Bony Anatomy The Knee Joint Health And Social Care Essay

Bony Anatomy The Knee Joint Health And Social Care Essay


The undermentioned chapter intends to supply an overview of current literature pertinent to this survey. A brief lineation of related anatomy and biomechanics of the articulatio genus articulation will be discussed, every bit good as a theoretical association of articulatio genus degenerative arthritis and the lower kinetic concatenation. The clinical, aetiological and epidemiological facets of degenerative arthritis of the articulatio genus will be provided, along with the possible effects that assorted intervention option may hold on this disease.


2.2.1 Bony Anatomy of the Knee Joint

The articulatio genus joint maps chiefly as a big hinge-type articulation, dwelling of three articulations ; two tibiofemoral articulations between the medial and sidelong femoral and tibial condyles, and one patellofemoral articulation between the posterior facet of the kneecap and thighbone ( Moore and Dalley, 1999 ) . Due to the comparative incongruence of the articulating surfaces, the articulatio genus articulation composite is inherently unstable, hence two fibrocartilage phonograph record ( semilunar cartilage ) exist in the infinite between the shinbone and thighbone, are attached to the intercondylar distinction of the shinbone, and farther addition the congruency of the joint every bit good as provide extra stableness ( Magee, 2008 ) .

In add-on to the semilunar cartilage, legion environing ligaments play an of import function in stabilization of the articulatio genus. The name, location and specific map of these ligaments are outlined in the tabular array below.

Table 2.1.1 Name Location and maps of articulatio genus ligaments




Medial ( tibial ) collateral ligament ( MCL )

Anchored superiorly to the median femoral epicondyle, inferior to the adductor tubercle, and descends anteriorly to attach to the median border and median surface of the shinbone above and behind the fond regard of sartorius, gracilis, and semitendinosus sinews. Attaches by much of its deep surface to the underlying hempen membrane of the median semilunar cartilage.

Stabilises the hinge-like gesture of the articulatio genus and prevents knee abduction

Lateral ( fibular ) collateral ligament ( LCL )

Attaches superiorly to the sidelong femoral epicondyle, superior to the channel for the popliteus sinew. Inferiorly, it is attached to a depression on the sidelong surface of the fibular caput. It is separated from the hempen membrane by a Bursa

Stabilises the hinge-like gesture of the articulatio genus and articulatio genus adduction. It is stronger than MCL

Anterior cruciate ligament ( ACL )

Attaches to a aspect on the anterior portion of the intercondylar country of the shinbone and ascends posteriorly to attach to a aspect at the dorsum of the sidelong wall of the intercondylar pit of the thighbone

Complect the thighbone and shinbone, stops tibia traveling frontward on thighbone, and prevents hyper-extension and inordinate internal rotary motion. ACL crosses sidelong to the PCL as they pass through the intercondylar part

Articular capsule and the Bursa

Articular capsule presents merely at the sides and posterior facets of the articulatio genus, where it covers the majority of the femoral and tibial condyles. It is stabilised and straighten by the joint ligaments and the musculus sinews. Bursa are extensions of the articulatio genus synovial pit and are filled with synovial fluid

The capsule consists of an external hempen bed ( hempen capsule ) and an internal synovial membrane, which is uninterrupted with the synovial liner of the Bursa. They act to cut down clash between the sinews and implicit in castanetss

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2.2.2 Neurovascular Structures

Table 2.1.2 Neuravascular constructions of the articulatio genus

2.2.3 Lower Limb Musculature

The primary musculus groups responsible to making motion at the articulatio genus articulation are the quadriceps femoris ( extension ) and hamstrings ( flexure ) . The fond regards, excitation and action of the single musculuss within the quadriceps and hamstring are described in Table and Table, severally.

Table Attachments, Innervation and Action of Quadriceps Femoris Components


Proximal Attachment

Distal Attachment



Rectus Femoris

Anterior inferior iliac spinal column and Troy superior to acetabulum

Via a common sinewy interpolation to the base of kneecap ; indirectly via patellar ligament to tibial tubercle

Femoral Nerve

( L2, L3, L4 )

Extend leg at articulatio genus articulation ; rectus femur besides steadies hip articulation and helps iliopsoas musculus flex the thigh

Vastus Lateralis

Greater trochanter an sidelong lip of linea aspera of thighbone

Vastus Medialis

Intertrochanteric line and median lip of linea aspera of thighbone

Vastus Intermedius

Anterior and sidelong surfaces of shaft of thighbone

( Table abridged from Moore and Dalley, 1999 )

Table Attachments, Innervation and Action of Hamstrings Components


Proximal Attachment

Distal Attachment




Ischial tubercle

Superior portion of shinbone on median surface

Tibial division of sciatic nervus ( L5, S1, S2 )

