BIOL 100, UNIT 4: set #6: DNA technology

BIOL 100, UNIT 4: set #6: DNA technology

Briefly describe “DNA technology” (a.k.a. “Biotechnology”)
methods for studying and manipulating genetic material; using these techniques allows for modification of specific genes and their movement between organisms – e.g., moving plant genes into bacteria
Briefly describe “Genetic Engineering”
the direct manipulation of genes for practical purposes
Define “Recombinant DNA”
combining nucleotide sequences (pieces of DNA) from two different sources to form a single DNA molecule
Recombinant DNA technology is widely used in ___
genetic engineering
Briefly describe a “vector” with respect to biotechnology
a DNA carrier that moves genes from one cell to another
Briefly describe “gene cloning” with respect to biotechnology
the production of multiple identical copies of a gene-carrying piece of DNA
_(1)_ are the “workhorses” of modern biotechnology. Often plasmids, which are _(2)_, are used in combination with bacteria so that biotechnologists can produce large quantities of a desired _(3)_
(1) bacteria
(2) small circular DNA that are separate from the bacterial chromosome
(3) proteins
List two reasons why plasmids are useful for biotechnology applications
(1) can easily incorporate foreign DNA
(2) readily taken up by bacterial cells
(3) act as VECTORS
(4) are ideal for GENE CLONING
Briefly describe a “genetically modified (GM) organism”
produced by scientists, these organisms have acquired one or more genes by artificial means. Many foods (“GM foods”) are derived from DNA technology rather than traditional plant-breeding programs
List two characteristics of “Human Gene Therapy”
* seeks to treat disease by altering the genes of an afllicted person
* often replaces or supplements the mutant version of a gene with a properly functioning one
Name the process that can be used to determine if two samples of genetic material are from a particular individual
DNA profiling – a process that has rapidly revolutionized the field of forensics
Briefly define “Forensics” with respect to DNA technology
a field of science that uses “DNA profiling” to scientifically analyze evidence from crime scenes
___ are sequences in the genome of individuals that vary from person to person
genetic markers
List three ways to use DNA profiling to scientifically analyze evidence from a crime scene (Forensics)
*test guilt of suspects
* identify tissue of victims
*resolve paternity cases
*identify contraband animal products
Name one way that DNA profiling can be used to scientifically analyze evidence that is not associated with a crime scene
*trace the evolutionary history of organisms
_(1)_ is the science of studying complete sets of genes {which are also known as _(2)_}
(1) genomics
(2) genomes
The successes in Genomics have encouraged scientists to study full protein sets {_(1)_} to understand the functioning of cells and organisms. This type of study is called _(2)_
(1) proteomes
(2) proteomics