Burger King

Burger King

Catolica lisbon – School of Business and Economics Burger King in Portugal To lead or to follow? Sara Saraiva Patrone | Number 152110048 Advisor: Professor Mario Valente Dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of requirements for the degree of MSc in Business Administration, at the Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, June 2012 Burger King in Portugal – To lead or to follow? Abstract Title: Burger King in Portugal. To lead or to follow? Author: Sara Saraiva Patrone In 2001, the Burger King (BK) brand, managed by Ibersol group entered the growing fast food Portuguese market.

Marginally higher prices along with the fact of having entered the market 10 years after its most direct competitor (McDonald? s), led BK to a sub leader position. Although being recognized as offering superior quality products when compared to McDonald? s, BK? s growth margins in the Portuguese market have been decreasing since 2007. The company? s uncertainty situation, offers the possibility of discussing positioning alternatives and strategic choices in business strategy and marketing courses. Besides the case study, the dissertation includes a literature review of frameworks and concepts used to evaluate company? internal and external environment. Finally, teaching notes proposes an approach to the case that might be used to guide class discussion or stimulate its preparation. From the case analysis, the competition analysis and recent Portuguese economic situation, this dissertation proposes a set of concrete actions to reverse the current positioning and brand growth. ________________________________________________________________________________________ Resumo Titulo: Burger King em Portugal. Lider ou seguidor?

Autor: Sara Saraiva Patrone Em 2001, a marca Burger King (BK) detida pelo grupo Ibersol entrou no mercado portugues para um segmento que, a altura, apresentava um forte crescimento: o segmento da “comida rapida”. O facto de praticar precos marginalmente mais elevados conjugado com o facto de ter entrado cerca de 10 anos depois do seu concorrente mais directo (McDonald? s) conduziram a marca BK a uma posicao de sub-lider. Apesar da marca gozar do reconhecimento generalizado de comercializar produtos que superam qualitativamente os da McDonald? , as margens de crescimento no mercado portugues tem revelado uma tendencia decrescente desde 2007. A situacao de incerteza da empresa oferece a possibilidade de discussao das alternativas de posicionamento e escolhas estrategicas em cadeiras de marketing e estrategia. Para alem do caso de estudo, a dissertacao inclui uma revisao dos conceitos e ferramentas teoricas usadas para analisar o ambiente interno e externo da empresa. Por ultimo, a nota de ensino propoe uma abordagem para o caso em estudo que podera servir de guia para uma discussao em aula ou estimular a preparacao da mesma.

Atraves da analise do caso, da analise da concorrencia e da situacao actual da economia portuguesa, esta dissertacao sugere um conjunto de accoes concretas conducentes a inverter a actual tendencia de posicionamento e de crescimento da marca. Sara Patrone| 2012 2 Burger King in Portugal – To lead or to follow? Acknowledgments This dissertation represents a long journey of learning. First I would like to thank my parents for all the years of caring and all provided opportunities that contributed to my development at the professional and personal levels.

I also must thank Mario Valente, the seminar advisor, for his feedback and advice that helped me throughout the completion of the dissertation. Ultimately, I must thank Ibersol collaboration which provided the exceptional possibility of interviewing Dr?. Ana Miranda, Ibersol? s marketing director, about BK activity details that served as background for the case study. Sara Patrone| 2012 3 Burger King in Portugal – To lead or to follow? Table of Contents Abstract ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Acknowledgments ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3 I. INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 7 II. CASE STUDY ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 8 1. Survey………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 2. BK history …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8 3. Ibersol history ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 9 4. BK in Portugal and Spain ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 12 5. Competition…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 4 5. 1 McDonald? s ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 14 5. 2 H3 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 17 6. Survey analysis …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 18 6. 1 Consumer profile…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8 6. 2 Consumption habits ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 18 6. 3 Consumers? motivations and preferences……………………………………………………………………………. 19 III. LITERATURE REVIEW ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 21 1. Strategy ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1 1. 1. Strategy and Strategic Management………………………………………………………………………………….. 21 1. 2. Strategic Planning…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 21 2. Strategy Positioning ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 22 2. 1. Macro – Environmental analysis ………………………………………………………………………………………… 22 2. Company analysis ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 23 3. Strategy Choices …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 24 4. Marketing ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 25 4. 1 Marketing mix ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 5 4. 2 Creativity, innovation and new products? launch ………………………………………………………………….. 25 IV. TEACHING NOTES ………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………. 27 V. CONCLUSION …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 40 VI REFERENCES …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 2 VII EXHIBITS ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 45 VIII APPENDIX …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 53 Sara Patrone| 2012 4 Burger King in Portugal – To lead or to follow? Table of Exhibits: Exhibit 1 Ibersol? s brands sales distribution…………………………………………………………………………………….. 5 Exhibit 2 Ibersol complaints by category ………………………………………………………………………………………… 45 Exhibit 3 Evaluation of service level – “Mystery Client” …………………………………………………………………….. 45 Exhibit 4 BK outlets? evolution ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 46 Exhibit 5 BK sales? evolution and growth variation …………………………………………………………………………… 6 Exhibit 6 BK? s annual sales per outlet in Iberian Peninsula ………………………………………………………………… 46 Exhibit 7 I love Portuguese Whopper …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 47 Exhibit 8 Whopper and Steakhouse hamburgers ……………………………………………………………………………… 47 Exhibit 9 BK? s restaurant ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 8 Exhibit 10 BK? s counter ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 48 Exhibit 11 “King poupanca” promotion in Portugal…………………………………………………………………………… 48 Exhibit 12 Different BK? s website pages …………………………………………………………………………………………. 48 Exhibit 13 ERS3002 certification ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 9 Exhibit 14 APPLUS +100% ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 49 Exhibit 15 McDonald? s sales? evolution and growth variation …………………………………………………………….. 49 Exhibit 16 McDonald? s easy orders ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 49 Exhibit 17 McCafe ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 0 Exhibit 18 McLusitano …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 50 Exhibit 19 McDonald? s hamburgers……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 50 Exhibit 20 McDonald? s restaurants………………………………………………………………………………………………… 50 Exhibit 21 H3 key messages …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1 Exhibit 22 H3 hamburgers and menu prices ………………………………………………………………….. ……………….. 51 Exhibit 23 H3 outlet ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 51 Table of Figures: Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Value chain……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3 Marketing mix ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 25 Primary activities ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 32 BK? s operational areas …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 33 BK? s position in Strategy Clock framework ………………………………………………………………………….. 6 Scenarios ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 37 Porter? s value chain ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 63 Strategy Clock………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 64 Sara Patrone| 2012 5 Burger King in Portugal – To lead or to follow? Tables:

