Biology EOC Review- Ferrell

Biology EOC Review- Ferrell

Control center of the cell; contains information passed to offspring
Nucleus
Surrounds the cell membrane; provides structure, support, and rigidity (firmness)
Cell Wall
Encloses the cell; regulates the flow of the materials in and out of the cell, is made up of Lipids and Proteins
Cell Membrane
Watery material that fills most of the cell; site of biochemical reactions
Cytoplasm
Site of protein synthesis, Where proteins are made
Ribosomes
Transports materials inside the cell
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Modifies and sorts molecules made by other organelles, and distributes them to where they are needed
Golgi Apparatus
Aids in the import and export of molecules
Vesicles
Digests food and recycles organelles
Lysosomes
Store water, nutrients, and other materials; support plant cells
Vacuoles
Site of cellular respiration. It takes in nutrients, breaks them down and creates energy for the cell. The powerhouse of the cell.
Mitochondria
Involved in cell division. Is a small set of microtubules.
Centrioles
Site of photosynthesis… is found only in plant cells and some protists. The food producers of the cell.
Chloroplast
A type of cell that contains a nucleus
Eukaryotic Cell
A type of cell that does not contain (have) a nucleus
Prokaryotic Cell
Tiny structures inside a cell that carry out the processes of life (parts of the cell)
Organelles
The basic unit of structure and function in all organisms. It is the smallest biological form of life.
Cell
The membrane surrounding the nucleus
Nuclear Membrane
Organism made up of a single cell
Unicellular Organism
Organism made up of multiple cells
Multicellular Organism
The sister chromatids (two identical strands) are joined at a central point called the _________________.
Centromere
_________________ involves an increase in the size or complexity of an organism.
Growth
A continuous process in which cells grow, make copies of their chromosomes and divide to form daughter cells.
Cell Cycle
What is a type of asexual reproduction in which the parent splits in two to from two identical daughter cells?
Binary Fission
What structures are composed of DNA and proteins and are located in the nucleus of a cell?
Chromosomes
What are the fours phases of Mitosis in order?
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telophase
Phase of Mitosis where the chromosomes condense and spindle fibers attach to the centromeres of the sister chromatids. The Primary Phase.
Prophase
Phase of Mitosis do the spindle fibers move the sister chromatids to the center/Middle of the cell in a line
Metaphase
Phase of Mitosis where the spindle fibers pull the sister chromatids APART at their centromeres and duplicate the parent chromosome
Anaphase
Phase of Mitosis where the spindle fibers disappear and new nuclear membranes and two new nuclei form around the chromosomes (Two daughter cells)
Telophase
A type of reproduction that only involves one parent organism.
Asexual Reproduction
A type of reproduction that involves two parent organisms.
Sexual Reproduction
What are the three phases of the Cell Cycle?
Interphase, Mitosis. Cytokinesis
The part of the cell cycle where growth takes place and DNA replicates.
Interphase
The part of the cell cycle when the cytoplasm divides.
Cytokinesis
The part of the cell cycle when the cell’s nucleus divides, makes two nuclei each with a set of chromosomes. (Daughter Cells)
Mitosis
Allows some materials to pass through it, but blocks other materials
Semipermeable Membrane
The ability of cells and organisms to maintain a stable internal environment
Homeostasis
The movement of materials INTO and OUT of a cell WITHOUT using energy
Passive Transport
The movement of molecules THROUGH the cell membrane AGAINST a concentration gradient where energy is required.
Active Transport
Diffusion and Osmosis are two types of ________________ Transport.
Passive
The movement of molecules from an area of HIGH concentration to an area of LOW concentration until the molecules are EVENLY SPREAD distributed (Crowded to less crowded)
Diffusion
The diffusion of WATER across a semipermeable membrane, can cause water to flow in or out to cause a cell to shrink or swell
Osmosis
The diffusion of molecules across a membrane with the aid of a channel protein. (PROTEIN HELPS)
Facilitated Diffusion
A ______________ is any change that a cell or organism reacts to.
Stimulus
A ________________ is a reaction to a stimulus.
Response
In what organelle is DNA found?
Nucleic Acid
Genetic Information (info passed on from one generation to the next) is stored in the cells _________________.
Nucleic Acid
Nucleic acids are assembled from units of _________________.
Nucleotides
A nucleic acid called deoxyribonucleic acid is also known as ______________.
DNA
A nucleic acid called ribonucleic acid is also known as _______.
RNA
A biochemical catalyst that makes chemical reactions within cells possible, or SPEEDS THEM UP by lowering the activation energy.
Enzyme
The reactants that are affected by enzymes in enzyme-catalyzed reactions.
Substrates
Substrates bind to a part of the enzyme called an _____________________.
Active Site
Which macro molecule is composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and small amounts of sulfur that make our bodies stronger with structural support, sends messages by transporting substances, and makes hormones.
