Ch.19 Test Review

In the late nineteenth century, the most striking feature of the American party system was its
A. ideological divisions.
B. general activism.
C. lack of corruption.
D. remarkable stability.
E. multiple parties.
D. remarkable stability.
In American politics during the late nineteenth century,
A. Democrats most often won the presidency.
B. Republicans usually held a majority in the Senate.
C. Republicans usually held a majority in the House.
D. most southern states voted Republican.
E. control of both sides of Congress was extraordinarily fluid.
B. Republicans usually held a majority in the Senate.
An examination of American voters in the late nineteenth century reveals
A. voter turnout for both presidential and non-presidential elections was very high.
B. there was greater voter interest for local elections than for national elections.
C. southern white males voted Republican as a matter of unquestioned faith.
D. voters did not strongly identify with either the Republican or Democratic Party.
E. voter turnout was lower than it has been in recent decades.
A. voter turnout for both presidential and nonpresidential elections was very high.
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The high degree of party loyalty in the late nineteenth century is explained primarily by
A. the parties’ stances on economic issues.
B. a voter’s occupation.
C. the parties’ stances on social issues.
D. a voter’s ethnic background.
E. a voter’s regional background.
E. a voter’s regional background.
In the late nineteenth century, Democrats tended to attract the greater numbers of
A. Catholics.
B. citizens of old American stock.
C. the middle class.
D. Protestants.
E. northern blacks.
A. Catholics.
Of the choices below, a voter’s party identification in the nineteenth century was usually a reflection of
A. economic status.
B. cultural background.
C. age.
D. occupation.
E. gender.
B. cultural background.
Throughout the late nineteenth century, the federal government
A. developed a prominent role in international relations.
B. shrank in size of employees and budget expenditures.
C. had no meaningful responsibilities.
D. funded large public-works projects to alleviate unemployment.
E. was relatively inactive.
E. was relatively inactive.
In the late nineteenth century, as veterans of the Civil War retired,
A. the federal government created a pension system for all retired Americans.
B. they were paid pensions by individual states, but not the federal government.
C. the federal government gave pensions to both Union and Confederate veterans.
D. a majority of the black and white male population in the North received federal pensions.
E. they were forced to do without military pensions of any kind.
D. a majority of the black and white male population in the North received federal pensions.
The political battles between Stalwarts and Half-Breeds constituted a fight
A. within the Democratic Party.
B. that ultimately redefined national political practices.
C. between traditionalists and reformers.
D. that revolved around the temperance movement.
E. over the legacy of Reconstruction.
C. between traditionalists and reformers.
James A. Garfield
A. opposed reform of the civil service system as president.
B. was elected president with a commanding popular-vote margin.
C. was assassinated by an unsuccessful office seeker.
D. had been nominated by the Republicans because he was a loyal Stalwart.
E. All these answers are correct.
C. was assassinated by an unsuccessful office seeker.
Chester A. Arthur
A. supported the Pendleton Act as part of civil service reform.
B. upset reformers by supporting the political “spoils system.”
C. quickly replaced most of James Garfield’s appointees.
D. was a political novice when he assumed the presidency.
E. had long been a fierce opponent of Roscoe Conkling.
A. supported the Pendleton Act as part of civil service reform.
In the election of 1884, “Mugwumps” were
A. civil servants.
B. supporters of James G. Blaine.
C. unhappy Republicans who threatened to vote for the Democrats.
D. conservatives who wanted to limit civil service reform.
E. Democrats who crossed over party lines to support Grover Cleveland.
C. unhappy Republicans who threatened to vote for the Democrats.
Samuel Burchard’s “rum, Romanism, and rebellion” speech during the election of 1884 most hurt