Extend thigh ; flex leg and revolve it medially when articulatio genus is flexed


Ischial tubercle

Posterior portion of shinbone on median condyle

Bicepss Femoris

Long caput: ischial tubercle

Short caput: linea aspera and sidelong supracondylar line of thighbone

Fibula on sidelong side of caput

Long caput: Tibial division of sciatic nervus ( L5, S1, S2 )

Short caput: Common fibular division of sciatic nervus ( L5, S1, S2 )

Extend thigh ; flex leg and revolve it laterally when articulatio genus is flexed

( Table abridged from Moore and Dalley, 1999 )

2.2.4 Lower Limb Biomechanics

The primary motions of the articulatio genus are flexure and extension, with a smaller rotational constituent when the articulatio genus is flexed ( Moore and Dalley, 1999 ) . Table 2.1.4 outlines the chief motions of the articulatio genus articulation, every bit good as the name and action of the musculus bring forthing them.

Table 2.1.4 Motions of the articulatio genus

Motion and scope of motion



Knee flexors 135A°-150A°

1. Hamstrings ( semitendinosus, semimembranosus, biceps femoris ) 2. Popliteus

Flexs and rotes leg medially, locks and unlocks the articulatio genus from beginnings of flexure

Knee extensors 0A°-10A°

Quadricepss femoris ( rectus femur, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, vastus intermedialis )

extends leg, ( but flexes thigh by action of rectus femur )

Medial rotary motion 0A°-10A°

Popliteus ( non-weight bearing articulatio genus extended ) , or semitendinosus and semimembranosus ( when knee flexed )

Weakly flexes articulatio genus, unlocks knee by revolving femur 5A° laterally on fixed shinbone

Lateral rotary motion 0A°-30A°

Bicepss femoris ( when knee flexed )

Weakly flexes articulatio genus, unlocks knee by revolving femur 5A° medially on fixed shinbone

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The comparative incongruence of the articular surface consequences in the articulatio genus being comparatively weak automatically, and a greater trust on the actions of environing musculuss, sinews and ligaments for strength and support ( Magee, 2008 ) . The anterior thigh musculuss are the most critical of these supports, with the quadriceps femoris musculuss being the most of import stabilizer of the articulatio genus articulation ( Moore and Dalley, 1999 ) .

Because of the fond regard of the quadriceps femoris musculus across two articulations, it is capable of bring forthing action at both the hip and the articulatio genus ( Moore and Dalley, 1999 ) . The three vastus musculuss ( vastus intermedius, vastus medialis and vastus lateralis ) form the primary extensor musculus group of the articulatio genus ( Moore and Dalley, 1999, Magee, 2008 ) . The rectus femoris division of the quadriceps femoris musculus Acts of the Apostless, along with the iliopsoas, to flex the hip ( Moore and Dalley, 1999 ; Marieb, 2004 ) ; therefore its ability to widen the articulatio genus is compromised when the hip is flexed. As a consequence, the ability of the quadriceps femoris musculus group to bring forth knee extension is most effectual when the hip articulation is extended ( Moore and Dalley, 1999 ) .

The hamstrings musculus group produces extension at the hip and flexure at the articulatio genus ( Moore and Dalley, 1999 ; Marieb, 2004 ) . These two actions of the hamstrings can non be performed maximally at the same clip, as full flexure of the articulatio genus requires so much shortening that the hamstrings can non supply the extra contraction needed for full extension of the hip, and frailty versa ( Moore and Dalley, 1999 ) . The hamstrings, nevertheless, demonstrate most activity when they are eccentrically undertaking to defy hip flexure and articulatio genus extension ( Moore and Dalley, 1999 ) .

A survey by Wilson et Al ( 2011 ) aimed to look into the correlativity between articulatio genus articulation biomechanics and neuromuscular control and moderate articulatio genus degenerative arthritis radiographic and pain badness, higher articulatio genus adduction minutes ( during stance stage ) and lower articulatio genus flexure angles ( full pace rhythm ) were associated with higher RVAS.

Higher hurting tonss were associated with lower pace velocities and reduced activation of the sidelong gastroc between early and late stance stage, which the writers suggested may be a mechanism to antagonize high median compartment articulation burden. Additionally, increased activation of the median hamstring between early stance stage and toe off may be declarative of higher coactivity of these musculuss in a guarding mechanism to increase joint stiffness and cut down the hurting, and perchance to compensate joint instability. Kinetic Chain Theory

The kinetic concatenation is defined as “ a combination of several in turn arranges myofascial, articular and nervous constituents, representing a complex unit ” ( Bergmann & A ; Peterson, 2002 ) . In order for this system to map, it requires optimum alliance, mechanics and enlisting of these articulations.