Table 1 Gender composition ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 59 Table 2 Demographic composition ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 59 Table 3 Consumption frequency …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 59 Table 4 Outlets? location preference ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 9 Table 5 Preferred consumption days ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 59 Table 6 Preferred consumption hours ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 59 Table 7 Interpersonal relatioship…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 60 Table 8 Travelling time ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 0 Table 9 Motivational factors ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 60 Table 10 Preferred fast-food chain ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 60 Table 11 Most visited fast-food chain…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 60 Table 12 The most visited McDonald? s outlets ………………………………………………………………………………… 0 Table 13 The most visited BK? s outlets …………………………………………………………………………………………… 60 Table 14 The most consumed products ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 61 Table 15 Consumer BK? s perception ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 61 Table 16 Consumer McDonald? s perception ……………………………………………………………………………………. 1 Table 17 Entry modes comparison ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 65 Table 18 Topics? theoretical content ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 66 Table 19 BK and McDonald? s inbound logistics…………………………………………………………………………………. 67 Table 20 BK and McDonald? s operations …………………………………………………………………………………………. 7 Table 21 BK and McDonald? s outbound logistics ………………………………………………………………………………. 68 Table 22 BK and McDonald? s marketing sales ………………………………………………………………………………….. 68 Table 23 Economic factor analysis………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 69 Table 24 Social factor analysis ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 0 Table 25 Uncertainty and sales impact evaluation…………………………………………………………………………….. 71 Sara Patrone| 2012 6 Burger King in Portugal – To lead or to follow? I. INTRODUCTION For more than 10 years, BK has been competing in the Portuguese market but never turned around from its sub-leader position. By the end of 2007, the king? s crown was selling its core products in 28 outlets spread throughout the main Portuguese shopping centers.

By this time, BK started experiencing decreasing growth rates, in part reflecting the unprecedented international financial crisis which was the main cause for the current Portuguese recession. By 2010, 10 additional outlets were opened and the brand had a total of 24 M€ in sales. By this time, BK was experiencing increasing competition pressure. The market leader (McDonald? s) had 291 M€ in sales (about 12 times more) and was present in more than 130 outlets (a network 3. 4 times larger). A local competitor, H3, that started its Portuguese operations 6 years later, was closing on BK? sales numbers (22 M€) with a distribution network of 33 outlets. The central theme of this dissertation is the analysis of BK? s position in the market contrasting the later with the generalized perception of the brand? s higher quality products. The dissertation analyzes BK? s operational plan, strategy, business model and competition landscape. The Case Study (II) offers the basis for students to analyze and discuss three main issues: strategic choices that lead BK to its present situation, problems that exist inside the organization and remedying actions.

Simultaneously, the case study analyzes the survey made to 150 Lisbon consumers and McDonald? s success in the Portuguese market. As the result of the students? analysis, the following key challenging question is supposed to be answered: What are the main reasons for BK? s sub leader position? This dissertation contains a literature review (III) describing the frameworks needed to analyze the case study. Finally, it includes teaching notes (IV) with suggested assignment questions and theoretical contents. Only time will tell whether BK remains a market sub-leader or not.

Meanwhile, students may analyze and suggest what the company should change in its strategic plan. Sara Patrone| 2012 7 Burger King in Portugal – To lead or to follow? II. CASE STUDY 1. Survey The survey (appendix 1) constitutes the starting point for a generic analysis of the aspects connected to the fast-food market as well as the specifics related to the BK brand. The survey tries to understand what fast-food consumers’ value most, which features makes them prefer BK over its main competitor, McDonalds, and how they perceive both. Additionally it makes clear to what extent BK is fulfilling consumers’ needs. . BK history The international fast food restaurant chain BK was founded in 1953 in Jacksonville, Florida, under the name of Insta-Burger King. Inspired by the McDonald? s brothers, Keith J. Kramer and Matthew Burns decided to open the first restaurant. Later, in 1959, James McLamore and David R. Edgerton purchased the original company and initiated a corporate restructuring starting by changing its name to Burger King. The following eight years the company was run as an independent entity. In 1967, the company was sold to Pillsbury Company and started its expansion process.

Between the 70s and 80s, and still during Pillsbury? s management, BK was the focus of several restructuring attempts, the most important being in 1978 when BK hired a McDonald? s executive (Donald N. Smith). This restructuring consisted in updating franchising agreements, revamping menus and standardizing outlets. In spite of all these efforts, BK was still not having a good financial performance and ended up falling into a financial crisis. In 2002, BK started its recovering process after being purchased by an investment group lead by TPG Capital for $US 1. 5 billion.

