Biology EOC Review- Ferrell
Control center of the cell; contains information passed to offspring
Surrounds the cell membrane; provides structure, support, and rigidity (firmness)
Encloses the cell; regulates the flow of the materials in and out of the cell, is made up of Lipids and Proteins
Watery material that fills most of the cell; site of biochemical reactions
Site of protein synthesis, Where proteins are made
Transports materials inside the cell
Modifies and sorts molecules made by other organelles, and distributes them to where they are needed
Aids in the import and export of molecules
Digests food and recycles organelles
Store water, nutrients, and other materials; support plant cells
Site of cellular respiration. It takes in nutrients, breaks them down and creates energy for the cell. The powerhouse of the cell.
Involved in cell division. Is a small set of microtubules.
Site of photosynthesis… is found only in plant cells and some protists. The food producers of the cell.
A type of cell that contains a nucleus
A type of cell that does not contain (have) a nucleus
Tiny structures inside a cell that carry out the processes of life (parts of the cell)
The basic unit of structure and function in all organisms. It is the smallest biological form of life.
The membrane surrounding the nucleus
Organism made up of a single cell
Organism made up of multiple cells
The sister chromatids (two identical strands) are joined at a central point called the _________________.
_________________ involves an increase in the size or complexity of an organism.
A continuous process in which cells grow, make copies of their chromosomes and divide to form daughter cells.
What is a type of asexual reproduction in which the parent splits in two to from two identical daughter cells?
What structures are composed of DNA and proteins and are located in the nucleus of a cell?
What are the fours phases of Mitosis in order?
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telophase
Phase of Mitosis where the chromosomes condense and spindle fibers attach to the centromeres of the sister chromatids. The Primary Phase.
Phase of Mitosis do the spindle fibers move the sister chromatids to the center/Middle of the cell in a line
Phase of Mitosis where the spindle fibers pull the sister chromatids APART at their centromeres and duplicate the parent chromosome
Phase of Mitosis where the spindle fibers disappear and new nuclear membranes and two new nuclei form around the chromosomes (Two daughter cells)
A type of reproduction that only involves one parent organism.
A type of reproduction that involves two parent organisms.
What are the three phases of the Cell Cycle?
Interphase, Mitosis. Cytokinesis
The part of the cell cycle where growth takes place and DNA replicates.
The part of the cell cycle when the cytoplasm divides.
The part of the cell cycle when the cell’s nucleus divides, makes two nuclei each with a set of chromosomes. (Daughter Cells)
Allows some materials to pass through it, but blocks other materials
The ability of cells and organisms to maintain a stable internal environment
The movement of materials INTO and OUT of a cell WITHOUT using energy
The movement of molecules THROUGH the cell membrane AGAINST a concentration gradient where energy is required.
Diffusion and Osmosis are two types of ________________ Transport.
The movement of molecules from an area of HIGH concentration to an area of LOW concentration until the molecules are EVENLY SPREAD distributed (Crowded to less crowded)
The diffusion of WATER across a semipermeable membrane, can cause water to flow in or out to cause a cell to shrink or swell
The diffusion of molecules across a membrane with the aid of a channel protein. (PROTEIN HELPS)
A ______________ is any change that a cell or organism reacts to.
A ________________ is a reaction to a stimulus.
In what organelle is DNA found?
Genetic Information (info passed on from one generation to the next) is stored in the cells _________________.
Nucleic acids are assembled from units of _________________.
A nucleic acid called deoxyribonucleic acid is also known as ______________.
A nucleic acid called ribonucleic acid is also known as _______.
A biochemical catalyst that makes chemical reactions within cells possible, or SPEEDS THEM UP by lowering the activation energy.
The reactants that are affected by enzymes in enzyme-catalyzed reactions.
Substrates bind to a part of the enzyme called an _____________________.
Which macro molecule is composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and small amounts of sulfur that make our bodies stronger with structural support, sends messages by transporting substances, and makes hormones.
A building block of Protein that contains a compound whose molecule contains at least one amino group and one carboxyl group. Proteins are made up of chains of these.
The bond that holds two amino acids together
Organic molecules made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen and store food energy until needed (Fats)
Lipids that act as chemical messengers
Macromolecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 2:1 ratio. (Sugars)
What are some examples of Carbohydrates?
Cellulose, Glucose, Sucrose, Fructose, Starches.
The disappearance (no longer on earth/all gone) of a species or larger group of organisms.
The deaths of so many species, 65 million years ago is an example of ___________________.
A place where an organism lives.
The gradual change of the species and structure of a community or ecosystem following a disturbance is called a ______________________.
When living things repopulate an area.
Follows a disturbance that destroys all living things and soil in an area. Ex. After a volcano MUST START NEW
Follows a disturbance that has wiped out most living things in an area, but not destroyed, covered, or removed the soil. Ex. after a Hurricane blows down trees, leaving soil behind
The first organisms to return to an area after a disturbance.
The ecosystem reaches a stage in which it does not change much
Burning _______________ causes acid rain
A __________________ shows the flow of energy from one organism to the next organism
A ___________________ shows the interconnected network of food chains within an ecosystem.
An organism that makes it’s own food, gets its energy from the sun. Ex. plants, green algae, and some bacteria
Producer or Autotroph
An organism that gets its food by eating other organisms. Ex. all animals, many protists, and some bacteria
Consumer or Heterotroph
Gets its energy by breaking down the remains of dead organisms. Ex. Most fungi and many bacteria
Scientists show the energy loss between trophic levels in an ecosystem
Each higher trophic level contains ______________ organisms.
Secondary consumers that feed only or mainly on animals. (Eat Meat)
Primary consumers that feed only or almost entirely on plants are called
Consumers that eat both plants and animals.
Adenosine Triphosphate is an organic compound that transfers energy within the cell.
Adenosine Diphosphate is a chemical that plays an important role in energy transfer
Chemical Cycle in which ATP is transformed into ADP and vice versa
A process that releases energy in the cell by breaking down food molecules in the presence of oxygen (break down food for energy)
Process that REQUIRES OXYGEN
Process that splits glucose.
Series of chemical reactions where pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide
Glycolysis makes _____________ molecules per glucose molecule
The Krebs Cycle and high energy electrons produce _________________ molecules
A process that does NOT REQUIRE OXYGEN
What is a product of cellular respiration?
Carbon Dioxide and Water
In Light DEPENDENT REACTIONS in photosynthesis, chlorophyll: __________ require LIGHT. (Does or Does Not)
Carbon Dioxide + Water –> (light energy) –> Glucose + Oxygen
Formula for Photosynthesis
The process by which plants, algae, and some other organisms use the energy of sunlight to make food.
Reflects green light to give the plants green pigment.
(Uses) Glucose + Oxygen –> (Makes) Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy
What are the reactants of Photosynthesis (What does it create)?
Glucose and Oxygen
In Light INDEPENDENT or dark REACTIONS the reactions ____________ require light. (Do/Don’t)
Involves the movements of ORGANIC and INORGANIC chemicals through the lithosphere
Places where various chemicals are stored (saved) and from which they are recycled
The continuous (constant) movement of WATER through reservoirs in the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere. (Ex. Evaporation and transpiration, condensation, precipitation, and runoff) What cycle is this?
The changing of a liquid to a gas.
The movement of water from plants into the air, usually through openings in their leaves
Change of a water vapor to a liquid.
Hydroelectric dams create ______________.
The continuous movement of nitrogen through each of Earth’s systems is the _________________ _________________.
What is a key element in organisms and makes up 78% of Earths atmosphere?
___________ provide most of the food and energy for all living things, including humans. So if _________ are harmed, animals are harmed too.
Continuous movement of CARBON and OXYGEN through all of Earth’s systems is the ________________.
Carbon Oxygen Cycle
What is responsible for converting gaseous nitrogen into nitrates and ammonia?
