Oxidation of hydrogen sulfide in vent water
The primary source of energy for hydrothermal vent communities is?
All of Earth that is inhabited by life is called the
While on a walk through a forest, you notice birds in trees, earthworms in the soil, and fungi onplant litter on the forest floor. Based on your observations, you conclude that each of theseorganisms occupies a different
The level of ecologic organization that incorporates abiotic factors is the
Which of the following could be a topic for a community-level study of a hydrothermal ventecosystem?
environmental effects of pesticides
Rachel Carson’s book Silent Spring deals with the
dramatic increases in crop yields; the evolution of pest resistance
The immediate results of the widespread use of pesticides and fertilizers included ________, butlong-term results included ________.
In many dense forests, plants living near the ground level engage in intense competition for
Which of the following environmental factors usually has the greatest direct effect on an organism’s rate of water loss by evaporation?
the high temperatures destroy most of the fishes enzymes, but the specialized bacteria have enzymes adapted to these tempuratures
What is the primary reason that a hot spring will kill a fish placed in it but encourage the growth of certain bacteria?
digestive tract without cellulose-digesting bacteria
The pronghorn antelope of the United States and the saiga antelope of the central Asian steppeslive in similar habitats and have similar adaptations. Which of the following features would you besurprised to find in a saiga antelope?
it has never dispersed beyond this region
The reason the pronghorn antelope is not found outside North America is most likely that
to open country could be a disadvantage in the densely forested environment
The adaptations of pronghorns
rises and cools, dropping rain
In terms of global air circulation, the tropics are a region where air
The greatest annual input and least seasonal variation in solar radiation occurs in the
if you travel through Ecuador from west to east, you will pass through tundra, taiga, temperateforest, and tropical forest. Which of the following climatic factors remains constant on such a trip?
cold, dry air moving toward the poles descends
Most of the world’s deserts are located at latitudes where
scarcity of rain on the eastern flank and adjacent lowlands compared to the western flank
When people speak of the “rain shadow” of the Himalayan mountains, where the Gobi desert is,they are referring to the
A sperm whale in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean is in which oceanic zone?
organic matter sinking from the photic zone
Except near hydrothermal vents, the communities of the oceanic aphotic zone get their energy mainly from
Which ocean zone describes the interface between ocean and land?
Fresh water and seawater mix in a/an
it will reduce the abundance of phytoplankton, and, consequently, the abundance of other organisms
Under the conditions known as El Niño, the inorganic nutrient content of the seawater off the coastof Peru declines to very low levels. What effect will this likely have on marine life in the area?
has less phytoplankton
Usually, a river ________ at its source compared to farther downstream.
the runoff causes heavy growth of algae, which eventually die and decompose, causing oxygen depletion
Why is the runoff from fertilized agricultural fields, even if free of pesticides, often harmful to theecosystems of temperate lakes?
Species in widely separated but similar biomes often appear to display similar characteristics because of
Fire is very important in some biomes
Which of the following statements about biomes, the major terrestrial ecosystems covering the Earth, is true?
The forest structure consists of distinct layers that provide many different habitats
Which of the following statements about tropical forests is true?
The kind of vegetation in a tropical rain forest is generally determined by the amount of
people clearing forests to open up land for agriculture
The major cause of tropical deforestation is
A photograph of a Victorian trophy room shows the heads of 15 species of hoofed mammals, allshot within a day’s walk of a single hunting camp in Africa. This camp was probably located in
The dominant herbivores in savannas are
Tundra-very cold winters, only the upper layer of the soil thaws during summer
Which of the following correctly pairs a biome and its characteristics?
many desert animals are nocturnal
Which of the following statements about deserts and the organisms that live there is true?
a common annual that produces one large seed per plant
You are reading the journal of an amateur naturalist who visited the Sonoran Desert in the last century. Which of his descriptions of desert plants would you question?
in the Mediterranean region
Chaparral vegetation occurs around much of the central valley of central and southern California.This biome is very similar to that found
dense, broadleaf shrubs
Which of the following is characteristic of the chaparral biome?
Most of the best agricultural soils in the United States are found in areas that were formerly
periodic drought and fires
Factors that help to perpetuate temperate grasslands, such as the American prairies, and preventthem from becoming woodlands include
In which of the following biomes would you expect to find the highest abundance of large, grazing mammals?
