Ch.13 AP World History (The Spread of Chinese Civilization: Japan, Korea, and Vietnam)

The Tale of Genji
The Tale of Genji
Written by Lady Murasaki; first novel in any languange; relates life history of prominent and amorous son of the Japanese emperor’s son; evidence for mannered style of the Japanese society.
Kinkakuji
Kinkakuji
The Golden Temple built by Ahikaga Yoshimitsu, built on a small lake near Kyoto in the 15th century, zan and shinto stress of simplicity
Nara
Nara
Along with Heian, capital of the Yamato emperors; patterned after ancient imperial centers of Tang Dynasty China; never fully populated, instituted a series of reforms to centralize power. It was built as a replica of Chang’an
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Taika
The reforms enacted in 646 that intended to thoroughly incorporate chinese culture and politics into Japanese society
Taika Reforms
Attempt to remake Japanese monarch into an absolute Chinese-style emperor; included attempts to create professional bureaucracy and peasant conscript army.
Kami
Gods or nature spirits of Japanese religion, which lived in all things, such as waterfalls, sand, and great trees
Kammu
A descendent of Tenchi and Emperor of Japan , he moved capital to Heian(Later called Kyoto) in 794. one of the last powerful functioning emperors
Heian
Heian
Capital city of Japan under the Yamato emperors, later called Kyoto; built in order to escape influence of Buddhist monks; patterned after ancient imperial centers of China; never fully populated
Lady Murasaki
Lady Murasaki
Upper class women who married and widowed early on and later become the lady to an Empress and would describe the lives of aristocrats in the Tale of Genji, becoming the first ever novel.
Fujiwara
Japanese aristocratic family in mid-9th century; exercised exceptional influence over imperial affairs; aided in decline of imperial power. By the end of the 10th century one chief minister of this family had sent FOUR of his daughters married to Emperors.
Bushi
Bushi
Regional warrior leaders in Japan; ruled small kingdoms from fortresses; administered the law, supervised public works projects, and collected revenues; built up private armies. Helped weaken the Imperial power of Japan during the Postclassical Period.
Samurai
Samurai
Literally ‘those who serve,’ the hereditary military elite of the Tokugawa Shogunate. , Mounted troops of Japanese warrior leaders (bushi); loyal to local lords, not the emperor
Bushido
Code of conduct for Samurai during the feudal period in Japan, did not fully develop until the LATE Postclassical Period.
Seppuku
Seppuku
Ritual suicide or disembowelment in Japan; commonly known in West as hara-kiri; demonstrated courage and a means to restore family honor.
hara- kiri
A form of Japanese ritual suicide preformed of many Japanese soldiers, especially officers, following defeat. Literally “belly splitting”
Kuya
Early propagator of Pure Land. Was a dancing monk and entertainer; went around singing and dancing. Wore bells, drums, taught ecstatic worship, appealed to the masses.
Taira
Powerful Japanese family in 11th and 12th centuries; competed with the Minamota family; defeated after the Gempei Wars.
Minamoto
Defeated the rival Taira family in Gempei Wars and established military government (bakufu) in 12th century Japan.
Gempei Wars
Waged for five years from 1180, on Honshu between Taira and Minamoto families; resulted in destruction of Taira, and the establishment of the Bokufu Gov’t, this war brought great suffering to the peasantry.
Bakufu
Military government established by the Minamoto following the Gempei Wars; centered at Kamakura; retained emperor, but real power resided in military government and samurai
Kamakura
Yorimoto’s capital during his shogunate, destroyed in 1331
significance: head of the true power of Japan
Shoguns
Military leaders of Japan during its feudal era and the actual powers behind the emperor until the Meiji restoration.
Hojo
Warrior family closely allied with the Minamota; dominated Kamakura regime and manipulated Minamota rulers who claimed to rule in name of the Japanese Emperor at Kyoto.
Ashikaga Takuaji
Member of the Minamota family; overthrew the Kamakuro regime and established the Ashikaga Shogunate from 1336-1573; drove emperor from Kyoto to Yoshino.