There are 3 sub-systems within a kinetic concatenation ( active, inactive and nervous ) , all of which contribute to the production of motion:

In the lower limb there exists a functional relationship between the articulatio genus and the superior articulations in the hip and lumbopelvic spinal column, every bit good as the pes and mortise joint, inferiorly. When the pess are weight-bearing, the kinetic concatenation is closed and the links map interdependently, with a alteration in one articulation ensuing in an immediate consequence on the kinematics of other articulations in the concatenation. Therefore, a disfunction in the articulatio genus can hold a direct consequence on next articulation in the concatenation, and frailty versa.

This highlights the importance of turn toing non merely the country of ailment, but besides next parts to rectify any potentially altered biomechanics of the kinetic concatenation in entirety.

Overview of Osteoarthritis of the Knee


Incidence and Prevalence

By the age of 60 old ages, about 100 % of the population will hold histologic alterations of devolution in their articulatio genus gristle, over 80 % will hold radiographic grounds of OA in at least one articulation, about 40 % will describe clinical symptoms of arthritis, and 10 % will see activity restriction ( Loeser 2000 ) .

Hazard Factors

Harmonizing to the Framingham degenerative arthritis survey, the major hazard factors for KOA were age, female gender, fleshiness, non-smoking, occupational articulatio genus bending, physical labor, and chondrocalcinosis ( Felson 1993 ) . Other hazard factors identified are listed in the tabular array below.

Table 2.2.1 Hazard factors and Protective factors for KOA harmonizing to the Framingham OA survey

Hazard factors


Female gender





Major articulation injury



High bone mineral denseness

Joint hypermobility & A ; instability

Insistent articulation usage

Peripheral neuropathy

Prior inflammatory articulation disease

Congenital/developmental defects

Crystal deposition in articulations

Oestrogen surplus

Diabetess, high blood pressure, hyperuricaemia

Protective factors



Weight decrease

Age: Age is the strongest hazard factor for OA, with an addition in prevalence of diagnostic OA from 7.0 % in those aged 63-69 old ages old to 11.2 % in those over the age of 80. Radiographic grounds of OA increased from 27.4 % amongst those in their 1960ss compared to 43.7 % prevalence in those in their 1880ss ( Felson 1987 ) .

Gender: Age related increased in OA were found to be more evident in females ; non merely with respect to incidence, but besides in badness and rate of patterned advance ( grade 3/4 alterations increased in prevalence by 7.9 % from the 6th to eighth decennary of life ( Felson 1990 ) . Although there was small or no difference in gender prevalence of mild OA ( Roberts 1996 ) , females tended to hold more terrible OA, a greater figure of joint engagements, more symptoms, and a higher prevalence of manus and articulatio genus OA ( Kellgren-Lawrence 1963 ) ( Felson1995 ) . Recent surveies suggest that post-menopausal oestrogen lack may play a function in development of KOA in older adult females ( Nevitt 1996 ) . Males, nevertheless, had an increased prevalence of hip OA ( particularly in those aged 55 and supra ) ( Kellgren-Lawrence 1963 )

Fleshiness: Fleshiness is the strongest modifiable hazard factor for development of KOA, particularly in adult females ( Loeser 2000 ) . Harmonizing to the Framingham survey, higher organic structure mass index ( BMI ) was associated with an odds ratio of 1.6 per 5-unit addition in BMI. Similarly, a weight loss correlated to a 40 % lessening in hazard of KOA per 10-lb ( ~4.5kg ) weight loss ( Felson 1988/1997 ) . Hazard for development of KOA increased exponentially when fleshiness was present with an extra hazard factor, such as heavy physical activity. Aged patients in the upper tertile of BMI who performed at least 3 hours of physical activity daily had an odds ratio of 13 for development of KOA ( McAlindon 1999 ) .

Major joint injury: The comparative hazard for development of radiographic KOA following meniscectomy for direction of stray meniscal cryings was 14 ( Roos 1998 ) . Surveies besides suggest that quadriceps failing increased the hazard of both radiographic and diagnostic OA ( Slemendra 1997 ) .

Insistent articulation usage: While there is deficient informations to propose that featuring activities may take to generalised OA ( Lane 1993 ) , it has been shown that certain businesss may do the overexploitation of peculiar articulations, therefore increasing the hazard of development of localized OA ( Croft 1992 ) . For illustration, occupational articulatio genus bending is strongly associated with KOA and mineworkers frequently exhibit marks of spondylosis ( Felson 1990 ) .