Oak, hickory, birch, beech, and maple are common trees in temperate broadleaf forests
Which of the following statements about temperate broadleaf forests is true?
Which of the following biomes is dominated by coniferous trees adapted to surviving long, harshwinters and short, wet summers?
coniferous forests may experience considerable precipitation, usually in the form of snow
Which of the following statements about coniferous forests is true?
fierce winds and frigid nights
Which of the following tundra features can be found at the top of the Andes Mountains in Ecuador?
Which of the following factors is fundamentally responsible for the character of arctic tundra soils?
mosses, lichens, seals, and polar bears
Living things that live in the polar ice biome include
human destruction of forests
Which of the following has the greatest impact on the global water cycle?
if the pronghorn population includes genetic variation that allows survival and reproduction in the new conditions, they will adapt
Pronghorn antelopes are well adapted for dry conditions with extremes of temperature, especiallycold. As global climate change causes the area where the pronghorn live to change, not only intemperature but also in what plants grow there and what predators and prey live there, what islikely to happen to the pronghorn?
zone a (closests to the surface)
In which of the zones shown in this depiction of an aquatic biome does photosynthesis occur?
In abiotic factors, A is similar to rivers and C is most like lakes
In what ways are zones A and C similar to other biomes?
Arrow D (mountain next to water vapor over land)
Which arrow in this image of the global water cycle includes transpiration?
Arrow D (mountain next to water vapor over land)
Forest destruction would have the greatest impact on which arrow?
Processes C and B
If ocean waters in one area are radioactively contaminated, which processes would cause that radioactivity to show up in plant crops at some distance from the contamination?
lack of vegetation will increase the probability of drought
If process D is decreased, what impact will that likely have on the surrounding area?
phytoplankton population increases, it blocks sunlight to submerged vegetation, submerged vegetation dies, fish and shellfish populations decrease
Which of the following is the most probable sequence of events when fertilizer runoff reaches the bay?
Nitrogen and phosphorus
Fertilizer runoff contains ________, which are the most important limiting factors for phytoplankton growth.
The area around the bay where grasses and snails are found in abundance is a
A group of individuals of a single species that occupy the same general area defines a
all of the students in your classroom
Which of the following is an example of a population?
Assume that there are five alligators per acre in a swamp in northern Florida. This is a measure ofthe alligator population’s
The pattern of distribution for a certain species of kelp is clumped. The pattern of distribution for apopulation of snails that live on the kelp would be
You drive through Iowa in the spring and notice that along a stretch of several kilometers, everythird fence post has a male redwing blackbird perched on it defending its nesting territory. This isan example of
10 trees per hectare
The density of Douglas firs in an old-growth forest is estimated by counting the Douglas firs infour sample plots of 1 hectare each. The number of fir trees in the plots is 10, 12, 7, and 11,respectively. What is the estimated density of firs in the forest?
plant seeds in a uniform pattern throughout the garden
To obtain optimal production in a small garden, one should
graph that shows the effect of predation on a prey population
A survivorship curve is a
parents provide extended care for their young
A Type I survivorship curve is associated with which of the following life history traits?
A survivorship curve that involves producing very few offspring, each of which has a highprobability of surviving to adulthood, is typical of
The maximum number of individuals a habitat can support is called its
more than 100
Consider a stable frog population living at carrying capacity in a pond. If an average femaleproduces 6,000 eggs during her lifetime and an average of 300 tadpoles hatch from these eggs, howmany of these tadpoles will, on average, survive to reproduce?
A population of fungi in a yard produces 10 mushrooms in year 1, 20 in year 2, and 40 in year 3. Ifthis trend continues, by year 5 there will be ________ mushrooms.
A newly mated queen ant establishes an ant nest in an unoccupied patch of suitable habitat. Thepopulation of the nest grows quickly at first, then levels off at carrying capacity. Which of thefollowing models best describes its population growth?
size will decrease
If an ecosystem has a carrying capacity of 1,000 individuals for a given species and 2,000individuals of that species are present, we can predict that the population
it will increase by 1%
If a population has a birth rate of 40 individuals per 1,000 per year and a death rate of 30individuals per 1,000 per year, how will the population change each year? (Assume that thepopulation is below carrying capacity and that there is no immigration or emigration.)