This process culminated in 2006 with an highly successful IPO that generated $US 425 million in revenue and allowed a new orientation to BK. Between 2007 and 2010 and contrary to its main competitor McDonald? s, BK suffered the financial crisis? effects and the falling value of the company eventually lead to its sale to 3G Capital of Brazil (Wikipedia, 2012). In summary, looking back over the past ten years, BK had three different owners, including two private equity groups, and it still failed to meet the challenge of fulfilling consumer tastes. McDonald? s faced similar problems in mid-2000? s.

But it overcame its shortcomings by offering fresher and lighter menu options, gourmet coffees and even upgrading its outlets. When the financial crisis started affecting consumers, McDonald? s made better choices and overtook Starbucks by offering low-priced menus. In 2011, Wendy? s replaced BK? s position as the second most popular hamburger chain in US (Vinjamuri, 2012). Sara Patrone| 2012 8 Burger King in Portugal – To lead or to follow? The possibility of BK becoming public again on the New York Stock Exchange was recently considered. Thus happen after 3G Justice Holdings bough of 29% of the company (Walker, 2012).

Martin E. Franklin, Justice Holdings co-founder, considers “the BK brand is still in a early stage of its true potential” and believes that “over the next three to five years, the US turnaround and the international growth of the franchise model can lead to significant margin expansion” (Farzad, 2012). The brand started its Portuguese operations in 2001. Ibersol became its local partner and started building a network distribution in a consolidated way (Ibersol, 2004). 3. Ibersol history Ibersol is a multi-concept Portuguese group dedicated to the food service business.

It is considered a leader in the national fast-food market, covering the most profitable segments with powerful brands1 (Ibersol, 2004). Ibersol began its activity as part of Sonae group in 1989. In 1995 the company became independent and started extending its business portfolio, by exploring the Pans & Company brand, by creating the Pasta Caffe brand, by developing O Kilo concept 2 and by acquiring Iberusa (Ibersol, 2002). One year after, Ibersol started being quoted on the Euronext Lisbon Stock Exchange and in 2003 Ibersol was included in the PSI20 index.

Ibersol? s multi-brand distribution outlets are primarily located in shopping centers. Whether intentional or not, this location strategy probably derives from the cultural roots of its founders since Sonae it’s the largest developer of this kind of establishments. During its evolution, Ibersol had not always held the same brands, buying and selling them according to perceived business opportunities. Among the brands still held by the company, it is important to emphasize Pizza Hut, Pans/Bocatta and BK which have been, over the years, the largest source of company? sales (exhibit 1). 3. 1 Ibersol? s mission and strategy Ibersol acts in the Iberian Peninsula. The company defines its mission as “respect for the values of Quality, Food Safety and Environment concerns based on qualified and motivated Human Resources who are engaged in satisfying consumer needs and ensure return on the investments to its shareholders”. 1 2 It manages segments such as pizza, chicken, sandwich, Brazilian and Italian food, traditional Food, burgers and coffee. Brazilian restaurant Sara Patrone| 2012 9 Burger King in Portugal – To lead or to follow?

Ibersol? s strategy is formulated in a global way, and applied to all brands (Ibersol, 2007): ? Iberian strategy consolidation To be the Iberian leader in the business food sector and to reach in the long term a relevant position amongst the most important peer European companies. ? From single brand to multi-brand An increasing demand customer base drove the strategy “to select what we considered to be the most important segments of the market. For each of these segments, we selected the important brands in order to obtain a relevant market share”.

From the company? s point of view, this strategy brought several advantages: it contained the competition growth capability, it eliminated the single market inherent risks, it leveraged the company? s negotiating power with suppliers and right-sized Ibersol in a low margin business. Thanks to that, Ibersol was able to consolidate its presence in Portugal and started it expansion in the Spanish market. This expansion was pursued to the extent where the Iberian market is now considered its “Home Base”. From the Portuguese to the Iberian Market Ibersol started its activity in Spain in 1996 through the implementation of the Pasta Caffe brand and, later in 2002, with the acquisition of Vidisco. In 2006 it acquired Lurca, a Spanish company controlling BK? s outlets, the majority of them located in Madrid. In 2007, the Spanish business represented around 30% of Ibersol? s total annual sales (BK being the most profitable brand). With this significant market share, Ibersol started detaining a platform which allowed expansion to other Spanish geographies.

In order to support its strategy, Ibersol gave special emphasizes the operating processes in the following areas (Ibersol, 2004): Human Resources Facing an increasingly demanding consumer, the group? s growth strategy required a constant investment in employee training, development and motivation. For example a new product promotion or an operational change is followed by an employees? training process. In order to understand employees? performance and identify improvement areas, Ibersol uses sound survey techniques such as “Mystery Client” program.

Each Ibersol outlet receives at least one “Mystery Client” visit per month whereby the company is able to evaluate cleanliness, hospitality, accuracy, product quality, maintenance and service quickness. Sara Patrone| 2012 10 Burger King in Portugal – To lead or to follow? Customers? satisfaction also plays a central role in the organization. As the company recognizes the importance of communicating, listening and providing good experiences to customers, it has created a strong complaints management system. Through the analysis of complaints? ype and the results of the “Mystery Client” program, the company was able to conclude that the two most important improvement opportunities were, in 2006 and 2007, hospitality and the service quickness (exhibit 2 and 3). Information systems Information technology is one of the most developed areas of Ibersol. Each brand operates in a highly decentralized manner. This carries the obligation of developing highly performant procedures and systems in order to guarantee proper financial control, HR planning and supply chain management.

Ibersol uses IT as the basis for achieving an active role in B2B3 and a B2C4. As far as B2B is concerned, the objective is to allow an online interaction with business partners and suppliers in a paperless environment. In the B2C area, some investments have been made to ease customer’s interactions and pave the way to the electronic sales channel. The centralized management of company? s processes in a single database allows greater flexibility in managing products and prices. Finally, the national call center which supports Delivery and take away Pizza Hut services was also improved.

