why was successfully used to treat a patient with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID
gene therapy
controversy has arisen about using genetically engineered bovine growth hormone to increase milk yield in cattle. The lesson gained from this controversy is that
the whole human society should decide proper uses of recombinant DNA technology
NOT a valid difference between traditional and modern forms of biotechnology
modern forms are slower than traditional
Which of the following is a valid difference between traditional (selective breeding) and modern (genetic engineering) forms of biotechnology?
Genetic engineering can use genes from unrelated species, whereas selective breeding must use genes from the same or very closely related individuals.
In the 1990s, researchers attempted to improve the balance of amino acids in soybean protein by inserting a gene from Brazil nuts. Which of the following is the best reason as to why the transgenic soybeans have never been grown commercially?
Some people were allergic to the protein product of the Brazil nut gene
Which of the following is a valid scientific concern about the environment and transgenic crops?
Pollen from transgenic crops could carry the recombinant genes to wild relatives, with unpredictable consequences.
prenatal diagnosis is NOT available for:
AIDS
amniocentesis
most commonly used in prenatal disorders in a human fetus
NOT a way scientists can transfect an organism
infecting an organism w/ a virus carrying a new gene
DNA recombination occurs random & undirected
TRUE
DNA recombination changes genetic makeup
TRUE
sexual reproduction is example of DNA recombination
TRUE
recombinant plasmid contains only human & bacterial DNA
FALSE
PCR joins many small DNA molecules into long chain
FALSE
individs within same species have same DNA fingerprint but individs from different species have different fingerprint
FALSE
The discovery of the organism Thermus aquaticus was critical for the development of the technique of PCR
TRUE
Restriction enzymes are “restricted” in the sense that they normally work on only bacterial DNA.
FALSE
Ligase enzymes are used to covalently bind together pieces of DNA
TRUE
Restriction enzymes have the ability to cut DNA at specific nucleotide sequences.
TRUE
The DNA of humans and chimps differs by about 10%.
FALSE
About 90% of the human genome contains the genes
FALSE
There are potential risks in performing recombinant DNA research on humans and plants.
TRUE
Stringent safety rules are not necessary for recombinant DNA research because it is a natural process that occurs in the absence of human intervention
FALSE

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