Career Guidance

Career Guidance

WHAT FACTORS INFLUENCE A COUNTRY’S STANDARD OF LIVING? Judy Newsome Purpose: Students will examine geographic information to make inferences about the factors that influence a country’s economic development and standard of living. Objectives: The student will be able to: 1. analyze information on a map to generalize a country’s economic status. 2. compare geographic information and develop hypotheses about the economic development and standard of living in various countries. 3. examine geographic information to test hypotheses. 4. make inferences about other factors that influence the economic development/ standard of living of a country.

Standards: 1,11,15,16 Skills: 1,2,4,5 Materials: Maps showing resources Map of Africa Chart showing per capita GNP Pictures to stimulate discussion Procedures: PREPARATION: 1. Label 10 x 13 size envelopes (3 per group) as follows: Group 1 Envelope A Group 1 Envelope B Group 1 Envelope C. Repeat for groups 2 – 7. 2. Copy the attached copy of the seven individual countries seven times and make a transparency of it. Cut out the seven map keys and one copy of each individual country. Attach one country and the map key to half a sheet of construction paper and laminate if possible.

Place country A in Envelope A for Group 1, country B in Envelope A for Group 2, etc. 3. Make seven copies of a blackline map of Africa and seven copies of a chart showing per capita GNP figures for Africa. Mount the map and the chart on construction paper and also laminate, if possible. Place a copy of the map and the chart in Envelope B for each group. 4. Find pictures to represent the various factors to be discussed (as many as possible). You would need seven pictures to represent each factor (one for each group) or seven copies. Mount these on construction paper and laminate.

Place pictures in Envelope C for each group. 71 GROUPS: Divide the class into groups (up to 7). QUESTION: Ask: When you hear the term standard of living, what does it mean to you? After the Discussion, which should include the definition of standard of living (see definitions), explain that the first factor that influences a country’s standard of living is the material wealth as evidenced by a country’s natural resources and agricultural products. BRAINSTORM: Distribute the 3 envelopes to each group but ask them not to open any of them until they are asked to do so.

Tell them that Envelope A contains the map of an individual country and the map key. All names have been removed so that they will not be able to bring any prior knowledge to this activity. Have them open Envelope A and examine the map and the key. List the resources and products shown and then brainstorm about what can be done with those resources and products and how to obtain anything they need but don’t have. (approximately 5 minutes) MAKE COMPARISONS: Show transparencies of all seven countries. Let each group report. Write their finding on the transparency beside the appropriate country or on the chalkboard.

HYPOTHESIZE: Based on the brainstorming, which country is wealthiest? Rate them from 1 to (varies). (Depends on number of groups used). Write the ratings on the transparency. INTRODUCE VOCABULARY: Explain that the reason you examined the resources and products of each country first is that a country’s resources and products influence the material wealth and therefore the economic development and standard of living of a country. One measure of a country’s standard of living is per capita GNP. Define per capita GNP. (See definitions) EXAMINE MAP AND CHART: Tell your groups to open Envelope B.

Compare the map of Africa and identify the particular country they were working with. They should raise their hands and tell you so you can mark it on the transparency as soon as they find it. Then ask them to look up their country’s per capita GNP and add it to the information already on the transparency. Now check your hypotheses. How do the countries really rate? If all is well, you should have them rated incorrectly so you can point out that there are other factors that playa part. (See introduction. ) EXAMINE PICTURES: In Envelope C, which may be opened now, you will find pictures related to a country’s standard of living.

Take about 2 minutes to identify the factor each picture represents. Put a list on the overhead and tell your groups that they are now going to draw some conclusions about these factors and how they influence a country’s standard of living. (If you made copies of pictures you may want to put the originals up in the room and/or make transparencies of them). 72 DRAW CONCLUSIONS: Have groups discuss and come to some conclusions about how each of the factors influence a country’s economic development/standard of living. Then ask about any other factors they can think of. See attached list as a hint but there may be others). VOCABULARY: Economic systems – the approach or technique that a country uses to deal with scarcity and achieve its economic goals. Standard of Living -ca measure of the amount of good and services an individual or group considers essential to well-being. GNP or gross national product – a measure of the value of all the good and services produced by a nation in a given time period, usually one year. Per capita GNP – GNP is divided by the population. The amount of money per person the people of a country or in a certain region earn.