Quality Ibersol? s quality management system follows the ISO 22000 standard, certified by APCER. There is a great effort to improve business processes in areas such as production, food safety and conservation. One such process is the “Food Safety Process” which includes: ? Supplier certification (e. g. Ibersol? s main supplier GCT group was certified in 2006 according to the standard EFSIS with the “Higher Level Certificate of Conformity”); ? HACCP compliance; ? External audits of hygiene and food safety conditions; ? Product and service internal audits; ? Product tracking system.

Purchasing & Logistics Purchasing streamlining and logistics management have a huge impact on operational efficiency and cost savings. 3 4 Business to Business Business to Consumer Sara Patrone| 2012 11 Burger King in Portugal – To lead or to follow? Purchasing is currently managed in a centralized manner by two specialized companies of Ibersol: Iberusa ACE in Portugal and Vidisco in Spain. Using a centralized database and logistics platform both companies managed to shorten the product list and widen the number of national supplier references, allowing efficiency and productivity gains. In Portugal, Ibersol? policy includes having a unique facility in each relevant shopping center5 responsible for forecasting, warehousing and inventory control of all products necessary for Ibersol? s outlets. Substantial reductions in logistics costs have been achieved through a partnership established with the GCT logistics operator currently responsible for delivering 55% of Ibersol? s products (twice per week). This partnership is controlled by a “Supplier Relationship Management” system and a helpdesk service that allows control over stocks management and minimizes potential problems stemming from product shortages. . BK in Portugal and Spain BK defines itself has a “brand with worldwide recognition and higher quality products”. This orientation allows it to set higher prices compared to its main competitor, McDonald? s. However the higher price strategy allied to its late entrance in the market (about 10 years later than McDonald? s) led the company to a sub-leader position. Corporate Culture BK? s operations are based on its own 4 vectors: quality, service, cleanliness and speed. These vectors are translated in several corporate programs namely: continuous employee training, the “Open Kitchen” and “the Customer? Day” programs. Believing it was the easiest way to improve their HR quality and consequently offer a better service to the clients, BK promotes a career management system. Since 2003, BK kept their kitchens open to the public through the “Open Kitchen” program so that customers could verify the cleanliness of the cooking processes. With that, they proved its level of confidence in operational procedures and food safety. James McLamore, the brand co-founder stated that “Our customers have two things, time and money, and they do not like giving them out easily”.

Based on that, BK implemented in 2004, the “Customer? s Day” program. This consists in an interactive game between customers and employees that aims at fulfilling the promise of closing any transaction in less than one minute. Failing to do so, BK offers a free “whopper” voucher. According to the company, this challenge resulted in “gaining popularity and increasing the number of clients”. 5 In the end of 2006 the brand had a total of 11 such facilities Sara Patrone| 2012 12 Burger King in Portugal – To lead or to follow?

Distribution Network Ibersol manages the BK brand in Portugal in a franchising mode, although currently being the sole franchisee for the Portuguese market. The outlet network increased from 5 to 38 units (exhibit 4) and with the exception of the ones located in gas stations, the majority of them are located in shopping centers next to other Ibersol? s brands. In Spain the purchase of the Lurca brought 33 outlets into Ibersol control. This represents 7. 23%6 of the entire Spanish BK distribution network (Tormo, 2012). Sales BK started experiencing decreasing growth rates from 2007 to 2011.

From that point onwards, negative growth rates were experienced namely 5. 3 % in 2011 and 17. 1%7 in 2012 (exhibit 5). Exhibit 6 compares Ibersol? s Spanish volume sales per outlet to the Portuguese counterparts. Dr?. Ana Miranda, Ibersol? s marketing director, explains this discrepancy by stating that “each country as its own price policy promotional campaigns and raw materials in Portugal are more expensive”. Marketing mix 1. Product “There is nothing easier than selling to the public, nor is there anything harder than to satisfy them” (Ibersol, 2002). BK? core business is to sell hamburgers. Its 100% beef grilled hamburgers are the distinguishing factors from the competition. Moreover, XXL sized hamburgers are unquestionably very appreciated by consumers. Product innovation started in 2002 with a vegetarian burger offering (Beanburger), and the 100% grilled chicken breast (Chicken Whopper). This trend was followed in 2003 with wraps and salads. Product customization efforts started in 2008 with the “Have it your way” slogan that allow customers to create their own burgers. This concept also proved to be a great success.

Innovative service offerings have been introduced in some outlets: the Auto-King drive-thru and a free wi-fi service. Efforts to adapt to the Portuguese culture started more recently (in 2011) when BK launched the Portuguese version of the mythic Whooper (exhibit 7). This product was launched in a campaign entitled “I love Portuguese Whopper” emphasizing national symbols8 and typical Portuguese ingredients. 6 7 In a total of 456 Spanish establishments (42 of them fully owned and 414 franchisees) Annual projected value from quarterly results 8 Galo de Barcelos Sara Patrone| 2012 13 Burger King in Portugal – To lead or to follow? . Price BK? s most recognized products are the “Whopper” and the “Steakhouse”. Considering these core product and bearing in mind the most sold hamburgers, BK? s average menu price is estimated to be 5. 78€ (exhibit 8). 3. Place BK? s distribution network includes restaurants (exhibit 9) and counters (exhibit 10). Place design and environment was never a brand? s strength. The usage of dark colors, the lack of specialized sitting areas, the absence of digital entertainment devices and the contrast with other neighboring brands are contributing factors for low traffic numbers in their outlets. . Promotion Marketing started being relevant in Ibersol? s strategy after 2004. But only in 2010 BK started adopting a comprehensive communication strategy placing emphasis on value, product and price and investing in advertising on an unprecedented level. This effort was implemented through media campaigns (Cable TV channels, radio, billboards), by boosting communication with customers at the point of sale and by sponsoring the Rock in Rio (R&R) event. In 2011 customers started getting used to BK? s image in TV ads and social networks such as “Facebook” (FB).