Ashikaga Shogunate
Replaced the Kamakura regime in Japan, ; ruled from 1336 to 1573; destroyed rival Yoshino center of imperial authority
Daimyos
Warlord rulers of 300 small states following civil war and disruption of the Ashikaga Shogunate; holdings consolidated into unified and bounded ministates
Kamakura Shogunate
Kamakura Shogunate
The first of Japan’s decentralized military governments., (12th-14th century) First shogun position instated after toppling the Fujiwara . Named after the home town of the first shogun of the Minamoto clan
Yorimoto
Founder of Kamakura Shogunate
Himeji
Largest Castle in Japan
Disinheritance
Was one of the tools that made woman that were married with warrior elites(In Comparison with Woman in the merchant class, whose quality of life increased) increasingly more dependent, where they received little or no land or income< In addition they were also replaced in theatrical performances by men>
Ryoanji Temple
Ryoanji Temple
Zen Buddhist temple (in Kyoto), design of garden consists of islands of volcanic rock set amidst white pebbles.
Choson
Earliest Korean kingdom; conquered by Han emperor Wudi in 109 b.c.e.
Wudi
Chinese empire from 140-86 b.c; brought the han dynasty to its peak; expanded the Chinese empire; made Confucianism the state religion, – conquered foreign territories like Manchuria, parts of Vietnam, and Korea – conquered Xiongng (nomads) terrorized border, defeated them
Koguryo
Tribal people of northern Korea; established an independent kingdom in the northern half of the peninsula; adopted cultural Sinification.
Silla
Independent Korean kingdom in southeastern part of peninsula; defeated Koguryo along with their Chinese Tang allies; submitted as a vassal of the Tang emperor and agreed to tribute payment; ruled united Korea by 668.
Paekche
Independent Korean kingdom in southeastern part of peninsula; defeated by rival Silla kingdom and its Chinese Tang allies in 7th century.
Sinification
Extensive adaptation of Chinese culture in other regions; typical of Korea and Japan, less typical of Vietnam.
Koryo Dynasty
Koryo Dynasty
Korean dynasty that ruled from 935-1392, Replaced the Silla Dynasty in Korea capital was Songak metal type print led to mass productionn of books also produced celadon
Kumsong
Capital of Korea in the Medieval Era modeled after the Chinese capital of Chang’an
Celadon
Celadon
Type of pottery having the a pale green glaze, originally produced in China. Chemically it is formed by combining chromium oxide, cadmium yellow, and titanium-zinc white. It was most commonly used in Korean art.
Yi Dynasty
Korean Dynasty that succeeded Koryo dynasty following period of Mongol invasions; established in 1392; ruled Korea to 1910; resotred aristocratic dominance and Chinese influence
Mekong River
Mekong River
A major river that runs from southern China through Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam.
Khmers
Khmers
Indianized rivals of the Vietnamese; moved into Mekong River delta region at time of Vietnamese drive to the south
Nam Viet
Han dynasty conquered the kingdom of ?, northern Vietnam, , 207- vietnam dominated by Mahayana Buddhism. 939- victory brought independence from China, founding Dai Viet.. adopted confucianism.
Betel nut
Betel nut
seed of betel palm (used as a stimulant in SE Asia), can mouth and throat cancer (addictive substance chewed in India and Vietnam, Chinese found repulsive.
Trung Sisters
Leaders of one of the frequent peasant rebellions in Vietnam against Chinese rule; revolt broke out in 39 c.e.; demonstrates importance of Vietnamese women in indigenous society.
Chams
Indianized rivals of the Vietnamese; driven into the highlands by the successful Vietnamese drive to the south.
Nguyen
Rival Vietnamese dynasty that arose in southern Vietnam to challenge traditional dynasty of Trinh in north at Hanoi; kingdom centered on Red and Mekong rivers; capital at Hue.
Trinh
Dynasty that ruled in North Vietnam at Hanoi, 1533- 1772; rivals of the Nguyen family in the south.
Hue
The capital of the Nguyen dynasty was located here.
The Tale of Kieu
Is an epic poem in Vietnamese written by Nguyễn Du, and is widely regarded as the most significant work of Vietnamese literature ,the poem recounts the life, trials and tribulations of Thúy Kiều, a beautiful and talented young woman, who had to sacrifice herself to save her family. To save her father and younger brother from prison, she sold herself into marriage with a middle-aged man, not knowing that he is a pimp, and was forced into prostitution.
Nguyen Du
is a celebrated Vietnamese poet who wrote in Chữ Nôm, the ancient writing script of Việt Nam. He is most known for writing the epic poem The Tale of Kiều.
Chabi
Influential wife of Kubilai Khan; promoted interests of Buddhists in China; indicative of refusal of Mongol women to adopt restrictive social conventions of Chinese.

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