Business Analysis and Valuation Exam Notes
Topic 7: NOA1=NOA0+OIt – (C1-I1) NFO1=NFO0+NFE1 – (C1-I1)+d1 NFA1=NFA0+NFI1 – (C1-I1)-d1 CSE1=CSE0+OI1 – NFE1 – d1 NI1=OI1 – NFE1 (C1-I1) = d1+F1 d1=div+ share buyback – share issues F=net purchases of FAs – interest on FAs – net issue of debt + Interest on debt d=C-I+NFI-NFA d=C-I-NFE+NFO FCF=OI-NOA (Method 1) FCF=NFA-NFI+d (Method 2) FCF=NFO+NFE+d CSE=NOA+NFA/(-NFO) CSE1=CSE0+Earnt-dt Net Operating Accruals = OI1 – C1 or NOA – I1 If C-I-i > d: lend or buy down debt. If C-I-i < d: borrow or reduce lending. The rate of return from investing in a firms’ stock is its holding period return. [(div+P1)/P0]. Topic 8:
Reformulated CSE Statement CSE0 +Net transactions with s/holders +Share issues – Share buy backs – Dividends +Comprehensive Income +NI reported +/- securities avail. For sale +/- currency translations +/- hedging +/- prior earnings restatements CSE1 Table 8. 1 of Dirty Surplus Items: OI Items Changes in accting for contingencies Additional minimum pension liability Tax benefits of loss carry-forwards acquires Tax benefits of dividends paid to ESOPs Unrealized gains and losses on equity securities avail. For sale Some adjustments of deferred tax valuation allowances funding status of pension plans Financing inc (or exp) items
Preferred dividends Unrealized gains on losses on debt securities avail. For sale Operating or Financing inc items F. C. translation gains (losses) Gains(losses) on derivative instruments for hedging purposes Restatement of prior years’ income due to accting principles. Bal/sheet items to be reclassified Credits to s/holders’ equity for stock compensation exp. Dividends payable. Topic 9: Effective tax rate for operations Tax on OIOI before tax ReOI1=OI1 – ( – 1) NOA0 Operating PM from sales OI from Sales (after tax)Sales Net CI Margin = CI/Sales RNOA = OI/Ave. NOA NBC = NFE/Ave. NFO RNFA = NFI/Ave. NFA ROCE = Earn (CI)/Ave.
CSE OLLEV = OL/NOA Capitalization Ratio = NOA/CSE FLEV = NFO/CSE SPREAD = RNOA – NBC Reformulated Bal/sheet FAs: Cash equivalents S/T investments S/T notes receivable* L/T debt investments FLs: S/T borrowings Current maturities on L/T debt S/T note payable* L/T borrowings Lease obligations Preferred stock OAs & OLs: All else Minority Interest CSE *notes are FA/Ls if they bear the mkt rate of interest. L/T equity investments are usually OAs if they are a >20% holding, recorded at mkt value if avail. for sale or, at cost if held to maturity. S/T equity/marketable investments are OAs if part of a trading portfolio.
If used mop up excess cash = FA. Minority interest is a separate line item. And NOA – NFO = CSE + Minority Int. Reformulated Income Statement Net sales -Expenses to generate sales =OI from sales (before tax) -Tax on OI from sales +Tax as reported +Tax benefit from NFE – Tax allocated to other OI =OI from sales (after tax) Other OI (exp) requiring tax alloc. Restructuring charges and asset impair. Merger exps Gains/Losses on asset sales Gains/Losses on security transactions -Tax on other OI After-tax operating items Equity share in subsidiary income Operating items in extraordinary inc Dirty surplus op. items in Table 8. Hidden dirty surplus op. items OI (after tax) -NFE (after tax) +Interest exp -Interest inc. Realized gains/losses on FAs =NFE before tax -Tax benefit from NFE =NFE after tax Gains/loss on debt retirement +unrealized holding loss D-S items in Table 8. 