The later is used for customers? interaction with other brand lovers and access to promotions and novelties. Clients can also communicate with BK employees that are ready to answer any question or explain any doubt almost in real time. A brief analysis of customer comments in the FB page shows negative feedback regarding outlets proximity, absence of Whopper and Steakhouse promotions or the price gap between Portuguese and Spanish campaigns (exhibit 11). Exhibit 12 provides a visual comparison of some of the brands? websites revealing the outdated status of the Portuguese one. . Competition This chapter provides a brief explanation of BK competitor’s strategies and their most important marketing actions. The fast-food segment is mainly constituted by “price-sensitive consumers” who usually value the speed of service and consider pricing to be more important than quality. 5. 1 McDonald? s McDonald? s started operating in Portugal in 1991. Their business has been growing since through a combination of fully owned stores and franchised outlets. Sara Patrone| 2012 14 Burger King in Portugal – To lead or to follow?

Profiting from its early entrance in Portuguese market, it quickly assumed a leadership role characterized by a quick service, low pricing strategy and tasteful food offerings. Its capacity for products and services differentiation and for improving their outlets? image have been the big contributors for their leadership consolidation. Corporate Culture McDonald? s bases its operations on quality, service, cleanliness and value. These vectors translate into corporate programs such as: quality certifications, opinion surveys, employees? raining courses and the “Open Kitchen” initiative. These vectors are very similar to BK? s and the only one worth mentioning is quality. McDonald? s was the first hamburger chain to obtain a food safety and service certification (ERS3002 assigned by APCER) and the hamburgers best quality award by the APPLUS +100% lab. (exhibit 13 and 14). Moreover, McDonald? s complies with HACCP critical control points and have very strict rules regarding food safety and hygienic control. Distribution Network In 2011, McDonald? s Portugal had 135 outlets. McDonald? has been capable of positioning itself to be attractive in several market segments. As McDonald? s general director, says “to prove that, you just have to go to a restaurant and observe the consumers that visit us individually or in group, in different occasions and with distinct motivations”. (Barbosa, 2011) McDonald? s was considered in 2011 and for the fourth consecutive time the best Portuguese franchising brand of “Franchising awards”. McDonald? s had, in 2011, a network of 47 franchisees responsible for managing more than 80% of the 135 outlets.

The importance of the partnership is recognized by Mario Barbosa: “They allow an organic rapid growth of the brand that would not have been possible if McDonald? s had to exclusively invest in fully owned restaurants”. (Barbosa, 2011). He concludes stating that the exclusive dedication to the business, the acquired experience, and the availability for brand investment would not have been possible without the franchisees, “who cannot be forgotten because they were the inventors of some of the most successful brand products: the Big Mac and the McFlurry. ” Sales McDonald? s sales figures have increased from 152. M€ in 2003 to 295M€ in 2011 (exhibit 15). Since 2005 the brand as been able to sell at higher rates than the European average (LPM, 2009) and (Tormo, 2010). Sara Patrone| 2012 15 Burger King in Portugal – To lead or to follow? For 2012, Mario Barbosa predicts growing the number of outlets and employees and maintaining the 2011 sales numbers (Cavaleiro, 2012). Marketing Mix 1. Product “Think globally, act locally” McDonald? s started innovating menu products with offerings such as “Salads Plus”, “Wraps” and “Sopissima” together with a variety of fresh fruits, vegetables and yogurt. AgroNoticias, 2005) McDonald? s intensively uses technology to enhance its service offerings. Examples include the introduction of the Via-Verde payment system in its drive thru service, the introduction of self service kiosks in the ordering and payment processes (exhibit 16: easy order machines-) and a free wi-fi customer service. McDonald? s efforts to adapt to the Portuguese culture started with the McCafe9 introduction. It was such a success that in 2008 the brand invested 450. 000€ in the opening of 5 new spaces (exhibit 17) (Lusa, 2008). The investment was described by Mario Barbosa, as a brand? “strategic plan” in the coffee market “that offers a differentiated set of products and drinks, in a contemporary and cozy environment”. Further examples of adaptation to the Portuguese culture includes the introduction of McLusitano (exhibit 18), served on rustic bread with local ingredients, a different type of fried potatoes 10 and a traditional Portuguese topping11 for the sundae ice-cream offering (Marques, 2012). 2. Price In a low-margin industry, pricing has a huge impact in the bottom-line. In spite of product diversification McDonald? kept its low-cost strategy in wraps, salads, soups, desserts and in the coffee segment. The average menu price in McDonalds is 5. 15€ (exhibit 19). 3. Place Aware of the physical space importance as a factor for differentiating from competitors, the brand started in 2007 a store? s remodeling process. This process represented a big investment that changed the brand image creating cozy, pleasant and more sophisticated restaurants (exhibit 20). 9 Including some very typical portuguse items: the bica and pastel de nata (Mantas, 2005). Batatas a rodelas 11 Doce de ovos 10 Sara Patrone| 2012 16

Burger King in Portugal – To lead or to follow? 4. Promotion McDonald? s shows a consistent concern with an effective communication with consumers as a way to follow their preferences evolution. This was the reason why they were able to reinvent and surprise their clients while keeping loyal to their values. A “consumption experience” in its advertising strategy is easily identifiable. McDonald ? s tries to sell products as an experience of happiness, a friends and family sharing message, always in a very creative way. Examples include “Europoupanca” and “Tanto para partilhar” campaigns. McDonald? was also the official sponsor of sport events such as the 2004 and 2012 European UEFA and 2010 World football championships. In the last one, the Portuguese football player Simao Sabrosa image was used to promote the brand with the “BigMacMacLocoBigMac” campaign (Youtube, 2010). 5. 2 H3 H3 does not “play” in the fast-food segment. However, this new business concept can potentially steal premium consumers from the traditional fast food chains. That is to say, non-price sensitive customers who value quality, taste and service quickness. Created in 2007, H3 currently operates in 38 Portuguese restaurants.