A. Grover Cleveland.
B. Benjamin Harrison.
C. Chester A. Arthur.
D. Roscoe Conkling.
E. James G. Blaine.
E. James G. Blaine.
As president, Grover Cleveland
A. accused his political enemies of supporting “rum, Romanism, and rebellion.”
B. was reluctant to use the veto authority.
C. supported high tariffs.
D. was a fiscal conservative.
E. enjoyed an uncomfortably close relationship with Tammany Hall.
D. was a fiscal conservative.
The election of 1888
A. involved clear economic differences between the major parties.
B. was one of the few elections during this era to escape charges of corruption.
C. produced a clear mandate from the voters for political reform.
D. was decided by the Congress.
E. saw the Democrats take back the White House.
A. involved clear economic differences between the major parties.
The Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890
A. was strongly opposed by congressional Republicans.
B. signified that the era of trusts was ending.
C. was used by the federal government against labor unions.
D. was strengthened by the courts over the next decade.
E. mirrored legislation passed earlier in New Jersey and Delaware.
C. was used by the federal government against labor unions.
In the late nineteenth century, the issue of primary interest to the Republican Party was
A. restricting immigration.
B. reducing taxation.
C. a prohibition on alcohol.
D. supporting public education.
E. supporting high tariffs.
E. supporting high tariffs.
As a result of the McKinley Tariff of 1890,
A. the Democrats managed to win back the Senate.
B. William McKinley became a party leader in Congress.
C. the Democratic Party decided to support raising the tariff.
D. Democrats lost the presidency in 1892.
E. Republicans suffered significant political losses that year.
E. Republicans suffered significant political losses that year.
In 1892, President Grover Cleveland
A. grew more active in social reform.
B. followed policies similar to those of his first term.
C. faced a Republican-controlled Congress.
D. changed his position on tariffs.
E. None of these answers is correct.
B. followed policies similar to those of his first term.
In 1886, the Supreme Court decided in the case of Wabash, St. Louis, and Pacific Railway Co. v. Illinois that
A. an Illinois Granger law was unconstitutional because it infringed on Congress’s exclusive power over interstate commerce.
B. an Illinois Granger law was constitutional because states have the power to regulate commerce in their own borders.
C. an Illinois Granger law was unconstitutional because it violated the Fourteenth Amendment.
D. an Illinois Granger law was constitutional because it had been passed by both houses of the Illinois state legislature.
E. an Illinois Granger law was unconstitutional because it violated the protections afforded in the First Amendment.
A. an Illinois Granger law was unconstitutional because it infringed on Congress’s exclusive power over interstate commerce.
The Interstate Commerce Act of 1887
A. put in place a series of regulations for railroad companies.
B. had little practical effect for decades.
C. created a five-person commission to oversee the act.
D. both created a five-person commission to oversee the act, and had little practical effect for decades.
E. All these answers are correct.
E. All these answers are correct.
In the late nineteenth century, the Granger laws supported the interests of
A. industrial labor.
B. farmers.
C. capitalists.
D. southerners.
E. immigrants.
B. farmers.
What statement regarding the national Grange movement is FALSE?
