Ch.1

Ch.1

What ways did Paleolithic societies differ from one another and how did they change over time?
miniaturization of stone tools: refined/smaller points
collect wild grains beyond roots berries and nuts
last Ice Age: richer more diverse environment, human population grow, settle in permanency, more complex, store and accumulate goods, inequality wear out, pottery and domestication occur
Agricultural Revolution marked decisive turning point in human history. Evidence support and not support.
Support: changing evolution course picking plants, domestication, selectively breed ie. elongating corn, hunting extinct certain animals for food so rely on agriculture to survive
Not support: humans too heavily rely on livestock and agricultural crops lose hunting/gathering skills degress, not spread in certain countries ie New Guinea
How did early agricultural societies differ from those of the Paleolithic era?
Before people relied on their own skills of hunting/gathering to survive, now people developed tools and methods to utilize nature into what they need ie farming, cross breeding, livestock
before it was always moving to where animals were to hunt or plants now one could settle anywhere if they know methods to farm and breed
Was the Agricultural Revolution inevitable? Why occur so late in humankind?
I believe it is because it occurred independently in different plaaces of the world so people would have figured it out eventually
occur late because the Ice Age prevented fertile soil and extinct certain animals after Ice Age provided opportunity with fertile climate and species bounce back
“The Agricultural Revolution provides evidence for ‘progress’ in human affairs.” Evaluate.
new species of animals/plants made crossbreeding, tools developed for efficient farming
permanency ie records, art, storage of goods
Venus figurines
female figurines carved of stone, antler, mammoth tusk, clay shows view of women 35,000 years ago
Dreamtime
endless stories, extended ceremonies, rock art, recount beginning of things ie ancestor migration, creation of nature, relations b/w animals & humans
Clovis Culture
First American culture widespread: hunters, near water areas where mammals (food) migrate
Megafunnel extinction
hunters of large mammals but extinct once mammals extinct no food, hunt them dow, drier climate from Ice Age, hunting less culture learn to adapt to environment
Austronesian migrations
last phase of great human migration
recent 3,500 ya, quick, water migration across Pacific
specific for colonization with domesticated plants/animals to settle
“the original affluent society”
wanting/needing little ie gathering/hunting less to meet needs so they are satisfied
shaman
development of religion as someone skilled dealing with the spirit word, arise rituals and cermonies with psychoactive drugs ie. understand nonmaterial world
trance dance
a way to access territorial spirits and dead ancestors with shamans performing it, develop relationship with spiritual world
Paleolithic settling down
show progression: refining tools ie stone micro-blades wood pottery canoes, agricultural revolution allow permanence to utilitze environment, nomadic traveling
Gobekli Tepe
ceremonial site; represent monumental construction with agricultural societies and civilizations, show progression from agriculture revolution
Fertile Crescent
where most people really thrived, favored first to experience full Agricultural Revolution being near rivers allow easier domestication and farming
teosinte
mountain grass, ancestor of corn, available in Afro-Eurasia, beginner of evolution of corn
diffusion
allow gradual spread of agricultural techniques plants/animals
Bantu migration
3000 BCE from south nigeria move east/south
absorb, kill, drove away indigenous paleolithic people whether by force or by brought animal-borne disease
ishi
last member of Yashi pushed to extinction by powerful farming, herding, “civilized” society, ie. conquering
Banpo
ancient village, explosion of technological innovation ie vessels, house many people larger storage containers, textile weaving, animals, looms,
“secondary product of revolution”
4000 BCE, new uses for domesticated animals ie milking, wool, manure for fertilizer, riding/pulling for transport
pastoral societies
use animals more than nature ie milk, meat, blood, transport; focus on trading & conquering agrarian societies of wealth/sophistication enriching agricultral and pastoral societies
Catalhuyuk
early agricultural village in turkey,
no inequality, social order without hiearchy, communal roles work for common good, diverse, modest
chiefdoms
hierchy politically of inherited poistions of power/privilage, no longer use force but persuade through gifts personality begin democracy, a way to resolve conflict