The brand presents a simple menu base (exhibit 21): 200 grams of fresh meat grilled with salt, grilled to the point the client wants, served in hot dishes (not slices of bread), with customized side orders and freshly made drinks (H3, 2007). Menus prices vary from 6. 75€ to 10. 5€ (exhibit 22). The only really comparable product is the “H3 super bread” that sells for 6. 3€. H3 stores are mainly located in food courts. Aware of the image? s importance, its design was thought to attract clients? attention. The brand chose a very uncommon and attractive color for its logo (light blue).

They also took the uncommon approach of decorating the outlet walls with the product portfolio and lighting the counter? s front wall with light-blue panels (exhibit 23). Sara Patrone| 2012 17 Burger King in Portugal – To lead or to follow? 6. Survey analysis The survey was divided into three sections regarding consumer profile, consumption habits and consumer preferences and motivations. The results ate illustrated in appendix 2. 6. 1 Consumer profile From a gender perspective the sample was composed of 58% of male? s answers and of 42% female? s answers (table 1).

From a demographic perspective the majority of them (70%) belongs to the age range between 15 -35 years (table 2). 6. 2 Consumption habits Consumption habits were analyzed according to the following criteria: 1. Consumption frequency 2. Outlet location 3. Day-of-the-week preferences 4. Preferred consumption hours 5. Interpersonal relationships 6. Travelling time spent Regarding consumption frequency 102 out of 150 respondents consume fast food between 5 and 8 times per month which means that, in their peak consumption, they consume fast-food products twice a week (table 3).

Although this represents a high percentage of people going to a fast-food chain (68%), this percentage encompasses all types of consumptions (not necessarily hamburgers). When asked about outlets? location preference, around 38% chose “next to their home”, followed by “next to an entertainment place” including adults and children entertainment places. (table 4). Friday was the preferred day-of-the-week (28%), followed by Saturday (22%). However a significant number answers – 30 out of 150 – said that they had no special preference (table 5).

Concerning the preferred consumption hours there is a clear trend towards the main meals: dinner (38%) and lunch (30%). It is also important to highlight that 26% of people selected the evening meal (table 6). This probably includes a younger age group and represents potential growth provided that fast-food chains extend their opening hours. When asking consumers with whom they use to go the majority answered “friends” (48%), followed by “family” (28%). (table 7). As far as travelling time spent, almost the majority of people (48%) said that they spend “< 10 minutes” to get to the fast food outlet.

The following category “10-20 minutes” is really significant – around 34%. Sara Patrone| 2012 18 Burger King in Portugal – To lead or to follow? Between “21-30 minutes” the percentage falls to 14%, which it is still considered to be high and may suggest a lack of proximity to consumers (table 8). As a summary of the consumption habits questions the typical fast-food costumer consumes an average of 6 times per month, in a outlet next to home having a Friday dinner with friends, spending less than 10 minutes to get there. 6. 3 Consumers? otivations and preferences Motivations and preferences were analyzed according to the following criteria: 1. Motivational factors 2. Preferred fast-food chain 3. Most visited fast-food chain 4. Most visited outlets 5. Most consumed products 6. Consumer brands? perception As far as motivational factors were concerned, the majority preferred “convenience/proximity”, followed by “price” and “quality”. This reveals several problems in BK? s strategy: their shopping center outlets location does not comply with the convenience/proximity factor and the same happen with the price.

In fourth, fifth, and sixth places came the “flavor”, “opening hours” and “drive-thru service” (table 9). As far as preferred fast-food chain is concerned, the majority (64%) gave preference to McDonald? s over BK (table 10). The results were even higher when the respondents were asked about the most visited chain: 94% gave preference to McDonald? s (table 11). Interviewers gave hints that explain this number discrepancy: “Although I prefer BK, it is not close to my house and it is not open 24 hours a day” “There are more McDonald? s than Burger King? s and some are open 24*7. “No BK outlet operates 24 hours a day and the “Europoupanca” promotion is very competitive. ” Regarding most visited outlets, an interesting result surfaced from the survey. For McDonald? s the overwhelming preference was given to outlets outside shopping centers namely BP Padre Cruz, Colombo and Alvalade respectively (table 12). The top preferred location is easily explained by its drive-thru service or the 24*7 operations. For BK, as most outlets are located inside shopping centers, the results were Colombo, Dolce Vita Tejo and Vasco da Gama (table13).

This result suggests that BK? s outlet location strategy should probably be revised. The most consumed products are the typical menus containing “hamburger, French fries and drink”, followed by the “hamburger only” and “ice-cream”. The result is not surprising since these are the fast-food chains? core products. Sara Patrone| 2012 19 Burger King in Portugal – To lead or to follow? Finally and as an attempt to understand consumer brands? perception the consumers were asked to mention symbols, ideas or experiences they associate to both brands.