A. At their peak, Grange supporters controlled the legislatures of most Midwest states.
B. It attempted to teach new scientific farming techniques to its members.
C. It sought to regulate the power and practices of railroads and warehouses.
D. It was greatly strengthened by the end of the economic depression in the late 1870s.
E. The political inexperience of many Grange leaders hurt the movement.
D. It was greatly strengthened by the end of the economic depression in the late 1870s.
Compared to the Grange movement, The Farmers’ Alliances
A. were far more widespread.
B. were created to replace Grange associations.
C. had more effective and better managed cooperatives.
D. sought a closer working relationship with banks.
E. shunned the political system, emphasizing instead education and organization.
A. were far more widespread
The election of 1892
A. saw Populism do well at the local level, but fail to elect anyone to Congress.
B. exposed the declining political power of farmers.
C. saw the Republicans sweep into dominant power.
D. saw few Populist-backed candidates get elected.
E. saw the debut of the People’s Party.
E. saw the debut of the People’s Party.
In the 1890s, Populism appealed to
A. the unemployed urban poor.
B. unskilled industrial workers.
C. small-scale farmers.
D. urban middle-class reformers.
E. All these answers are correct.
C. small-scale farmers.
In 1892, the People’s Party called for
A. government subsidies of water for agricultural use.
B. the federal government to purchase surplus crops.
C. a flat income tax for all rural businesses.
D. a government network of crop warehouses.
E. government subsidies of wheat, corn, and cotton.
D. a government network of crop warehouses.
In the late nineteenth century, American Populism
A. embraced the widely held laissez-faire attitudes of the time.
B. called for a return to a preindustrial American society.
C. favored the direct election of United States senators.
D. called for the abolition of all banks.
E. called for a repeal of the income tax.
C. favored the direct election of United States senators.
The Panic of 1893
A. grew out of a political scandal in the Cleveland administration.
B. triggered the nation’s most severe depression up to that point.
C. began with a drought in the Midwest.
D. was blamed largely on Populist politics.
E. grew out of the Cleveland administration’s attempts at monetary reform.
B. triggered the nation’s most severe depression up to that point.
The economic decline that followed the Panic of 1893 demonstrated
A. the degree to which the American economy had become interconnected.
B. the need for a national stock market.
C. the need for the enforcement of the Sherman Antitrust Act.
D. the decline in importance of railroads over the previous decade.
E. the staying power of many new, aggressive businesses.
A. the degree to which the American economy had become interconnected.
In 1894, Jacob Coxey and his supporters
A. demanded that Congress establish a program of unemployment insurance.
B. called for a public works program for the unemployed.
C. organized a march on Washington in plans to overthrow the government.
D. were arrested by police with many later deported as anarchists.
E. demanded that Congress nationalize the railroads.
B. called for a public works program for the unemployed.
32. To many middle-class Americans, the major labor upheavals of the late nineteenth century
A. were evidence that the inequalities of capitalism needed to be addressed.
B. drew little interest outside of large urban cities.
C. were clear indications of the excessive power of monopolies.
D. suggested that a Labor Party, if founded, might eventually capture the presidency.
E. were dangerous signs of social instability.
E. were dangerous signs of social instability.
In 1873, the congressional law that officially discontinued silver coinage
A. was passed to benefit international trade merchants.
B. was passed over the strong objections of farmers.
C. became known to critics as the “Crime of `73.”
D. was hotly debated at the time.
E. was passed because the value of silver had fallen to an all-time low.
C. became known to critics as the “Crime of `73.”
In the 1890s, farmers favored the federal government’s coinage of silver because
A. it would result in an inflation of currency.
B. they considered paper money to be worthless.
C. it would allow them to carry more debt.
D. they believed it would result in lower prices.
E. it would mean more money for western miners, and thus the West.
A. it would result in an inflation of currency.
The Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890 called for the federal government to
A. purchase and coin silver.
B. expand the nation’s currency supply.
C. change the ratio of silver to gold to 20:1.
D. abandon the gold standard.
E. purchase silver but not coin it.
E. purchase silver but not coin it.
In the 1890s, President Grover Cleveland faced the severe economic problem of
A. too much money in circulation.
B. soaring inflation.
C. collapsing world markets for American goods.
D. declining gold reserves.
E. rampant counterfeiting.
D. declining gold reserves.
As the Republican Party approached the 1896 election, they were
A. deeply divided over their candidate.
B. confident of victory.
C. agreed that unemployment would be the major issue.
D. deeply divided over their candidate, but confident of victory.
E. None of these answers is correct.
B. confident of victory.
In 1896, the Democratic political platform
A. adopted several, but not all, major Populist issues.
B. refused to accept any major Populist demands.
C. was thoroughly conservative and anti-Populist.
D. brought unity among the party delegates.
E. echoed the Republican platform on all major issues.
A. adopted several, but not all, major Populist issues.
The “Cross of Gold” speech was given in 1896 by
A. William McKinley.
B. Grover Cleveland.
C. Mark Hanna.
D. William Jennings Bryan.
E. James Weaver.
D. William Jennings Bryan.
The “Cross of Gold” speech appealed primarily to
A. immigrants.
B. Catholics.
C. farmers.
D. Republicans.
E. bankers.
C. farmers.
In the campaign of 1896, President William McKinley
A. alienated Protestants by reaching out to Catholics.
B. campaigned largely from his house.
C. was significantly outspent by his opponent.
D. appealed to the interests of urban industrial workers.
E. embarked on an unprecedented public-speaking tour.
B. campaigned largely from his house.
The 1896 election results saw
A. the Populist movement suffer a disastrous defeat.
B. William McKinley carry the rural vote.
C. William Jennings Bryan earn his greatest support in the industrial Northeast.
D. the Republicans carry the South for the first time since the Civil War.
E. William Jennings Bryan win the popular vote but lose the electoral vote.
A. the Populist movement suffer a disastrous defeat.
In 1896, the major economic issue for William McKinley’s administration was
A. the repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act.
B. the restoration of “bimetallism.”
C. the need for higher tariff rates.
D. labor unrest.
E. the repeal of the Specie Resumption Act.
C. the need for higher tariff rates.
In 1900, the Republicans enacted the Currency Act, which
A. returned the nation to “bimetallism.”
B. pegged the currency to public confidence rather than gold or silver.
C. recalibrated the official ratio of silver to gold to 12:1.
D. created a commission to meet with Great Britain and France to discuss the silver question.
E. confirmed the nation’s commitment to the gold standard.
E. confirmed the nation’s commitment to the gold standard.
American agriculture at the turn of the century benefited from
A. foreign crop failures.
B. new discoveries of silver.
C. a new silver agreement with Great Britain and France.
D. new federal crop subsidies.
E. free trade agreements negotiated by William McKinley.
A. foreign crop failures.
In the 1890s, the interest in American expansion overseas was motivated in part by
A. fears that domestic natural resources would soon be in limited supply.
B. economic prosperity in the 1890s.
C. a belief that the United States was dangerously overpopulated.
D. the notion that European influence in the world was subsiding.
E. a desire to calm labor unrest at home by focusing on foreign policy.
A. fears that domestic natural resources would soon be in limited supply.
Arguments used by Social Darwinists in the United States to justify expansionism
A. included the belief that weak nations should be left room to develop.
B. contended that all nations were engaged in a constant struggle to survive.
C. were created and first promoted by Charles Darwin himself.
D. differed sharply from arguments used for domestic economic affairs.
E. suggested that harmony among “races” depended on open markets and free trade.
B. contended that all nations were engaged in a constant struggle to survive.
The author who called on the United States to increase its naval forces in his book, The Influence of Sea Power upon History, was
A. William McKinley.
B. Richard Olney.
C. James G. Blaine.
D. Alfred T. Mahan.
E. Leonard Wood.
D. Alfred T. Mahan.
The author of The Influence of Sea Power upon History believed the United States
A. should take possession of the Hawaiian Islands.
B. should go to war with England to destroy its navy.
C. had too cumbersome a navy and should streamline it by decommissioning capital ships.
D. should both take possession of the Hawaiian Islands and go to war with England to destroy its navy.
E. All these answers are correct.
A. should take possession of the Hawaiian Islands.
In 1895, the United States and Great Britain were involved in a serious boundary dispute involving British Guiana and
A. Colombia.
B. Brazil.
C. Argentina.
D. Paraguay.
E. Venezuela.
E. Venezuela.
Prior to its annexation by the United States in 1898, Hawaii
A. did not have a sugar industry.
B. was largely governed by a representative assembly.
C. had a native population of under ten thousand inhabitants.
D. had little contact with the United States.
E. had witnessed a revolution staged by American planters.
E. had witnessed a revolution staged by American planters.
The American settler who served as prime minister of Hawaii for over a decade was
A. G.P. Judd.
B. Arthur MacArthur.
C. Leonard Wood.
D. Richard Olney.
E. William Hooper.
A. G.P. Judd.
The leader of Hawaii who was forced to yield authority to the American government upon annexation was
A. King Kamehameha I.
B. G.P. Judd.
C. William Hooper.
D. Queen Liliuokalani.
E. King Kamehameha III.
D. Queen Liliuokalani
Regarding Samoa, the American Navy had a particular interest in the natural harbor at
A. Oahu.
B. Manono.
C. Pago Pago.
D. Savaii.
E. Upolu.
C. Pago Pago.
In the late nineteenth century, the United States’ interest in Samoa saw competition from
A. Russia.
B. Germany.
C. Japan.
D. Australia.
E. Spain.
B. Germany.
The Spanish-American War began primarily because of events in
A. Cuba.
B. the Philippines.
C. Puerto Rico.
D. Mexico.
E. Guatemala.
A. Cuba.
In 1898, pressure for the American entry into war in Cuba came from
A. William Jennings Bryan.
B. imperialists.
C. Spain.
D. England.
E. Cuban émigrés living in the United States.
B. imperialists.
In the late nineteenth century, the term “yellow press” referred to
A. a sensationalist style of reporting news.
B. the lavish use of color in newspapers.
C. an effort by newspapers to appeal to a mass market.
D. both a sensational style of reporting news, and the lavish use of color in newspapers.
E. All these answers are correct.
E. All these answers are correct.
In reporting the sinking of the Maine, the New York Journal and the New York World
A. made shameless appeals to patriotism and moral outrage.
B. immediately asserted that Cuban rebels had sunk the battleship.
C. called on the government for a full investigation of the disaster.
D. criticized American military commanders.
E. deferred to the wishes of William McKinley.
A. made shameless appeals to patriotism and moral outrage.
The newspaper magnate who famously told one of his Cuban reporters, “You furnish the pictures, and I’ll furnish the war,” was
A. Joseph Pulitzer.
B. Henry Luce.
C. William R. Shafter.
D. Horace Greeley.
E. William Randolph Hearst.
E. William Randolph Hearst.
In 1898, a letter stolen from Dupuy de Lôme, Spain’s minister to Washington, was controversial because it
A. included praise for the destruction of the battleship Maine.
B. discussed the use of Spanish spies in Washington D.C.
C. described William McKinley as a weak president.
D. mocked the military capabilities of the United States.
E. argued that Mexico should attack the U.S. to regain California and Texas.
C. described William McKinley as a weak president.
Later evidence related to the explosion that sank the Maine suggested the likely cause was
A. an accident in an engine room.
B. the work of a Cuban agent.
C. the work of Spanish sailors.
D. a floating mine of unknown origin.
E. sabotage by a disgruntled naval officer.
C. the work of Spanish sailors.
The American politician who referred to the Spanish-American conflict as “a splendid little war” was
A. William McKinley.
B. Elihu Root.
C. Theodore Roosevelt.
D. William Jennings Bryan.
E. John Hay.
E. John Hay.
Which of the following statements regarding the Spanish-American War is FALSE?
A. The war lasted only a few months with fewer than 500 American battle casualties.
B. U.S. Army soldiers were well-equipped and supplied.
C. More than 5,000 U.S. soldiers died from disease during the war.
D. Cuban rebels did most of the fighting even after the Americans joined in the war.
E. Most Americans shared the opinion that it was a “splendid little war.”
B. U.S. Army soldiers were well-equipped and supplied.
The bulk of U.S. soldiers in the Spanish-American War came from
A. National Guard units.
B. volunteers.
C. a draft.
D. the federal professional army.
E. hired mercenaries.
A. National Guard units.
The story of race and the Spanish-American War saw
A. Cubans refuse to fight alongside of U.S. blacks.
B. a significant number of black troops in the American forces.
C. blacks fighting in integrated American units for the first time.
D. only whites fight for the United States.
E. African-Americans realize that the U.S. military was comparatively less racist than Cuba.
B. a significant number of black troops in the American forces.
In the early stage of the Spanish-American War, Commodore George Dewey destroyed the Spanish fleet in
A. Puerto Rico.
B. Havana Harbor.
C. Manila Bay.
D. Port-au-Prince.
E. the Gulf of Mexico.
C. Manila Bay.
In the Spanish-American War, Theodore Roosevelt’s famous charge in the battle of San Juan Hill
A. has been considered bold and reckless.
B. was a minor part of the battle.
C. actually took place on Kettle Hill.
D. resulted in nearly a hundred Americans dead or wounded.
E. All these answers are correct.
E. All these answers are correct.
Which of the following statements about the Lares Rebellion is FALSE?
A. It was effectively crushed by the Spanish.
B. It prompted Spain to give Puerto Rico to the United States.
C. It prompted Spain to abolish slavery in Puerto Rico.
D. It prompted Spain to give Puerto Rico representation in the Spanish Parliament.
E. It eventually prompted Spain to give Puerto Rico some degree of independence.
B. It prompted Spain to give Puerto Rico to the United States.
The Foraker Act of 1900
A. made all Puerto Ricans citizens of the United States.
B. established an American colonial government over Puerto Rico.
C. put Puerto Rico under American military rule.
D. called for Puerto Rico to be considered for statehood.
E. abolished slavery in Puerto Rico.
B. established an American colonial government over Puerto Rico.
The greatest American debate over the consequences of the Spanish-American War involved
A. who would control Cuba.
B. the question of desegregating the army.
C. relations with Spain.
D. the annexation of Puerto Rico.
E. the status of the Philippines.
E. the status of the Philippines.
The Treaty of Paris concluding the Spanish-American War
A. required Spain to pay the United States $20 million for its military costs.
B. was quickly ratified by the United States Senate.
C. transferred the Philippines and Puerto Rico to the United States.
D. was rejected by Spain and was never implemented.
E. rejected most of the terms of the earlier armistice.
C. transferred the Philippines and Puerto Rico to the United States.
Criticism within the United States of American colonialism included all the following EXCEPT
A. the financial costs of administering colonies would require burdensome taxes.
B. imperialism was immoral and contrary to the nation’s commitment to human freedom.
C. foreign obligations and entangling alliances would threaten American liberties.
D. the nation’s population would be “polluted” by “inferior” races.
E. imperialism would mean a flood of cheap laborers and unwelcome competition.
A. the financial costs of administering colonies would require burdensome taxes.
In 1899, those who favored the annexation of the Philippines argued
A. they were interested in greater trade with Asian countries.
B. the United States was already in possession of it.
C. that it would bring partisan advantage to the Republican Party.
D. both that the United States was already in possession of it, and that it would bring partisan advantage to the
Republican Party.
E. All these answers are correct
E. All these answers are correct
In 1899, supporters of the annexation of the Philippines argued the United States had set a precedent for taking land while treating its inhabitants as dependents in the case of
A. the North’s occupation of the South following the Civil War.
B. the federal government’s treatment of American Indians.
C. the nation’s claiming of Florida from Spain in 1819.
D. the United States’ taking of Hawaii in 1898.
E. the United States’ claiming of California and Texas after the Mexican War.
B. the federal government’s treatment of American Indians.
The presidential election of 1900
A. pitted Theodore Roosevelt against William Jennings Bryan.
B. saw the Democrats take back the White House.
C. found the American public largely in favor of national colonialism.
D. saw many Americans express uncertainty over the morality of colonialism.
E. saw the Republicans win despite a growing economic depression.
C. found the American public largely in favor of national colonialism.
77. In the early 1900s, which American dependency did NOT receive territorial status?
A. Cuba
B. Alaska
C. Puerto Rico
D. Hawaii
E. All received territorial status.
A. Cuba
The 1901 Platt Amendment was directed at
A. the Philippines.
B. European imperial powers.
C. Puerto Rico.
D. Guam and Tutuila.
E. Cuba
E. Cuba
According to the terms of the 1901 Platt Amendment,
A. Cuba could only form treaties with nations that were allied with the United States.
B. the United States had the right to intervene in Cuba to protect life and property.
C. Cuba was to be made a demilitarized region.
D. the United States Congress had to approve each member of the Cuban legislature.
E. Cuba was to be granted full political independence.
B. the United States had the right to intervene in Cuba to protect life and property.
In the early twentieth century, Cuba
A. attracted little investment by American businesses.
B. won a large measure of political independence from the United States.
C. developed a stable economy through its sugar industry.
D. was occupied by troops from the United States for years at a time.
E. saw intermittent resistance against “Yankee imperialism.”
D. was occupied by troops from the United States for years at a time.
Beginning in 1898, the American war in the Philippines
A. lasted for years and resulted in thousands of American deaths.
B. saw close to 10,000 Filipinos die in the conflict.
C. was led by General George Pershing.
D. saw the United States withdraw its military and negotiate a diplomatic end to the conflict.
E. went much more smoothly than the recent Spanish-American War.
A. lasted for years and resulted in thousands of American deaths.
In its war in the Philippines, the United States military
A. faced considerable guerrilla tactics.
B. became increasingly vicious and brutal.
C. came to view Filipinos as almost subhuman.
D. both faced considerable guerilla tactics, and came to view Filipinos as almost subhuman.
E. All these answers are correct.
E. All these answers are correct.
The first civilian governor of the Philippines, who gave Filipinos broad local autonomy, was
A. Emilio Aguinaldo.
B. Arthur Macarthur.
C. Elihu Root.
D. Theodore Roosevelt.
E. William Howard Taft.
E. William Howard Taft.
The Philippines achieved independence from the United States
A. shortly after the election of Woodrow Wilson.
B. at the conclusion of World War I.
C. during the Great Depression.
D. following World War II.
E. after the Vietnam War.
D. following World War II
The “Open Door notes”
A. sought to give the United States a monopoly on trade with China.
B. gave the United States a reason to be militarily involved in China.
C. were directed to imperial powers in Europe and Asia.
D. were written by Theodore Roosevelt.
E. argued that Japan should open its borders to free trade.
C. were directed to imperial powers in Europe and Asia.
In 1900, the “Open Door notes”
A. gained more international support after the Boxer Rebellion.
B. were well received in Japan.
C. could only be enforced by the United States through diplomacy.
D. were never put into practice.
E. were accepted only by the United States and Russia.
A. gained more international support after the Boxer Rebellion.
In 1900, the Chinese Boxer Rebellion was directed at
A. the Chinese government.
B. all foreigners in China.
C. only Americans in China.
D. only Japanese in China.
E. the growing Chinese communist movement.
B. all foreigners in China.
The Spanish-American War revealed to American military planners
A. the need to improve glaring deficiencies in the army.
B. never to fight another war in the malaria-infested Caribbean.
C. the necessity of maintaining a military draft.
D. that National Guard troops were less reliable than federal troops.
E. the need to desegregate the armed forces.
A. the need to improve glaring deficiencies in the army.
The man appointed to supervise a major overhaul of the armed forces was
A. William Howard Taft.
B. Leonard Wood.
C. William Shafter.
D. Arthur MacArthur.
E. Elihu Root.
E. Elihu Root.

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