Proteins
A building block of Protein that contains a compound whose molecule contains at least one amino group and one carboxyl group. Proteins are made up of chains of these.
Amino Acid
The bond that holds two amino acids together
Peptide bond
Organic molecules made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen and store food energy until needed (Fats)
Lipids
Lipids that act as chemical messengers
Steroids
Macromolecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 2:1 ratio. (Sugars)
Carbohydrates
What are some examples of Carbohydrates?
Cellulose, Glucose, Sucrose, Fructose, Starches.
The disappearance (no longer on earth/all gone) of a species or larger group of organisms.
Extinction
The deaths of so many species, 65 million years ago is an example of ___________________.
Mass Extinction
A place where an organism lives.
Habitat
The gradual change of the species and structure of a community or ecosystem following a disturbance is called a ______________________.
Succession
When living things repopulate an area.
Ecological Succession
Follows a disturbance that destroys all living things and soil in an area. Ex. After a volcano MUST START NEW
Pioneer Succession
Follows a disturbance that has wiped out most living things in an area, but not destroyed, covered, or removed the soil. Ex. after a Hurricane blows down trees, leaving soil behind
Secondary Succession
The first organisms to return to an area after a disturbance.
Pioneer Species
The ecosystem reaches a stage in which it does not change much
Climax Community
Burning _______________ causes acid rain
Fossil Fuels
A __________________ shows the flow of energy from one organism to the next organism
Food Chain
A ___________________ shows the interconnected network of food chains within an ecosystem.
Food Web
An organism that makes it’s own food, gets its energy from the sun. Ex. plants, green algae, and some bacteria
Producer or Autotroph
An organism that gets its food by eating other organisms. Ex. all animals, many protists, and some bacteria
Consumer or Heterotroph
Gets its energy by breaking down the remains of dead organisms. Ex. Most fungi and many bacteria
Decomposer
Scientists show the energy loss between trophic levels in an ecosystem
Energy Pyramid
Each higher trophic level contains ______________ organisms.
Fewer
Secondary consumers that feed only or mainly on animals. (Eat Meat)
Carnivores
Primary consumers that feed only or almost entirely on plants are called
Herbivores
Consumers that eat both plants and animals.
Omnivores
Adenosine Triphosphate is an organic compound that transfers energy within the cell.
ATP
Adenosine Diphosphate is a chemical that plays an important role in energy transfer
ADP
Chemical Cycle in which ATP is transformed into ADP and vice versa
ATP-ADP Cycle
A process that releases energy in the cell by breaking down food molecules in the presence of oxygen (break down food for energy)
Cellular Respiration
Process that REQUIRES OXYGEN
Aerobic Process
Process that splits glucose.
Glycolysis
Series of chemical reactions where pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide
Krebs Cycle
Glycolysis makes _____________ molecules per glucose molecule
2 ATP
The Krebs Cycle and high energy electrons produce _________________ molecules
36 ATP
A process that does NOT REQUIRE OXYGEN
Anaerobic Respiration
What is a product of cellular respiration?
Carbon Dioxide and Water
In Light DEPENDENT REACTIONS in photosynthesis, chlorophyll: __________ require LIGHT. (Does or Does Not)
Does
Carbon Dioxide + Water –> (light energy) –> Glucose + Oxygen
Formula for Photosynthesis
The process by which plants, algae, and some other organisms use the energy of sunlight to make food.
Photosynthesis
Reflects green light to give the plants green pigment.
Chlorophyll
(Uses) Glucose + Oxygen –> (Makes) Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy
Cellular Respiration
What are the reactants of Photosynthesis (What does it create)?
Glucose and Oxygen
In Light INDEPENDENT or dark REACTIONS the reactions ____________ require light. (Do/Don’t)
Don’t
Involves the movements of ORGANIC and INORGANIC chemicals through the lithosphere
Biochemical Cycles
Places where various chemicals are stored (saved) and from which they are recycled
Reservoirs
The continuous (constant) movement of WATER through reservoirs in the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere. (Ex. Evaporation and transpiration, condensation, precipitation, and runoff) What cycle is this?
Water Cycle
The changing of a liquid to a gas.
Evaporation
The movement of water from plants into the air, usually through openings in their leaves
Transpiration
Change of a water vapor to a liquid.
Condensation
Hydroelectric dams create ______________.
Energy
The continuous movement of nitrogen through each of Earth’s systems is the _________________ _________________.
Nitrogen Cycle
What is a key element in organisms and makes up 78% of Earths atmosphere?
Nitrogen
___________ provide most of the food and energy for all living things, including humans. So if _________ are harmed, animals are harmed too.
Plants
Continuous movement of CARBON and OXYGEN through all of Earth’s systems is the ________________.
Carbon Oxygen Cycle
What is responsible for converting gaseous nitrogen into nitrates and ammonia?
