Bio Ch 30

Usually, why does rapid population growth begin to decline?
When resources such as FOOD AND SPACE become scarce.
Contrast MDC’s with LDC’s
MDC – modest population growth and a good standard of living (Europe, USA). LDC – fast rate of pop growth and people live in poverty (Latin America, Asia, Africa).
The spatial distribution of individuals in a population can be described in what three ways?
Clumped, random, uniform.
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List two major factors that influence population density
Resource availability and Body size
What is the relationship between survivor ship and population size?
If members of a population typically die young, the size of the population will be lower than expected.
List 4 demographic characteristics of a population that determine its biotic potential
Usual number of offspring per reproduction. Chances of survival until age of reproduction. How often each individual reproduces. Age at which reproduction begins.
Contrast exponential growth with logistic growth
Exponential growth produces a J shaped curve and occurs when resources are unlimited. Logistic growth produces a S shaped curve and occurs when resources are limited.
Explain why competition and predation are considered density-dependent factors
regulating population growth.
With both factors, the % of the population affected increases as the density of the population increases.
Contrast opportunistic populations with equilibrium populations
Opportunistic pops exhibit exponential growth and are regulated by density-independent factors. Equilibrium pops exhibit logistic growth and remain near carrying capacity.
List five factors that can determine whether an equilibrium population is in
danger of extinction.
Time to maturity. Number of offspring produced. Size of geographic range. Degree of habitat tolerance. Size of local populations.
List the levels of biological organization above the organ system
Organisms. Populations. Communities. Ecosystems. Biospheres.
Decreased death rate followed by decreased birthrate has occurred in
MDC’s
Human societies are concentrated along
Coastlines
Human societies are characterized by
Unsustainable practices
A populations maximum growth rate is also called its
Biotic potential
Which level of ecological study involves both abiotic and biotic components?
Ecosystem
The biological level of organization subject to evolution by natural selection is
called
A Population
If a population lives only along a lake’s shore line, members of this pop…..
clumped
Which are likely to have the highest population density- moose in a Canadian forest or earthworms in an organically rich soil?
Earthworms in an organically rich soil
Calculate the birth rate of a population of 500 individuals in which the birthrate is 10 per year and the death rate is 5 per year.
10 births minus 5 deaths = 5 survivors. 5 divided by 500 = 1%
Replacement reproduction in a population with a pyramid-shaped age structure diagram results in (population growth or population decline)?
Population growth
If the number of pre-reproductive and reproductive members of a population exceeds the number of post-reproductive members, the population will (grow or decline)?
grow
An S-shaped curve indicates (exponential growth or logistic growth)?
Logistic Growth
Exponential growth occurs when
The population size is increasing to an ever-higher amount.
A severe drought destroys the entire food supply of a herd of gazelle
Density-independent factor
A population of feral cats increases in size as the mouse population increases and then crashes regularly after the mouse population enters periods of decline.
Predator-prey cycle
Swift coyotes are able to catch rabbits and live to reproduce. Other coyotes lack a good food source and are not strong enough to reproduce.
Competition
Deer prefer to feed on a dense thicket of oak saplings in preference to more widely spaced young oak trees.
Predation
A long life span is a characteristic of an opportunistic life history pattern (T or F)
False
Natural selection favors a population of organisms living in a frequently disturbed environment to (mature slowly, or have many offspring)?
Have many offspring
When the carrying capacity of the environment is exceeded, the population typically (increases, but at a slower rate, or reverts to an opportunistic life history strategy)?
Reverts to an opportunistic life history strategy
A pyramid-shaped age distribution means that the country is more likely an (LDC or MDC)?
LDC
Which of these is a density-independent factor (competition or weather)?
weather
Which would not limit the biotic potential of an organism (a decrease in predators or an increase in parasites)?
A decrease in predators
The number of individuals the environment can sustain for and indefinite period of time
Carrying capacity
The area with the highest population growth
Africa
The number of individuals per unit area or volume
Population density
Populations that are large in size, slow to mature and have a long life span (opportunistic or equilibrium)?
Equilibrium
A community of living organisms as well as the physical environment
Ecosystem

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