Muscle dysbalance & A ; wasting: Muscles play a major function in joint biomechanics as the green goods motions, absorb burden, and supply dynamic joint stableness. It is therefore possible that musculus failing due to aging or anterior injury my consequence in loss of the protective musculus control, inordinate joint motion and instability ( Slemendra 1997 ) . Ultimately this will do stress-induced microtrauma of the articular gristle due to the increased happening in physiological shear and extremum articulation forces. Over an drawn-out period of clip, this microtrauma will do gristle devolution, with pathological subchondral force per unit area addition and attendant subchondral induration, and joint prostration with axis maldeviation ( mention ) .

Slemenda et Al. conducted a prospective survey in which reduced articulatio genus extensor strength was present in those topics who developed OA as compared to the unaffected participants ( Slemendra 1998 ) . Similar findings were seen in a survey by on patients with one-sided mortise joint OA, in which the affected side displayed reduced calf perimeter and decreased electromyography ( EMG ) frequences of lower leg musculuss ( Valdererrohano 2006 ) .

In a healthy person, musculus biopsies have shown wasting of type-1 musculus fibers ( slow-twitch ) in the vastus lateralis following periods of articulatio genus immobilization. In KOA patients nevertheless, failing of the vastus lateralis was largely due to type-2 fiber wasting ( Nakamara and Suzuki 1992 ) . Fink et al so investigated the structural alterations in the vastus medialis and found type-2 fiber wasting in all specimens ( which was consistent with informations from Nakamara ) every bit good as extra type-1 fiber wasting in 32 % of patients ( Fink 2007 ) . Exercise preparation has been found to increase diameter of both type-1 and type-2 musculuss fibers ( Saltin 1977 ) , and was therefore the recommendation of the writers in order to antagonize the musculus wasting and therefore protract the oncoming of OA.

As musculuss increase in size with exercising, it is suspected that wasting in creaky patients is non merely caused by neglect in the presence of joint stiffness and hurting, but besides by age-related sarcopenia ( generalized loss of skeletal musculus mass ) , physical immobilization and decreased physical activity ( Goodpaster 2006 ) . This musculus wasting, irrespective of its causative pathomechanism, has been found to be strongly correlated to the development of OA. Since exercising additions muscle mass and improves musculus map, it is likely to play an of import function in intervention and bar of OA.


OA is characterised by focal loss of gristle with grounds of attach toing periarticular bone response. Clinically, it presents as joint hurting and crepitus in the aged age group, and is radiographically characterised by reduced joint infinite, osteophytes and a assortment of malformations that develop as the disease progresses.

Pathogenesis and Morphology

Normal hyaline gristle comprises chondrocytes ( 1-2 % ) embedded in extra-cellular matrix, which in bend is constituted by H2O, type-II collagen and proteoglycans. Articular gristle performs two chief maps: 1 ) along with synovial fluid, it provides virtually friction-free motion within the joint ; and 2 ) in weight-bearing articulations, it spreads the burden across the joint surface in a mode that allows the implicit in castanetss to absorb daze and weight. These maps require that gristle be elastic and have a high tensile strength. These properties are provided by proteoglycans and type II collagen, both of which are produced by chondrocytes. Articular gristle invariably undergoes matrix devolution and replacing. Any instability in normal chondrocytes ability to keep gristle synthesis and debasement can take to OA. Majority of the pathological alterations in OA occur in the gristle itself, nevertheless as the disease progresses, the organic structure and synovial constructions besides begin to demo marks of devolution. ( Reference )

Cartilage Changes: Chondrocyte map can be affected by a assortment of influences, including mechanical emphasiss, aging, metabolic and familial factors, increased bone denseness and high oestrogen degrees. Regardless of the inciting stimulation, early OA is marked by the degenerating gristle incorporating more H2O and less proteoglycan ( mention ) . This occurs as a consequence of an enzymatic debasement of the major structural constituents, aggrecan and collagen, which causes reactive proliferation of chondrocytes to organize bunchs ( ringers ) with increased production of matrix constituents. Although the turnover of aggrecan constituents is increased, the concentration finally falls. The lessening in size of hydrophilic aggrecan molecules increases the H2O concentration and swelling force per unit area in gristle, farther interrupting the staying staging of type II collagen. Overall, gristle tensile strength and resiliency are compromised doing it susceptible to supporting hurts. ( BOON ET AL )

Progression of these alterations leads to transgress of surface unity, crevices, opposing, flaking of gristle and development of perpendicular clefts ( fibrillations ) , localised chondrocyte decease and lessening in gristle thickness. Cartilage loss is focal instead than widespread and normally restricted to the maximal supporting portion of the joint ( BOON ET AL ) . Gross scrutiny at this phase reveals a soft farinaceous articular gristle surface ( kumar et Al ) .