1 (incl. Pref. dividends) Hidden d-s financing items -Minority Interest =Comp. Income to common Topic 10: Reformulated CF Statement CF from operations +Reported cash from op. Net cash interest payments after tax – CF from investing +Reported cash from inv. +Liquidation of assets +Sale of assets +Maturities of assets – Purchases of Assets Working Cash =FCF from op. ctivities Net Dividends +Dividends +Share buy back – Share issue +Net Debt Financing Cash and Cash Equivalents + net payments to d/holders and issuers =Cash paid for financing activities Topic 11: ROCE = RNOA+[FLEV(RNOA-NBC)] Implicit int. on OL= S/T borrowing rate (after tax) OL ROOA=OI+Implicit Int. (aft. tax)OA RNOA=ROOA+(OLLEVOLSPREAD)OLSPREAD = ROOA – S/T borrowing rate (after tax) ROA=NI+Int Exp (aft. tax)Ave Total Assets Minority interest is added to numerator if any. 2 Drivers of RNOA: RNOA = PM ATO PM = OI (aft. Tax)/Sales ATO = Sales/NOA (usually expressed as 1/ATO) PM Drivers: PM = Sales PM + other items PM
Sales PM=Gross margin ratio – Exp ratios =GMsales-Admin. expsales-Sell. expsales-R&Dsales-Operating taxessales Other Op. items PM=subsidiary incsales+other equity incsales+Special itemssales+other gains and lossessales Drivers of ATO (1/ATO) can be broken down into ratios for the individual assets and liabilities. Drivers of NBC is calculated from the weighted average of the costs for different sources of net financing. NBC=FONFO? aft. tax int. on FOFO-FANFO? aft. tax on FAFA-FANFO? Unrealized gains on FAFA+Pref. stockNFO? Pref. DivPref. stock+… Topic 12: OI = Core OI from sales + Core Other OI + Unusual Items
RNOA=Core OI from SalesNOA+Core other OINOA+UINOA Core OI from salesNOA=Core sales PM? ATO=Core OI from salesSales? SalesATO NBC=Core NFENFO+UFENFO RNOA1=(core sales PM1ATO0) +(ATO1Core Sales PM1) +(core other OI/NOA)+ (UI/NOA) Changes in core sales PM are driven by variable and fixed costs. Sales PM = (Sales – VC – FC)/Sales Contribution Margin Ratio = 1 – (VC/Sales) OLEV=CM ratio/PM %Core OI=OLEV%Core sales CSE1=(sales11/ATO0) +[(1/ATO1)Sales1] – NFO1 Reformulated OI Core OI Core Sales Rev. Core CoS = Core GM Core Op. Exp. = Core OI from sales bef. Tax Tax on core OI from sales +Tax as reported +Tax benefit from NFE
Tax alloc To core other OI Tax alloc to UI = Core OI from sales + Core other OI + Equity income in subsidiaries + Earnings on pension assets + Other continuing inc not from sales Tax on core other OI = Core OI Unusual Items Special charges Special liability accruals Nonrecurring items Asset write-downs estimates Start-up costs expensed P/L from asset sales Restructuring charges P/L from discon operations Extraordinary op items Accounting charges Unrealized g/l on equity investments Gains from share issues Currency gains and losses Derivative g/l (operations) Tax allocated to unusual items = Comprehensive OI Topic 13: Earnings component: i) Operating income (ii) Net financial expense (iii) Earnings Book value component: (i) NOA (ii) NFO (iii) CSE Residual Earnings measure: (i) ReOI1 = OI1 – (F – 1) NOA0 (ii) ReNFE1 = NFE1 – (D – 1) NFO0 (iii) RE1 = Earn1 – (E – 1) CSE0 Value of NFO: V0NFO=NFO+ReNFET? D+CVT? DT Value of NOA: V0NOA=NOA0+ReOIT? F+CVT? FT Value of Equity: V0E=CSE0+ReOIT? F+CVT? FT NFO is usually measured at market value. Therefore forecasted ReNFE are zero. Usually: VoE=V0NOA-V0NFO But with ReNFE = 0, VE = VNOA Drivers of RE: RE1 = [ROCE1 – (E – 1)] CSE0 (1) amount of s/holders’ investment (2) rate of return on investment relative to E.
Drivers of ReOI: ReOI1 = [RNOA1 – (F – 1)] NOA0 (1) amount of NOA put in place (2) profitability of assets relative to F. Drivers of ReNFE: ReNFE1 = [NBC1 – (D – 1)] NFO0 (1) amount of net financial debt (2) NBC relative to D. AEG Measure (i) AOIG=[OI1 + (F – 1)FCF0] – FOI0 (ii) ANFEG=[NFE1+(D – 1)F0] – DNFE0 (iii) AEG=[Earn1+(E-1)d0] – EEarn0 V0NOA=1? F-1OI1+AOIGT? F Cost of capital: ?E=? F+VoDV0E? F-? D P/B Ratio: V0ECSE0=V0NOANOA0+NFO0CSE0V0NOANOA0-1 Forward P/E ratio: V0EEarn1=V0NOAOI1+ELEV1V0NOAOI1-1NBC1 ELEV = NFE/Earnings Trailing P/E ratio: V0E+d0Earn0=V0NOA+FCF0OI0 +ELEV0V0NOA+FCF0OI0-1NBC0-1