Life expectancy – the average number of years people can be expected to live. Literacy rate – the ratio of the number of people in a population who can read and write of the total number of persons in a population. Birth rate – the ratio of the number of live births during one year to the total population, expressed as the number of births per year per 1000 population. Death rate (mortality rate) – the ratio of the number of deaths during one year to the total population, expressed as the number of deaths per year per 1000 population.

Infant mortality rate – the ratio consisting of the annual number of deaths of infants not over one year old to the total number of live births during that year. Infrastructure – the basic structure of services, installations, and facilities needed to support industrial, and other economic development; included are transport and communications, along with water, power, and other public utilities. Natural increase – the number of births in a country minus the number of deaths Population growth rate – natural increase plus migration into a country minus migration out ofa country. o FACTORS INTRODUCED IN PICTURES: . 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Water (affects the economic and agricultural development) Sanitation (affects health and life expectancy) Health care (affects life expectancy, infant mortality rate, birth rate, death rate) Population growth (natural increase and population growth rate) Nutrition (affects health and life expectancy) Education (affects literacy rate) SOME OTHER POSSIBLE FACTORS: 1. War 2. Infrastructure 3. Political instability 4. Environment/topography 73 o L I o I I iii , I 200 400 600 ! , , 800 Miles I I 400 800 Kilometers 74 Activity 2 ” 1 V’ ~ cattle Coal Cocoa Coffee .. /Itt:; ?’

