Ch. 17 Biology

classification
the grouping of objects and information based on similarities
taxonomy
branch of biology that groups and names organisms based on studies of their different characteristics
binomial nomensiature
modern classification systems use a two word naming system
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genus
consist of a group of similar species
family
a group of genus
order
a group of family
phylum
taxon of similar classes
derision
kingdom
taxon of similar phyla or derision
taxon
name of groups of organisms
domain
consist 1 or more kingdoms
DKPCOFGS
donkey kong physically can’t order fries going south
phylogeny
the evolutionary history of a species
cladistics
one biological system of classification that is based on phylogeny
derived traits
inherited traits
what are the 3 domain names?
archea, bacteria, eukarya
describes archea, bacteria, and eukarya
archea
-archeabacteria
bacteria
-aukarya
eukarya
-protista
-fungi
-plantae
-animalia
describe classification and taxonomy
class-one tool they use to organize organisms; the grouping of objects and information based on similarities.

tax-is the branch of biology that groups and names organism based on studies of their different characteristics

how did Aristotle classify plants and animals (based on what criteria)?
plants-Divided into herb, shrubs and trees

animals-Divided by the size and structure

who did Linnaeus classify organisms?
Based divisions on the physical and structural similarities or organisms
what are the rules for the latin naming system?
They would keep Latin as the single language. Capitalize Genus lower case for specific ethic. Handwriting underlining it if typing italic. If you are typing or writing it and it appears again in the text you abbreviate and capitalize the genus and just write out the name of the species
what are the taxons in order from broadest to most specific
domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
what are the different keys?
-Dichotomous key yes or no key
-Cladogram how they are related (left from right old to new) shows evolutionary history of animals
-Fan model they most recent organisms are on the outside of the fan
what is phylogeny and how is it useful in studying organisms?
-phyogeny is the evolution of a species. the phylogenic species concept defines species as a cluster of organisms that is distinct from other clusters and shows evidence of a pattern of ancestry and descent
what is cladistics?
-Cladistics is a menthol that classifies organisms according to the order that they diverged from a common ancestor
what are derived traits and how are they used in classification?
scientists who use cladistics assume that as groups of organism diverge and evolve from a common ancestral group, they return some unique inherited characteristics that taxonomists called derived traits
what are the 3 domain names? describe each one
-archea: archeabacteria
-bacteria: eukarya
-eukarya: protista, fungi, plantae, animalia
what is the main differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes
pro-are bacteria cells. they have no nucleus or membrane bound organelles.
euk-are plant and animals and they have a nucleus and other membrane bond organelles
what are the characteristics that are used to provide clues as to the evolution of a species?
morphological and biochemical. morphological deals with physical traits and biochemistry deals with DNA

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