Ch. 15 Population and Environment

Population
A group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area.
Demography
the study of human population
Crude Birth Rate
the number of live births in a given year for every 1,000 people in a population
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Crude Death Rate
the number of deaths in a given year for every 1,000 people in a population
Why did population begin growing in the 1700s-1800s?
– Stage 1: Preindustrial = high birth rates due to economic value of children
– Stage 2: early industrial = high birth rates and lowered death rates
– Stage 3: mature industrial = population surge drops as affluence transforms children into economic liability
– Stage 4: postindustrial = economic force people to have less children
Migration: motives
1. Voluntary: Ex. when people leave a small town to move to a larger city
2. Involuntary: Ex. the forced transport of 10 million Africans to the Western Hemisphere as slaves
Sex Ratio
the number of males for every 100 females in a nation’s population
Age-Sex Pyramid
a graphic representation of the age and sex of a population
Malthusian Theory
– He believed that rapid population increase would lead to social chaos
Population growth in global perspective
the richest countries of the world – including the U.S., Canada, and the nations of Europe – have growth rates below 1 percent. The nations of Latin America and Asia typically have growth rates around 1.5 percent, a rate that doubles a population in forty-seven years. Africa has an overall growth rate of 2.4 percent, which cuts the doubling time to twenty-nine years. In global perspective, we see that a society’s standard of living is closely related to its rate of population growth: Population is rising fastest in the world regions that can least afford to support more people.
What is the worlds population?
7.046 billion
Fertility
the incidence of childbearing in a country’s population
Mortality
the incidence of death in a country’s population
Fecundity
maximum possible childbearing
when in history did global population begin to spike upward?
1750
Ecology
the study of the interaction of living organisms and the natural environment

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