Diamonds FISh Gold . Grapes Iron Ore· c:::J e P8Irn Oil Peanuts RIce Sheep e .! i’t .0 a ~. ~ Com Cotton Copper Oat.. I 1 • ” ~ dfI Lumber Oil Other City IA , • Tea Tobacco Identify each country based on shape and resources Note: Shapes are accurate but country size is not to scale Wheat Capital 75 Western Sahara Tunisia Sudan Libya· Morocco Egypt N. AFRICA Algeria 0. 25 9. 619 29. 49 . 5. 114 28. 778 68. 344 31. 471 173 Population mid·2000 (millions) 2. 86 1. 58 2. 16 1. 69 2. 48 1. 98 2. 36 2 Natural Increase (annual %) 24 44 32 41 28 35 29 34 “Doubling Time” in years 150 35 69. 5 37 33. 3 52. 44 51 Infant Mortality Rate 0 B C B B B B Data Availability Code 61 N/A 27 54 86 44 49 46 Percent Urban 47 69 51 69 75 65 69 64 Life Expectancy at Birth, Total 35 N/A 43 34 40 37 39 38 Percent of Population of Age < 15 2060 N/A 290 1240 1290 nla 1550 1200 GNP Per Capita, 1998 USD Population mid·2000 (millions) Natural Increase (annual %) “Doubling Time” in years Infant Mortality Rate Data Availability Code Percent Urban Life Expectancy at Birth, Total Percent of Population of Age < 15 GNP Per Capita, 1998 USO Guinea Ghana Burk. Faso Cape Verele Cote d’lvoirE Gambia W. AFRICA Benin 19. 534 1. 05 15. 98 0. 401 11. 946 6. 396 234. 456 2. 4 2. 41 2. 19 2. 82 2. 94 2. 83 2. 8 29 29 32 25 24 24 25 56. 2 130 76. 9 112. 2 105. 3 93. 9 89 C C B B C B B 37 37 46 44 15 38 35 58 45 47 68 47 50 51 3 3 3 3 6 3 3 340 390 700 240 1200 380 340 7. 466 2. 38 29 98 ~ 26 45 3 530 N. AFRICA Population mid·2000 (millions) Continued Natural Increase (annual %) “Doubling Time” in years Infant Mortality Rate Data Availability Code Percent Urban Life Expectancy at Birth, Total Percent of Population of Age < 15 GNP Per Capita, 1998 USO Nigeria Senegal Mali Mauritania Niger Liberia G. Bissau 10. 076 11. 234 2. 7 123. 338 3. 164 1. 213 2. 97 3. 23 3. 1 2. 72 2. 84 2. 22 25 23 21 22 24 31 123. 1 139. 1 122. 5 92 77. 2 130 C C C C C C C 45 26 54 17 22 36 50 53 54 41 45 52 4 4 3 2 4 3 410 200 160 N/A 250 300 ————— 9. 481 2. 79 25 67. 7 41 52 3 520 “”’–‘—–~-~~————————————– Congo, Oem. Equatorial Guinea Congo Cameroon Cen. Af. Rep Chad MID·AFRICA Angola 0. 453 51. 965 2. 831 3. 513 7. 977 15. 422 Population mld·2000 (millions) 96. 425 12. 878 2. 4S 2. 4 3. 19 3. 29 Natural Increase (annual %) 2. 58 ·2. 03 2. 96 3 28 29 22 21 “Doubling Time” in years 34 27 23 23 108. 108 108. 6 109. 8 Infant Mortality Rate 96. 7 125 77 106 C 0 C B C Data Availability Code C 0 41 29 37 Percent Urban 44 39 22 32 32 48 49 50 Life Expectancy at Birth, Total 48 55 45 47 49 43 48 43 Percent of Population of Age < 15 44 43 44 46 48 GNP Per Capita, 1998 USD 680 110 610 300 230 1110 320 380 Namibia South Africa MID_AFRICA Gabon Sao Tome S. AFRICA Botswana Lesotho 2. 143 1. 771 Population mid·2000 (millions) 0. 16 49. 915 1. 576 continued 1. 226 2. 07 1. 667 Natural Increase (annual %) 3. 4 1. 3 1. 55 2. 16 33 45 42 “Doubling Time” in years 20 52 32 84. 5 68. 3 57. 50. 8 51 Infant Mortality Rate 87 C B B Data Availability Code C C B Percent Urban 16 49 73 44 42 27 Life Expectancy at Birth, Total 53 64 54 44 46 52 Percent of Population of Age < 15 47 41 35 41 44 39 GNP Per Capita, 1998 USD 270 570 4170 3100 3070 1940 I 43. 421 1. 27 55 45. 4 i 45 551 34 3310 (:: S. AFRICA ·Populatlon mld·2000 (millions) continued Natural Increase (annual %) “Doubling Time” in years Infant Mortality Rate Data Availability Code Percent- Urban Life Expectancy at Birth, Total Percent of Population of Age < 15 GNP Per Capita, 1998 USD Swaziland 1. 004 1. 5 37 107. 7 C 22 38 47 ·1400 —- ——— N. AFRICA Population mid-2000 (millions) continued Natural Increase (annual %) “Doubling Time” in years Infant Mortality Rate Data Availability Code Percent Urban Life Expectancy at Birth, Total Percent of Population of Age < 15 GNP Per Capita, 1998 USD Sierra Leone Togo E. AFRICA Burundi Comoros Djibouti Eritrea 5. 019 246. 235 0. 578 0. 638 5. 233 6. 054 2. 78 2. 64 3. 07 2. 4 2. 28 2. 49 23 25 26 29 28 30 79. 7 157 102 74. 8 77. 3 115 C C B 0 C C 31 37 20 29 8 83 49 45 46 59 48 47 . 48 3 45 42 3 41 370 N/A 140 3~0 140 4. 14~ 2. 9~ 2~ 1. S 1e 55 43 200 Population mid-2000 . (millions) Natural Increase (annual %) “Doubling Time” In years Infant Mortality Rate Data Availability Code Percent Urban Life Expectancy at Birth, Total Percent of Population of Age < 15 GNP Per Capita, 1998 USD E. AFRICA continued Madagascar Malawi Mauritus Mozambique Reunion Kenya Ethiopia 30. 34 14. 858 1. 189 19. 105 10. 385 64. 117 2. 105 2. 943 2. 19 2. 4 1. 91 ‘1. 05 33 29 24 36 66 32 73. 7 96. 3 126. 8 19. 4 133. 9 116 B C A B B C B 20 43 28 15 22 20 49 46 52 39 70 40 N/A 46 45 26 45 46 46 350 260 100 3730 210 210 N/A 0. 716 1. 1 49 9 73 30. ~ E. AFRICA Population mld-2000 (millions) continued Natural Increase (annual %) I”Doubling Time” in years Infant Mortality Rate Data Availability Code Percent Urban Life Expectancy at Birth, Total Percent of Population of Age < 15 GNP Per Capita, 1998 USD Seychelles Somalia Uganda Rwanda Tanzania Zambia Zimbabwe 0. 082 7. 229 7. 253 35. 306 23. 318 9. 582 2. 29 1. 07 2. 87 2. 86 2. 88 1. 96 65 30 24 24 24 35 120. 9 8. 5 125. 8 98. 8 81. 3 109 0 0 B C B B B 5 59 24 20 15 38 39 N/A 46 53 42 37 28 45 44 49 45 45 6420 N/A 230 220 310 330 11. 343 1 69 80 32 40 44 620