Bone Changes: The bone instantly below the compromised gristle responds by increasing its trabecular thickness ( subchondral induration ) , which in some instances reflects healed trabeculate microfractures or countries of osteonecrosis caused by the increased force per unit area in bone as the gristle fails in its load-transmitting map. The break gaps allow synovial fluid to be forced into the subchondral parts, organizing hempen walled cysts. At the border of the joint there is formation of new fibrocartilage, which so undergoes endochondral ossification to organize osteophytes. Despite cardinal and fringy new bone formation, with terrible gristle loss, crevices may intensify and expose the subchondral bone to have on, with the unprotected bone ends going ivory-like due to inspissating and vascularization ( eburnation ) , frequently with deep linear furrows ( BOON ET AL ) . Small breaks can free pieces of gristle and subchondral bone into the joint, organizing loose organic structures ( joint mice ) . Bone remodelling and gristle thinning easy alter the form of OA articulations, increasing their surface

Other Changes: The synovial membrane undergoes variable grades of hyperplasia, sometimes as aureate although less widespread as RA ( In terrible disease, a hempen synovial pannus covers the peripheral parts of the articular surface ) . Osteochondral organic structures normally occur within the synovial membrane, reflecting chondroid mataplasia or secondary consumption and growing of damaged gristle fragments. The outer capsule besides thickens and contracts, normally retaining the stableness of the remodelling articulation. The musculuss that act over the joint normally show non-specific type-II fiber wasting ( BOON ET AL ) .

Natural History

The class of OA is extremely variable. Those patients with multiple affected articulations tend to hold a more rapid patterned advance of OA in their single articulations ( Felson 1993 ) . Advanced age ( Felson 1993 ) and fleshiness ( Felson 1993 ) are besides associated with more rapid patterned advance. Primary OA is regarded as by and large easy progressive, which is apparent in one 3rd to two tierces of radiographic OA instances ; while it has been known to brace for many old ages, betterments are rare ( kumar et Al ) . Diagnostic OA may come on, or better, or may even be arrested due to the fact that symptoms have been shown to be ill correlated to radiographic patterned advance ( Kellgren-Lawrence 1963 ) . Osteophye encroachments on spinal hiatuss are a common cause of nervus root entrapment, which may ensue in neurological shortages such as radicular hurting, musculus wasting or cramp, and centripetal loss. With clip, entire articulation prostration may happen, but unlike Rheumatoid arthritis, does non ensue in joint anchylosis ( merger ) . ( kumar et Al )

Subsets of OA

Primary OA can be categorised into three major subsets, although it may non be easy to find an exact differentiation between the subsets ( Doherty 1994 ) .

Nodal Generalised OA: GOA is characterised by distal, and proximal to a lesser extent, interphalangeal ( IP ) articulation engagement, Heberden ‘s nodes ( cadaverous expansion of DIP articulation ) , Bouchard ‘s nodes ( cadaverous expansion of PIP articulation ) and familial bunch. It peaks at in-between age and is common in females ( Doherty 1994 ) .

Erosive OA: Characterised by engagement of IP articulations of custodies, frequently with aureate redness and erosive alterations, that subsequently take to malformations and anchylosis. A little proportion ( 15 % ) may germinate into seropositive rheumatoid arthritis ( Doherty 1994 ) .

Isolated big joint OA:

Knee: This is the most common signifier of OA, frequently happening bilaterally. It may affect preponderantly the median femorotibial, sidelong femorotibial or patellofemoral compartment.

Hip: Predominantly involves the superior pole or the median compartment.

Spinal column: Apophyseal joint engagement is the lone true signifier of OA that can affect the spinal column and is typically manifested my hurting on extention on the spinal column. Intervertebral phonograph record ( IVD ) devolution with osteophyte formation is considered an built-in portion of OA, and normally affects the lumbar and cervical parts. Diffuse intraosseeous skeletal hyperostosis ( DISH ) and ossification of posterior longitudinal ligaments ( OPLL ) are considered to be discrepancies of spondylosis, and comprise fluxing calcification of the disc border and anterior and posterior longitudinal ligament, severally ( mention ) .

Clinical Features

Signs and symptoms of OA may take many old ages after the oncoming of the disease to go clinically apparent. This is due the fact that the patterned advance of the disease is extremely variable & A ; there tends to be hapless correlativity to radiographic and microscopic patterned advance. Another possible ground that there may be a hold in the visual aspect of symptoms after devolution has taken topographic point is because due to a deficiency of excitation within the gristle ( Lane 1993 ) .

Joints normally involved in OA are the articulatio genus, fingers, and spinal apophyseal articulations. Less normally are the hips, acromioclavicular and sternoclavicular articulations, while carpal, cubitus, mortise joint and glenohumeral articulations are seldom involved in isolation.