This was an open question and the results were categorized in 5 categories (table 15 and 16): 1. Product – Consumers considered both chains fast-foods? products tasty. In BK? s case, good quality and good hamburgers were mentioned as positive and “bad french-fries” as negative aspects; 2. Price – McDonald? s is perceived as a cheap chain and BK as an expensive one; 3. Service – Both are perceived as being quick but McDonald? s is also considered efficient and dynamic; 4. Physical space – McDonald? s is mentioned as magical, colorful and happy, with a good environment and with a good accessibility.

BK? s references are made in respect to its shopping centers outlet location, for being simple, and a “bad McDonald? s imitation”; 5. Promotion – McDonalds is associated to promotion campaigns and a good communication strategy; BK is associated to few promotions and advertising. Sara Patrone| 2012 20 Burger King in Portugal – To lead or to follow? III. LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter describes the theoretical frameworks that serve as a basis to the Case Study (III) and Teaching Notes (IV). Four main topics are analyzed: strategy (1), strategy positioning (2), strategy choices (3) and marketing (4). . Strategy 1. 1. Strategy and Strategic Management According to Porter (1996), Strategy is about competitive positioning, about differentiating yourself in the eyes of the customer, about adding value through a mix of activities. Competitive strategy is the combination of goals that the firm is striving for and the means through which it seeks to get there. According Mintzberg (1987), Strategy can be looked in five different dimensions: 1. Strategy as a “plan”: a conscious and planned process containing a set of guidelines that should be followed in a specific situation; 2.

Strategy as a ploy: specific maneuvers intended to outwit the competition; 3. Strategy as a pattern: strategy emerging from company? s behavior; 4. Strategy as a position: the combination of organizational and environmental factors. That drives company? s positioning in the market; 5. Strategy as a perspective: strategy as the ingrained way of perceiving the world. According to Johnson and Scholes (1998), Strategy defines where the business is trying to get in the longterm, which markets it should compete in and what activities are involved in such markets.

It allows the organization to understand how the business can perform better vis-a-vis the competition, what kind of resources are required12, what external factors13 affect the business competitiveness and the reasonable stakeholders expectations. 1. 2. Strategic Planning Strategic planning should start with a mission statement that guides the definition of measurable corporate goals. This is a statement of organization? s reason of being. When clearly defined, it acts as an “invisible hand” that guides people in the organization. 12 13 Human, financial, etc.

Demographics, economics , legal, political, socio-cultural, technological. Sara Patrone| 2012 21 Burger King in Portugal – To lead or to follow? According to Kotler et al. (1992), a mission statement should be market-oriented and provide answers to questions like: 1. What business are we in? 2. Who are our customers? 3. What are we in business for? 4. What sort of business are we? Kotller also states that a well defined mission statement should be realistic, specific, based on distinctive competences and motivating. It should also provide a direction for the company in the medium term. . Strategy Positioning 2. 1. Macro – Environmental analysis Wheelen and Hunger (2006) created the PESTEL framework to analyze the environmental factors that are the main contributors for the performance of a company. These factors can be distinguished according to the following criteria: ? Political: to what extent a government intervenes in the economy in areas such as tax policy, labor law, trade restrictions, tariffs and political stability; ? Economic: factors such as interest rates, taxation changes, economic growth, inflation affecting economic situation; ?

Social: social values, education level or even changes in social trends that can impact the product demand and the and willingness of individuals to buy; ? Technological: factors such as R&D and technological changes affecting costs, quality and innovation; ? Environmental: factors related to the involvement and commitment with the environment and social responsibility; ? Legal: factors such as discrimination law, consumer law, antitrust law that can affect how a company operates, its costs and the demand for its products.

Despite the usefulness of the PESTEL framework, it presents some limitations since macro-environmental factors cannot be analyzed independently from each other. In order to have an effective environmental scan, it is important to see how variables interact with each other as all factors affect company? s strategy and management decisions Burt et al. (2006). PESTEL analysis is also prone to over-simplification. Most of the time, input data is based in questionable assumptions, especially when one takes into consideration the drastic changes that environmental factors may have on business performance.

Sara Patrone| 2012 22 Burger King in Portugal – To lead or to follow? According to Schoemaker (1995), a more solid alternative to account for macro-external environmental changes is the Scenario Planning. Although suffering from some limitations due to inherent subjectivity in scenario design, this technique recognizes all weak signals leading to the environmental changes in a “eight steps methodology” summarized in appendix 3. 1. In order to improve the ability to face macro-environmental changes, companies should combine both techniques. 2. Company analysis Proposed by Albert Humphrey in 1960s, SWOT analyzes internal factors (strengths and weaknesses) and external factors (opportunities and threats) that influence the company? s performance. Constraints associated to this framework include the absence of criteria priorization and not having a direct link to implementation Johnson et al (2005). Another constraint mentioned by Mintzberg (1994) is that the assessment of strengths and weaknesses may be unreliable and tied with aspirations and biases. So it is important for them to be contextualized in the company? structure and operations in order to create a sustainable competitive advantage. An important approach to identify competitive advantages is through value chain analysis. Value chain is defined as the products or services? path through which value is added, before it reaches the final consumer. Suggested by Porter (1985), this framework helps identifying the firm? s core competences and the activities that lead to competitive advantages. A value chain analysis is conducted in three steps: Figure 1 Value chain ? Separation of the organization’s operations into primary and support activities (appendix 3. ); ? Cost allocation for each activity. This provides management with valuable insight about the internal capabilities of an organization; ? Identification of activities that are crucial to customer’s satisfaction and market success. The profit margin created by the firm? s strategic capabilities is then defined as the difference between the value of the product delivered to the customer and the production cost. Through the analysis of its activities, a company can determine the way each activity contributes to the relative cost structure and product differentiation. Porter M. , 1985) Sara Patrone| 2012 23 Burger King in Portugal – To lead or to follow? 3. Strategy Choices The process of choosing a strategy starts by identifying the available options concerning products and markets. Porter? s “Generic Strategies” (1985) distinguishes two opposite options: Cost leadership versus product differentiation. The first happens when the company puts all its efforts on efficiency and cost minimization addressing the most important factor from the customer perspective: the price.