Process by which two species each evolve in response to changes in the other.
Any structure or behavior that increases an organism’s chance of survival is known as an _________________.
A _____________ adaption is something an animal does that helps it survive.
A ________________ adaption is an adaption that is related to how an animals body WORKS.
A ______________________ is an adaption that is related to a plants or animals FORM or STRUCTURE
Region of Earth that supports life
The number of individuals of the same species living in a given area
An organism’s role in its environment
______________ factors are all the LIVING things in the environment and their effects on the organism
________________ factors are the NONLIVING things that affect an organism, such as light, water, soil and climate
The movement of organisms INTO an area
The movement of organisms OUT of an area
When a population doubles at a regular rate it is called
Density- _______________ limiting factors are a limiting factor that has more of an effect on large or crowded populations.
Density _____________ limiting factors are a limiting factor that limits the growth of a population regardless of its size
In ______________ one species, the predator, hunts and eats another, the prey
The largest population that an environment can support over a long period of time.
A product of the environment that is used by humans or other organisms
Resources that can be replaced through natural processes. Examples: Air, Soil, Water, Trees
A resource that CANNOT be replaced by natural processes at least as fast as they are used. Examples: Coal, Oil, Metals, Marble, Gold
One way to conserve vital resources such as land, forests, fisheries, air, freshwater. Examples: Plowing land to prevent erosion, conserving water, and replanting forests with a variety of trees
Process that completely clears forests
Changes productive, fertile land into a desert.
A large molecule found in a cell’s nucleus that directs the assembly (making) of proteins in the cell. It also determines what traits are inherited or passed down from one generation to the next.
One of the chemical building blocks of a nucleic acid, it is made up of a phosphate, the sugar deoxyribose, and a nitrogenous base. Contains either adenine, thymine, guanine, or cytosine. BUILDING BLOCKS OF DNA
Adenine only pairs with _________.
Cytosine only pairs with _________.
The copying of DNA during cell division is called ____________________. The strands of DNA separate from one another.
If one side of a DNA molecule reads ATGCCGT what would the complementary side read?
If one side of a DNA molecule reads TAGCCGA what would the complementary side read?
DNA replication provides New Cells with a complete and identical copy of __________________.
Proteins are assembled on _______________ which are organelles found in the cytoplasm
The nucleic acid __________ (ribonucleic acid) carries information from the DNA to the ribosomes and uses it to make proteins.
RNA has a _____________ strand of nucleotides, rather than a pair of strands like DNA.
RNA has a ____________ base and not thymine. ___________ pairs with ADENINE in RNA.
RNA nucleotides contain the _____________________ ribose rather than the deoxyribose found in DNA
Five Carbon Sugar
Transfer RNA tRNA, Messenger RNA mRNA, Ribosomal RNA rRNA are the three main types of ________.
Copies a molecule of DNA into a complementary strand of RNA
The entire process of constructing proteins is known as _____________________.
When the information is decoded and used to arrange amino acids into proteins. (info is translated from nucleotides to amino acids)
DD or Dd is (dominant or recessive)
dd is (dominant or recessive)
Human Gametes are the same thing as ________ cells.
The passing of traits to the next generation is _____________.
Human body cells have _______________ chromosomes
Each parent contributes 1 allele to a trait, like hair color.
Another word for Hybrid is _____________________. Examples are ________________.
Heterozygous, Tt, Ss, Mm
Another word for Purebred is _____________. Examples are ____________.
Homozygous, TT, tt, SS
TT, DD, ss, MM, nn are (Purebred or Hybrid)
Ss, Nn, Ii are (Purebred or Hybrid)
Reproduction that can happen with one organism, produces identical (exactly the same) offspring (Mitosis)
Reproduction where there must be two organisms (man and woman)
________________ are made of DNA (our genetic information)
Word meaning from Father
Word meaning from Mother
DD is (Homozygous or Heterozygous)
nn is (Homozygous or Heterozygous)
Ss is (Homozygous or Heterozygous)