Signs and Symptoms

Symptoms if OA often have an insidious oncoming and an asymmetrical distribution, subsequently going symmetric as the disease progresses. Factors that may foretell the presence of diagnostic OA and rate of patterned advance include advanced age, fleshiness and multiple affected articulations.

The central marks of OA include bony puffiness, synovial gush, crepitus, restricted scope of gesture, joint malformation and, musculus failing and wasting. Symptoms associated with OA include hurting, joint stiffness and functional damage, although all need n’t be present at the same clip & A ; badness:

Pain: Pain normally begins as an intermittent localised deep aching in and around the affected articulation, frequently exacerbated by motion. As the disease progresss, hurting may go more relentless, going nowadays at dark and during remainder.

In KOA, hurting is normally localised to the front tooth and median facets of the articulatio genus and upper thigh, normally occurs with step usage, mounting in and out of vehicles, and making day-to-day activities such as bathing, standing from a seated place and utilizing a lavatory. These jobs may be amplified in the presence of attendant hip pathologies, where normal walking pace is likely to be altered as a consequence of the inguen and leg hurting.

Stiffness: Stiffness in the involved articulations is typically present and worst first thing in the forenoon ( forenoon stiffness ) and lasts between five and 30 proceedingss. Stiffness may besides be present subsequently in the twenty-four hours after periods of remainder or inaction ( gelling ) , but is brief and relieved by soft motion ( Doherty 1994 ) .

This stiffness is frequently associated with impaired motion within the joint and my consequence from a figure of causes ; joint adhesion, capsular tightening and thickener, inflexibleness of the overlying soft tissue and/or altered joint construction ( eg. as a consequence of osteophyte formation ) .

Functional Damage: The badness of functional damage is mostly dependent on the grade of devolution, type of joint involved every bit good as the specific location of the devolution within the joint. For illustration, if there is pronounced devolution with osteophyte formation on next jointing surfaces, which make contact during motion, one would anticipate to happen that scope of gesture is impaired. Similarly, loose organic structures may ensue in reduced scope of gesture every bit good as possible lockup or buckling, particularly if located within the articulatio genus articulation. Crepitus develops as a consequence of gristle loss articulation and abnormalities on jointing surfaces such that they longer skid swimmingly over one another. This creates a stuttered-type gesture, which can be palpated on scrutiny of scope of gesture. In terrible instances this crepitus may even make hearable “ dads ” . Crepitus is present in over 90 % of patients with KOA ( mention ) .

In terrible instances, joint subluxation may happen when there is uneven wear of the joint surfaces. Over an drawn-out period of clip this will ensue in asymmetrical joint infinite narrowing and finally prostration. When this occurs in the articulatio genus, the median tibiofemoral articulation to typically more affected than the sidelong and in over 50 % of patients will do the development of a knee varus ( “ bow leg malformation ” ) .

Functional damage may besides ensue non merely from structural alterations to the joint surfaces, but besides from other alterations associated with OA, such as arthrogenic musculus suppression. In this instance, the patient may see failing due to wasting of the surrounding musculuss, every bit good as stiffness or reduced scope of gesture due to inflexibleness ( Hurley 1998 ) .

Table 2.2.2 Outline of Typical Symptoms of Osteoarthritis


Patient over age of 45

Insidious onset over months or old ages

Variable or intermittent hurting over clip

Chiefly related to motion and weight-bearing, relieved by remainder

Merely brief forenoon ( & lt ; 15 proceedingss ) stiffness and “ gelling ” ( & lt ; 1 minute ) after remainder

Normally merely one or two articulations painful ( non multiple regional hurting )

( Adapted from Davidson ‘s )

Table 2.2.3 Outline of Clinical Signs Characteristic of Osteoarthritis


Restricted motion ( capsular thickener, barricading by osteophytes )

Palpable, sometimes hearable, class crepitus ( unsmooth articular surfaces )

Bony swelling ( osteophytes ) around articulation borders

Deformity, normally without instability

Joint-line or periarticular tenderness

Muscle failing, blowing

No, or merely mild, synovitis ( gush, increased heat )

( Adapted from Davidson ‘s ) Arthrogenic Muscle Inhibition ( AMI )

AMI is defined as the failure of a functional musculus group to enroll all motor units during maximum voluntary contraction ( Suter et al, 2000 ) . When joint receptors are subjected to distention, compaction, ligamentous stretch, gush and hurting, this protective mechanism is activated, doing automatic suppression of the environing muscularure to forestall farther hurt to the joint ( Crossman and Neary, 1995 ) .