couples that have an average of 2.25 children each (to account for some children who do not survive to reproduce)
A human population will achieve zero population growth if
a density-dependent effect
The death by bubonic plague of about one-third of Europe’s population during the 14th century is a good example of
the effects of abiotic factors
A tidal wave wipes out the entire population of mice living on an island. This is an example of
decline and/or death rates increase
In the logistic growth model, as population size increases, birth rates
a dangerous new flu strain that is transmitted among humans by sneezing
Which of the following is most clearly a case of density-dependent population regulation?
a situation in which a population moves back and forth between rapid growth and decine
In terms of population dynamics, what is “boom-and-bust” cycling?
whether the owls eat the rabbits
An ecologist hypothesizes that predation by a particular owl species is the major factor controllingthe population of a particular rabbit species. The first step in testing this hypothesis would be todetermine
if the owl population increases the rabbit population will decrease
An ecologist hypothesizes that predation by a particular owl species is the major factor controllingthe population of a particular rabbit species. If this is the case, which of the following populationeffects could be expected in this rabbit-owl pair?
raise both populations without predators to see if they maintain their life history traits
Guppies from Trinidad form two distinct populations that differ in several life history traits. Thesetraits appear to relate to the local predator populations, pike-cichlids or killifish. Which of thefollowing experiments would best test the heritability of these traits?
decreasing the food supply available to the population
Which of the following will likely decrease a population’s size?
prey species often have a higher reproduction rate than predators do
Which of the following statements about insecticides is true?
demographic transition from high birth rates and high death rates to low birth rates and low death rates
Which of the following statements about human population growth is true?
A demographic tool used to predict a population’s future growth is
the proportion of individuals alive in different age groups
What is the age structure of a population?
If most of the individuals of a human population are in their pre-reproductive years, you would expect the population size to ________ after 20 years.
the movement of high birth rates to low death rates and high death rates is called the demographic transition
Which of the following statements about human demographic trends is true?
that the United States has not gone through a demographic transition
The age structure of the United States in 2010 shows
is growing but at a slower rate than the last century
The world human population
The human population on Earth is expected to reach 9.5 billion people by
is a means to understanding resource availability and usage
An ecological footprint
Nigeria’s age structure likely looks like a pyramid with a broad base.
The African country of Nigeria had a 4.55% population growth rate from 2005 to 2010, the highestin the world. Which of the following statements is consistent with this fact?
taking a city bus instead of driving to work
Which of the following activities would result in a decrease in your ecological footprint?
What kind of curve represents exponential growth?
managing crops by selectively killing agricultural pests
Which of the following is a practical application of population ecology that will result in population decline?
According to this graph of the population growth of fur seals, in what year did the population first reach its carrying capacity?
According to this graph of population growth in Mexico, in what year was the rate of population increase in Mexico the greatest?
There will be large positive population growth in the near future
Examine the age structure of Germany in the figure below. Which of the following statements is not supported by the age structure?
the number of older people will probably increase rapidly
The age structure data for Nigeria shows that the country has many more individuals under theage of 15 than over the age of 40. What does this imply about the future population of Nigeria?
an increased demand for resources based on population growth
Based on the age structure of the country, which of the following situations would be most likely to occur over the next 20 years?
the population of females ages 40 to 44 is smaller than the population of males ages 65 to 69
Which of the following statements about the age structure of Nigeria is false?
potentially interacting populations of different kinds of organisms
A community is composed of
to aid in conservation of endangered species
One reason it is important to understand community ecology is
An owl and a hawk both eat mice. Which of the following describes the relationship between a hawk and an owl?
When two different populations in a community benefit from their relationship with each other, the result is called
positive, negative +;-
When a crocodile eats a fish, the interspecific interaction between the two could be expressed as________ for the crocodile and ________ for the fish.
a hawk swooping down to capture, kill, and eat a prairie king snake
Which of the following is an example of predation?