The inherent vulnerability is the threat of new competitors entering the same market through the usage of new technologies that allow product replication at a lower price or alternative products. Differentiation implies different criteria for costumers to recognize the products? added value. It requires the company to invest more in areas such as advertising, distribution or R&D (depending on the company? s core business). Faulkner and Bowman (1995) suggested an enhancement to Porter? “Generic Strategies” with the Strategy Clock framework that refines the former with eight main positions (appendix 3. 3). According to Ansoff (1957), diversification is about changing the market and the product either by delivering a modified product or creating a completely new one. Reasons to pursue diversification include economies of scale and synergies between businesses. Related diversi? cation takes place when businesses expand into similar competences either by selling complementary activities or products (horizontal) or moving into new business (vertical).

Unrelated diversification means moving into a totally different business, beyond the scope of the current company? s capabilities. Hill et al. (1990) defines six markets entry modes of which franchising and wholly owned subsidiaries apply to the foodservice industry. Zimmerer and Scarbouough (2008) defines franchising as a “system in which semi-independent business owners (franchisees) pay fees and royalties to a parent company (franchiser) in return for the right to become identified with its trademark, to sell its products or services, and often to use its business format and system. A wholly owned subsidiary happens when the company owns 100% of the operations either through organic growth or acquisitions. Hill at al. (1990) highlight the impact of market? s entry mode in the company: the level of resources committed to foreign operations, the involved risks and the degree of control the company can exercise over new market operations. The advantages and disadvantages of each entry mode are carefully considered in appendix 3. 4. Sara Patrone| 2012 24 Burger King in Portugal – To lead or to follow? 4. Marketing A proper marketing support is crucial for the success of a new product.

The more frequent consumers are exposed to advertisement campaigns evoking appropriate associations, the stronger the linkages they establish and the more favorably they evaluate the same brand (Lane, 2000). 4. 1 Marketing mix Marketing mix is a fundamental tool to achieve targets in terms of sales, profit and consumer satisfaction. James Culliton, who is thought to be its “inventor”, describes Marketing Mix has a combination of four independent variables (“ingredients”): product, price, place and promotion. ? Product is the most powerful instrument of the marketing mix.

If it does not sound attractive, no action will help convincing the customer. If development decisions are well conceived, they will translate into a quality, utilityoriented, convenient and well designed product. ? Price is a key factor to reach the targeted market share or sales Figure 2 Marketing mix volumes. Its definition must be high enough to give adequate profit but low enough to motivate product purchase. ? Place mostly refer to point-of-sales. ? Promotion means informing and persuading consumers through advertising, personal selling techniques and sales promotions14. . 2 Creativity, innovation and new products? launch Mumford and Gustafson (1988) state that every company operates in an environment characterized by increasingly fast technology changes, shorter product life cycles in a global market. Therefore, it is essential for companies to be increasingly more creative and innovative if they want to grow and lead the market. According to Amabile et al. (1996) the widely accepted definition of creativity is the production of novel and useful ideas while innovation is the successful implementation of creative ideas within an organization.

And Kotler (2003) adds that innovation is not limited to new products or services. It includes thinking about new businesses and business processes. 14 Event exhibitions, discount coupons, small gifts, free samples, attractive package and consumer contests Sara Patrone| 2012 25 Burger King in Portugal – To lead or to follow? Successful product launching is extremely important to the long – term company growth (Kotler & Keller, 2006). They can produce higher stock returns when their introduction is supported by substantial advertising investments Srinivasan et al. 2009) . In other words, it is extremely important to communicate the product value added by innovation. Sara Patrone| 2012 26 Burger King in Portugal – To lead or to follow? IV. TEACHING NOTES This chapter enumerates and analyzes the assignment questions by providing a detailed explanation of how each one should be addressed taking into consideration both the Case Study (III) and the Literature Review (IV). The pedagogical proposal (appendix 4) suggests each question? s theoretical contents. 1. Assignment Question 1 Ibersol? mission emphasizes values such as “quality, food Safety and environment” as well as “qualified and motivated HR”. Ibersol? s strategy emphasizes three main ideas: market leader, multi-brand business and focus on the Iberian market. a) Analyze Ibersol? s strategy and mission and contrast them with BK? s. Detect possible misalignments. A mission statement sets corporate goals and is a pre-requisite for strategy planning. The BK brand has not defined a specific mission statement for its Portuguese operation.

Being the sole franchisee for the Portuguese market, Ibersol? s mission statement will be adopted in this analysis. A mission statement is the organization? s reason for being, what the company strives to be in the long term. When defining its mission, BK must answer the following questions: ? What business are we in? A market-oriented mission definition is always better than a productoriented definition (e. g. : “we manufacture furniture”) as the later can easily became outdated. A market-oriented mission defines the business based on customer needs.

BK? s business is not only to produce hamburgers, but rather to provide customers with the best burgers; ? Who are our customers? A mission statement should allow the identification of target customers (e. g. in BK? s case, hamburgers lovers); ? What are we in business for? That is to say, the main reason for BK? s existence. Do they exist only to provide food or do they also want to create a customer experience (“to be the customer? s favorite place”)? ; ? What sort of business are we? This question guides strategy definition goals.

Its answer determines whether the company is aiming at cost leadership or product differentiation. BK? s mission statement compiles a number of flaws. It is a broad definition. Although sounding good, it is to