The hurting, joint annoyance and musculus cramps frequently associated with KOA, taking to biomechanical alterations and redness, consequences in an suppression of the joint motorneuron pool and inability to enroll all the musculus fibers within the musculus groups that cross the affected articulation. The net consequence is:

lessening musculus strength ( existent and/or evident failing ) , doing holds in the rehabilitation advancement ( Hopkins and Ingersoll, 2000 )

Altered motion forms due to a alteration in motor control and joint proprioception, increasing the hazard of hurting, re-injury and accelerated devolution because of the deformed articulation forces ( Lee, 4004 )

Diagnostic Standards

Prior to the development of clinical standards for diagnosing of OA in 1981? , the diagnosing of OA was frequently based on radiographic visual aspect and standards proposed by Kellgren and Lawrence in 1957, which is accepted by the World Health Organisation.

The diagnosing of OA is mostly clinico-radiographic, that is both clinical and radiographic characteristics are taken into consideration to find the presence and badness of the disease. It is widely acknowledged that radiographic alterations may non be present in the early phases of devolution, while merely 40-50 % of patients with radiographic grounds of OA are clinically symptomless ( Roberts 1996 ) . For this ground the American Rheumatism Association devised diagnostic standards for OA in assorted articulations.

Table 2.2.4 Clinico-radiographic Classification Criteria for Osteoarthritis of the Knee

Traditional format

Classification tree format

Knee hurting



One of three:

Age & gt ; 50 old ages

Stiffness & lt ; 30 proceedingss


Knee hurting and



Knee hurting and age a‰? 40 old ages and forenoon stiffness a‰¤ 30 proceedingss in continuance and crepitus on gesture

( Altman 1986 )

Table 2.2.5 Clinico-radiographic Classification Criteria for Osteoarthritis of the Hip

Hip hurting

At least two of the followers:

ESR Westergreen & lt ; 20mm/hr

Radiographic femoral or cotyloid osteophytes

Radiographic joint infinite narrowing ( superior, axial and/or medial )

( Altman 1991 )

Table 2.2.6 Clinico-radiographic Classification Criteria for Osteoarthritis of the Handss

Hand hurting, hurting, or stiffness

Three or four of the followers:

Hard tissue expansion of 2 or more of 10 selected joints*

Hard tissue expansion of 2 or more DIP articulations

Less than 3 conceited MCP articulations

Deformity of at least one of 10 selected joints*

* 10 selected articulations are 2nd and 3rd DIP articulation, 2nd and 3rd PIP articulation, and 1st carpometacarpal joint

( Altman 1990 )

Radiographic Diagnosis

There are eight central marks of DJD: asymmetric distribution, non-uniform loss of joint infinite, osteophytes, subchondral induration, subchondral cysts, intra-articular loose organic structures, intra-articular malformation, and joint subluxation. The radiographic presentation of OA varies depending on the joint involved, the anatomic relationships, and the emphasis to which the articulation is subjected. Therefore all eight marks need non be present in order to set up a diagnosing of OA ; nevertheless they may be utile in in finding the grade of underlying diseased sequences affecting the joint compartments. The tabular array below is the scaling system used to set up radiographic badness of OA ( mention – Y & A ; R? ) .

Table 2.2.7 Kellgren-Lawrence Classification of Osteoarthritis



No alteration

Class I

Improbable narrowing of the joint infinite, possibleA osteophytes

Grade II

SmallA osteophytes, possible narrowing of the joint

Grade III

Multiple, reasonably sizedA osteophytes, definite joint infinite narrowing, some sclerosed countries, possible distortion of bone terminals

Grade IV

Multiple largeA osteophytes, terrible joint infinite narrowing, marked induration and definite cadaverous terminal malformation.


Asymmetrical Distribution: There is often a seeable disparity when comparing the extent of joint engagement with the unaffected ( or lesser affected ) articulation on the contralateral side. The asymmetrical distribution of OA helps to separate it from inflammatory arthropathies, such as RA, when have a characteristically symmetrical engagement ( mention – Y & A ; R? ) .

Non-Uniform Loss of Joint Space: Decrease in joint infinite is most likely to happen at the parts of greatest intra-articular emphasis, which is particularly apparent in weight-bearing articulations such as the spinal column, hip, and articulatio genus ( mention – Y & A ; R? ) .

Osteophytes: Radiographically, these are seen as cadaverous branchs widening from the part of capsular interpolation into the joint infinite. In really terrible instances the osteophyte may wholly bridge the joint infinite, doing anyklosis of the joint ( cite – Y & A ; R? ) .

Subchondral Sclerosis ( Eburnation ) : This is normally apparent in countries where there is the greatest loss in gristle tallness. It occurs as a consequence of increased mechanical forces being transmitted to the joint surfaces that lack the daze absorbing consequence of normal gristle thickness. In order to antagonize these increased forces, the bing trabeculate bone thickens and new bone is formed. This is seen on radiogram as increased countries of radio-opacity in the subchondral bone underlying parts of reduced joint infinite ( mention – Y & A ; R? ) .