The sum total of a population’s use of the biotic and abiotic resources of its habitat constitutes its
populations of two species that occupy the same niche
In an ecosystem, you would expect to find interspecific competition between
one species will take over most or all of the zone of overlap
If an overlap develops between the ranges of two closely related species, and if the species occupythe same niche in the zone of overlap, what will probably happen in the zone of overlap?
produce energy that is used by coral animals through photosynthesis
Dinoflagellates are important to coral and coral-dwelling animals because they
Camouflage typically evolves as a result of
One predator avoidance mechanism that has evolved in prey is
Some herbivore-plant interactions evolved through a series of reciprocal evolutionary adaptationsin both species. This process is called
cannot run away from herbiorves
Most plants have a variety of chemicals, spines, and thorns because the plants
The prokaryotes that cause tooth decay have a ________ relationship with humans
parasites and pathogens
In addition to abiotic factors, community composition of plants can be severely compromised by
Within an ecosystem, a tree is a
The freshwater leech is an organism that feeds off of the blood of other organisms such as frogs and turtles. Which of the following describes the relationship between freshwater leeches and frogs or turtles?
In a hypothetical food chain consisting of grass, grasshoppers, sparrows, and hawks, the grasshoppers are
A hypothetical community on a barren mid-Atlantic island consists of two fish-eating seabirds (thebooby and the noddy), the fungi and microorganisms that live on the birds’ dung, a tick that feedson these two birds, a cactus, a moth that feeds on cast-off feathers, a beetle that lives on dungorganisms, and spiders that eat the other arthropods. There are no other plants and no lichens.Which of the following choices incorrectly pairs a member of this assemblage with its position in thetrophic structure?
In a food chain consisting of phytoplankton zooplankton fish fishermen, the fishermen are
Organisms that digest molecules in organic material and convert them into inorganic forms are
a reduction in the numbers of mice
In a certain ecosystem, field mice are preyed on by snakes and hawks. The entry of wild dogs intothe system adds another predator of the mice. The most likely short-term result of this addition is
energy transfer moves from producer to consumer and back
Which of the following statements regarding food webs is true?
The number of species in a community is called the
maintain the species diversity in a community
A keystone species that is a predator will
changes gradually because each species responds differently to the changing environment
During ecological succession, the species composition of a plant community generally
When a New England farm is abandoned, its formerly plowed fields first become weedy meadows,then shrubby areas, and finally forest. This sequence of plant communities is an example of
Non-native species that are introduced to new environments, spread far beyond the original point of introduction, and cause damage are called
the intentional release of a natural enemy of a pest population
Biological control is defined as
The flow of ________ into ecosystems occurs in one direction only, while ________ are recycled within the ecosystem itself.
the energy source that powers the system is used by consumers to make organic compounds
Which of the following processes does not occur in ecosystems?
some of the energy in the system has moved from one organism to another during the three months
A biology teacher takes fish, algae, pond weed, invertebrates, and bottom muck from a local pondand establishes them in an aquarium. When the system is stable, the teacher seals it into a large,airtight glass box and leaves the box in a sunny location. After three months, the organisms in theaquarium appear alive and healthy. Which of the following statements about the experiment istrue?
For a given area and time period, the amount of solar energy converted to chemical energy inorganic compounds is called
ten times as much
In an average ecosystem, about how much energy is present in the organisms at a given trophiclevel compared to the organisms at the next higher trophic level?
About how much of the energy in the producers of an ecosystem will be available to secondaryconsumers in this ecosystem?
One simple thing that you can do to help safeguard the environment is to eat a diet consisting onlyof organisms that are
Which of the following substances is cycled between organic matter and abiotic reservoirs?
CO2 is converted in photosynthesis to carbohydrates
Given that CO2 is produced by cellular respiration, why does the amount of CO2 in theatmosphere remain relatively constant? (When answering this question, exclude the impact ofhuman activities on atmospheric CO2.)
cellular respiration and photosynthesis
Carbon mainly cycles between the biotic and abiotic worlds through the processes of
The main abiotic reservoir for phosphorus is in the soil
Which of the following statements about the phosphorus cycle is false?
the nitrogen cycle requires different types of bacteria
Which of the following statements about the nitrogen cycle is true?
Nitogen-fixing bacteria convert atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia
Which of the following represents a step in the nitrogen cycle?
nitrates; nitrogen gas
Denitrifying bacteria convert ________ to ________.
heavy growth of algae and cyanobacteria in lakes and rivers caused by phosphorus runoff
Which of the following ecological problems might result from fertilizing a golf course with phosphorus-rich fertilizer?
phosphate rich detergents were dumped in the lake
Eutrophication of a lake could occur if
erosion and soil degredation
One of the most worrisome results of the large-scale clearing and cultivation of land is
grass, giraffes, lions, vultures, fungi
Which of the following accurately represents a food chain in the grasslands of Africa?
four different species of organisms
In your backyard you overturn a large rock. In the damp soil underneath the rock, you see variousinsects scurrying for cover: one black spider, five black ants, two brown beetles, and three graypillbugs. In this community of organisms, species richness is represented by
In your backyard you overturn a large rock. In the damp soil underneath the rock, you see variousinsects scurrying for cover: two black beetles, five black ants, two brown beetles, and three pillbugs.In this community of organisms, relative abundance favors
an invasive species
Kudzu is a fast-growing vine that was introduced to the United States in 1876 as a fragrant,ornamental plant and was later used as a source of erosion control. Kudzu grows especially well inthe warm, humid climate of the Southeastern United States. In fact, it grows so well that itoutgrows and can kill off less successful native plants; it can also kill off areas of forest because itprevents forest tress from receiving sunlight. Kudzu can best be described as
fewer carbon compounds are broken down; therefore, less CO2 is released into the atmosphere
What are the consequences if decomposers are removed from the carbon cycle?
Trophic level C-a mouse (it eats a grasshoper who ate a plant) is the secondary consumer
Which trophic level in this food chain represents the secondary consumer?
Arrow C (trees)
Which arrow shows CO2 released as a product of cellular respiration?
Arrow D (bacteria in the dirt)
Which arrow shows nitrogen fixation?
The excess consumers used the oxygen for cellular respiration
How could a population explosion of bacteria lead to oxygen depletion?
add consumers to absorb carbon dioxide and produce oxygen
To stabilize the environment in the habitat and enable it to become self-sufficient again, it wouldbe helpful to
a keystone species
In this marine community, the sea otter is
for a period of time there would be an overpopulation of sea urchins and therfore a decline in kelp populations
Suppose that a bacterial infection swept across a sea otter population and killed most sea ottersbefore they could reproduce. How would the marine community be affected?
as the color pattern changes in nymphs developed, did the fish eat a greater number of nymphs
Suppose that scientists who study predator-prey relationships notice that over a 50-year span, newcolor patterns evolve in the stonefly nymphs such that they are better able to blend into the colorsof a streambed. What would be a logical and reasonable question that the scientists couldinvestigate in relation to their observations and their knowledge of predator-prey relationships?
counter the loss of biodiversity
The primary goal of conservation biology is to
By the year 1980, a wolf species (Canisrufus) once common to the southeastern region of the UnitedStates disappeared from all areas except for one small part of eastern Texas. This is an example of
1000 times higher
The current rate of extinction may be as much as ________ times higher than at any other time in the past 100,000 years.
the genetic diversity within and between populations of a species
habitat destruction due to humans
Currently, the single greatest threat to biodiversity is
carrying an exotic species that could damage north american ecosystems
You arrive back in the United States after a visit to a foreign country located on another continent.The customs agent stops the person in front of you and confiscates the fruit basket this person isbringing home. Being the knowledgeable person you are, you calmly explain to your enragedfellow traveler that the reason for the detainment is that the fruit basket may be
habitat loss, overharvesting, invasive species
The three greatest current threats to biodiversity, in order starting with the greatest, are
a brown tree snake in guam
Which of the following is an invasive species?
to create an environmental problem at a distance from the power plant
To decrease pollution from sulfur, your local power plant built very tall smokestacks. The ultimateconsequence of this would most likely be
accumulate in the tissues of organisms
DDT and mercury
increases in skin cancer
Which of the following is a likely consequence of thinning of the ozone layer?
You spray your lawn with a pesticide. The concentration of the pesticide in the tissues of the grasson your lawn is 10-6 parts per million (ppm). Grasshoppers eat the grass and are in turn eaten byrats, which are then eaten by owls. At each successive trophic level, the concentration of pesticidesincreases. The term for this process is
rising concentrations of greenhouse gases
Global warming is the result of
carbon dioxide and methane
Greenhouse gases include
-0.8 degrees celcius
The average global temperature has risen ________ over the past 100 years.
CO2 in the atmosphere is absorbed by ________ and converted into biomass.
becoming more acidic
Scientists worry that global warming will result in the oceans
shifting their distribution
One way in which populations and species have been responding to climate change is by
some species of birds and frogs now being their mating seasons later in the year
Which of the following is not an observed effect of global warming on organisms?
The ability to change phenotype in response to local environmental conditions is called
Some populations, especially those with high genetic variability and short life spans, may avoidextinction as the climate changes through
captive breeding and reintroduction
Protecting the endangered black-footed ferret from extinction involved
has allowed for the reintroduction of many species to areas from which they had disappeared
A regional assemblage of interacting ecosystems is a
can be harmful because they allow for the spread of disease
movement corridors can connect otherwise isolated habitat patches
Which of the following statements about movement corridors is true?
often result from human activites
Habitats with many edges
biodiversity hot spots
Small areas that are home to a large number of threatened species and an exceptional concentrationof species found nowhere else on Earth are called
Species found in only one place on Earth are called ________ species.
Most biodiversity hot spots are found in ________ regions.
About one-third of all animal and plant species are concentrated on ________ of Earth’s land.
the growing human population
The greatest challenge facing the zoned reserve systems of Costa Rica is
ecotourism generates many jobs and brings in a significant fraction of the country’s revenue
One result of Costa Rica’s commitment to conservation is that
ecotourism generates many jobs and brings in a significant fraction of the country’s revenue
One result of Costa Rica’s commitment to conservation is that
connect parks in the United States and Canada with protected corridors where wildlife can travel safely
The Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative is a plan to
elk population would increase
If wolves were now removed from Yellowstone National Park
The aspect of conservation ecology concerned with returning degraded ecosystems (as nearly aspossible) to their natural state is
Using living organisms to clean up polluted ecosystems is known as
attempt to restore the natural wetlands associated with the Kissimmee River
The Kissimmee River Restoration Project is an
increase biodiversity of the region
The Kissimmee River Restoration Project is intended to
will require global, multinational cooperation
Araschnia levana is a species of butterfly that breeds several times a year. It has two distinctlycolored pupae: Those that emerge in spring are orange and those that emerge in summer arebrown. The seasonal color variations in pupae mean that the pupae blend into the colors in theirenvironment. This is an example of
The wild boar population will dwindle and potentially go extinct if not enough boars that can reproduce are left to mate
Suppose a species of wild boar (a type of pig) is actively hunted when it is at a young age becauseat that stage of its development the meat of the boar is particularly tender. What is a likely outcomeif this species is overharvested?
loss of populations of fish
As global temperatures continue to rise, what is a likely outcome?
If current trends in global warming continue for the next 50 years, where will the greatest effects of global warming likely be felt?
While habitat destruction by humans creates fragmented ecosystems, fragmentation can also occurdue to natural processes. Which of the following natural processes would most likely create afragmented ecosystem?
to use the trees as a means of phytoremediation
In Clackamas, Oregon, a stand of hybrid poplar trees was planted on an area of land that iscontaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Why would someone purposely planttrees in an area with contaminated soil?
Wildflower diversity in northeastern United States will increase
Which of the following is not an example of a predicted impact of climate change?
rainfall in the southeastern United States from 20 years ago to the present day
You are a climate scientist who wants to investigate climate change. Which of the followingmeasurements would be the least useful?
herring gulls, because they are at the top of the foodchain
According to this figure, which organisms have the highest concentration of PCBs, and why?
Carbon dioxide (CO2) levels increased from 290ppm to 380ppm
According to this graph of changes in Earth’s atmosphere, which of the following took placebetween the years 1800 and 2000?
Natural fluctuation of ozone layers varies greatly year to year, so the average for this 50-year span was approximately 330 Dobson units
The figure below depicts natural fluctuation of ozone levels in Switzerland between 1925 and 1976.Dobson units are a way to measure the total amount of atmospheric ozone above a point on the Earth’s surface. What can you conclude from this figure?
decrease, since the snakehead will prey on native species
When snakeheads enter aquatic ecosystems, biodiversity in these ecosystems would most likely
Introducing a natural predator to feed on juvenile snakeheads
Based on the characteristics of the snakehead described, which of the following is most likely to be a productive strategy to reduce the spread of this species?
finding the wild relative with diseases resistance would allow Asian farmers to continue to grow the crop they know
If you were a scientist working on this project, how would you argue that the results of the research would be worth the time investment?
Governments will not face the large costs of maintaining conserved areas for corridors
Which of the following is an advantage of using managed relocation?
scientists may move species to ranges where they will be invasive
Which of the following is a disadvantage of using managed relocation?