Bacteria
Process by which two species each evolve in response to changes in the other.
Coevolution
Any structure or behavior that increases an organism’s chance of survival is known as an _________________.
Adaption
A _____________ adaption is something an animal does that helps it survive.
Behavioral
A ________________ adaption is an adaption that is related to how an animals body WORKS.
Functional
A ______________________ is an adaption that is related to a plants or animals FORM or STRUCTURE
Structural Adaption
Region of Earth that supports life
Biosphere
The number of individuals of the same species living in a given area
Population Density
An organism’s role in its environment
Niche
______________ factors are all the LIVING things in the environment and their effects on the organism
Biotic Factors
________________ factors are the NONLIVING things that affect an organism, such as light, water, soil and climate
Abiotic Factors
The movement of organisms INTO an area
Immigration
The movement of organisms OUT of an area
Emigration
When a population doubles at a regular rate it is called
Exponential growth
Density- _______________ limiting factors are a limiting factor that has more of an effect on large or crowded populations.
Dependent
Density _____________ limiting factors are a limiting factor that limits the growth of a population regardless of its size
Independent
In ______________ one species, the predator, hunts and eats another, the prey
Predation
The largest population that an environment can support over a long period of time.
Carrying Capacity
A product of the environment that is used by humans or other organisms
Natural Resource
Resources that can be replaced through natural processes. Examples: Air, Soil, Water, Trees
Renewable resources
A resource that CANNOT be replaced by natural processes at least as fast as they are used. Examples: Coal, Oil, Metals, Marble, Gold
Nonrenewable resources
One way to conserve vital resources such as land, forests, fisheries, air, freshwater. Examples: Plowing land to prevent erosion, conserving water, and replanting forests with a variety of trees
Sustainable Development
Process that completely clears forests
Deforestation
Changes productive, fertile land into a desert.
Desertification
A large molecule found in a cell’s nucleus that directs the assembly (making) of proteins in the cell. It also determines what traits are inherited or passed down from one generation to the next.
DNA
One of the chemical building blocks of a nucleic acid, it is made up of a phosphate, the sugar deoxyribose, and a nitrogenous base. Contains either adenine, thymine, guanine, or cytosine. BUILDING BLOCKS OF DNA
Nucleotide
Adenine only pairs with _________.
Thymine
Cytosine only pairs with _________.
Guanine
The copying of DNA during cell division is called ____________________. The strands of DNA separate from one another.
DNA Replication
If one side of a DNA molecule reads ATGCCGT what would the complementary side read?
TACGGCA
If one side of a DNA molecule reads TAGCCGA what would the complementary side read?
ATCGGCT
DNA replication provides New Cells with a complete and identical copy of __________________.
Genetic Material
Proteins are assembled on _______________ which are organelles found in the cytoplasm
Ribosomes
The nucleic acid __________ (ribonucleic acid) carries information from the DNA to the ribosomes and uses it to make proteins.
RNA
RNA has a _____________ strand of nucleotides, rather than a pair of strands like DNA.
Single
RNA has a ____________ base and not thymine. ___________ pairs with ADENINE in RNA.
Uracil (U)
RNA nucleotides contain the _____________________ ribose rather than the deoxyribose found in DNA
Five Carbon Sugar
Transfer RNA tRNA, Messenger RNA mRNA, Ribosomal RNA rRNA are the three main types of ________.
RNA
Copies a molecule of DNA into a complementary strand of RNA
Transcription
The entire process of constructing proteins is known as _____________________.
Protein Synthesis
When the information is decoded and used to arrange amino acids into proteins. (info is translated from nucleotides to amino acids)
Translation
DD or Dd is (dominant or recessive)
Dominant
dd is (dominant or recessive)
Recessive
Human Gametes are the same thing as ________ cells.
Sex
The passing of traits to the next generation is _____________.
Heredity
Human body cells have _______________ chromosomes
46
Each parent contributes 1 allele to a trait, like hair color.
True
Another word for Hybrid is _____________________. Examples are ________________.
Heterozygous, Tt, Ss, Mm
Another word for Purebred is _____________. Examples are ____________.
Homozygous, TT, tt, SS
TT, DD, ss, MM, nn are (Purebred or Hybrid)
Purebred
Ss, Nn, Ii are (Purebred or Hybrid)
Hybrid
Reproduction that can happen with one organism, produces identical (exactly the same) offspring (Mitosis)
Asexual Reproduction
Reproduction where there must be two organisms (man and woman)
Sexual Reproduction
________________ are made of DNA (our genetic information)
Chromosomes
Word meaning from Father
Paternal
Word meaning from Mother
Maternal
DD is (Homozygous or Heterozygous)
Homozygous
nn is (Homozygous or Heterozygous)
Homozygous
Ss is (Homozygous or Heterozygous)
Heterozygous