Subchondral Cysts ( Goedes ) : These are focal parts of loss in bone denseness, of variable size, which appear as rounded countries of radiolucency and frequently have a sclerosed border. They are located in countries of old subchiondral induration, and occur either as a consequence of synovial fluid invasion through the open articular home base or secondary to trabeculate break and subsequent mortification ( mention – Y & A ; R? ) .

Intra-Articular Loose Bodies ( Joint Mice ) : As joint devolution advancements, flaking and atomization may ensue in intra-articular accretion of free drifting organic structures, comprised mostly of gristle and on occasion subchondral bone ( mention – Y & A ; R? ) .

Articular Deformity: Progressive distortion of the articular surfaces may happen following insistent emphasis, doing big subchondral cysts, trabeculate remodelling, break and prostration, which may be exacerbated my mortification due to secondary vascular perturbations ( mention – Y & A ; R? ) .

Joint Subluxation: The joint finally becomes unstable and prone to displacement due to joint surface distortion, loss of joint infinite, and laxness within the construction of the ligaments and sinews. This alters in the burden distribution, farther increasing the unbalances emphasiss of the joint, speed uping the degenerative procedure ( mention – Y & A ; R? ) .

Clinical Diagnosis

Altman et Al. ( 1986 ) developed sets of standards for the categorization of idiopathic OA of the articulatio genus.

Table 2.2.8 Classification Criteria for Diagnosis of Idiopathic Osteoarthritis ( OA ) of the Knee *

Clinical and research lab

Clinical and radiolograohic

Clinical **

Knee Pain + at least 5 of 9:

Age & gt ; 50 old ages

Stiffness & lt ; 30 proceedingss


Bony tenderness

Bony Enlargement

No tangible heat

ESR & lt ; 40 mm/hr

RF & lt ; 1:40


Knee Pain + at least 1 of 3:

Age & gt ; 50 old ages

Stiffness & lt ; 30 proceedingss


+ Osteophytes

Knee Pain + at least 3 of 6:

Age & gt ; 50 old ages

Stiffness & lt ; 30 proceedingss


Bony tenderness

Bony Enlargement

No tangible heat

92 % Sensitivity

75 % Specific

91 % Sensitivity

86 % Specific

95 % Sensitivity

69 % Specific

* ESR = erythrocyte sedementation rate ( Westergreen ) ; RF = arthritic factor ; SF OA = synovial fluid marks of OA ( clear, syrupy, or white blood cell count & lt ; 2000/mm3 ) .

** Alternative would be 4 of 6, which is 84 % sensitive and 89 % particular.

( mention )

Differentiation from other Arthritic Diseases

Arthritic arthritis: associated with more marks of redness affecting the MCP, carpus, wrist bones and other peripheral articulations, every bit good as the cervical spinal column. Generalised OA involves the DIP, PIP and first CMC articulations in the manus and, cervical and lumbar spinal column parts. RA distinguished from erosive OA through positive research lab trial, such as arthritic factor, ESR, and synovial fluid analysis ( Boon et al, ) .

Joints actively involved in arthritic arthritis seldom show osteophytes, therefore their presence is a utile index of OA if the patient presents with a assorted clinical image. If osteophytes precede arthritic engagement, it indicated that rheumatoid arthritis has evolved from an erosive OA. Conversely, they will merely develop in secondary devolution following RA burn out ( Yochum & A ; Rowe, ) .

Pseudogout: differentiated from OA by presence of CPPD crystals in synovial fluid, every bit good the in engagement of articulations that are non typically associated with primary OA, such as the cubitus and shoulder ( McCarthy 1998 ) .

Table 2.2.9 Categorization for Subsets of Idiopathic Osteoarthritis



Heberden ‘s and Bouchard ‘s nodes ( nodal )

Erosive interphalangeal arthritis ( non-nodal )




Halux valgus

Hallux rigidus

Contracted toes ( hammer/cock-up toes )



Medial compartment

Lateral compartment

Patellofemoral compartment


Eccentric ( superior )

Concentric ( axial, median )

Diffuse ( coxae senilis )

Spine ( peculiarly cervical and lumbar ) :


Intervertebral ( phonograph record )

Spondylosis ( osteophytes )

Ligamentous hyperostosis [ DISH* or Forestier ‘s disease ] )

Other individual sites:







Generalised ( includes 3 or more sites listed above ) :

Small ( peripheral ) and spinal column

Large ( cardinal ) and spinal column

Mixed ( peripheral and cardinal ) and spinal column

* DISH = Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis