Ch.4 AP World History (Classic Civilization: Mediterranean and Middle East

Battle of Cannae
Battle of Cannae
The most decisive military defeat in Roman History, which occured in the the 2nd Punic War against Carthage/Hannibal Prompted more serious defections to the Carthaginian side. This was a turning point in the war. Rome responded by raising taxes and calling for more troops. This call was fabulously received and by the end of the year, the army was back to the size it was before Cannae. After the battle, Romans finally understood the brilliance of the Fabian strategy.
Pax Romana
Pax Romana
Means Roman peace,’ Was a sense of stability and prosperity that Roman rule brought to the lands of the Roman Empire in the first two centuries C.E(lasting from about lasting from 27 B.C. to A.D. 180). The movement of people and trade goods along Roman roads and safe seas allowed for the spread of cuture/ideas. Ended with the death of Marcus Aurelius.
Scipio Africanus
Scipio Africanus
Roman general who commanded the invasion of Carthage in the second Punic War and defeated Hannibal at Zama/Africa, leading to Carthages surrender.
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Romulus Augustulus
Romulus Augustulus
The last emperor of the Western Roman Empire; young son of Orestes., taken prisoner by German King Odovacar
Acropolis
Acropolis
An “upper city”; a common feature of ancient Greek cities; an elevated site for religious observances, Was also almost completely destroyed by the Persians when they burned Athens to the ground.
Xerxes
A Persian king and Son of Darius, amassed an army that outnumbered the Greeks 2 to 1 in order to avenge the Persian loss at the battle of Marathon. Ended up razing and burning Athens to the ground. However his large navy was defeated in a narrow strait at Thermopylae and at the naval battle of Salamis, mainly because of Themistocles genius.
Agamemnon
Agamemnon
The king who lead the Greeks against Troy in the Trojan War
Marathon
Marathon
The site of the famous battle fought between the armies of Persia and the outnumbered Athenians. Athens was victorious and a messenger (Pheidippides) was sent to run the 26 miles back to the city with the news.
Pheidippides
Ran from Marathon to Athens to announce the Greek victory over Persia in the Battle of Marathon (490 BC) Told them Rejoice we conquer before dying. Since you probably don’t need to know this I’ll tell you the name starts with a P.
Thermopylae
Thermopylae
This was the battle at which the Greek forces lost. They were led by King Leonidas while Xerxes led the Persian forces. The 300 Spartans lost the battle but they fought to the last man. They ultimately lost the battle because a traitor showed them another way through the pass, means the Hot Gates
Themistocles
Athenian leader in years after Marathon, the man who persuaded Athens to use its windfall silver-mine profit to purchase ships and develop a navy to face the inevitable return of the Persians. He master-minded the naval battle of Salamis
Battle of Salamis
The battle that effectively ended the Persian war. The Greek fleet, although vastly outnumbered, defeated the Persian fleet. This helped end the Persian war, freeing Greece.The Greeks largely won because the Persian ships were big and bulky and got congested and the Greek ships were agile and didn’t. Persian navy destroyed.
Hellenistic Culture
It began from Philips conquest of Greece to the beginning of the Roman Empire. During this time the laws, calendar, money, and language of Greece was used by millions of people. Homes and public buildings were very elaborate. , Greek culture blended with Egyptian, Persian and Indian ideas, as a result of Alexander the Great’s Empire.
Plato
Greek philosopher; believed that knowledge based on consideration of ideal forms outside the material world; proposed ideal form of government based on abstract principles in which philosophers ruled. Wrote “The Republic.
476 AD
The year that the last Roman Emperor, Romulus Augustulus (?-476 AD) taken prisoner at Ravenna in 476 AD by German King Odovacar, ending 505 years of the Roman Empire., also marks the end of the classical period in the Mediterranean area
Zoroaster
Zoroaster
A prophet who said that there were not many deities as the Persians thought, but only Ahura Mazda (good) and Ahriman (darkness) and that someday Ahura Mazda would beat Ahriman. Also sometimes called Zarathustra
Aristotle
Greek philosopher. A pupil of Plato, the tutor of Alexander the Great, and the author of works on logic, metaphysics, ethics, natural sciences, politics, and poetics, he profoundly influenced Western thought. In his philosophical system, which led him to criticize what he saw as Plato’s metaphysical excesses, theory follows empirical observation and logic, based on the syllogism, is the essential method of rational inquiry. (Greek Classical Era)
Odovacar
Germanic barbarian leader who ended the western Roman Empire in 476 and became the first barbarian ruler of Italy after the Senate decided not to elect a new one.
The Republic
The Republic
The best-known dialogue of Plato, in which Socrates is shown outlining an ideal state, ruled by philosopher-kings.
Cyrus the Great
A remarkable leader who managed to reunite he Persian Empire in a powerful kingdom. Under him Persia began building an empire larger than any yet seen in the world, became the successor state to many Mesopotamian empires. He was succeeded by Darius
Darius
Darius
Persian ruler who brought order to the Persian Empire. He also built roads; established a postal system; and standardized weights, measures, and coinage. However no wide participation in politics. He followed Cyrus the great. After he died Xerxes took over the persian empire.
Carthage
City located in present-day Tunisia, founded by Phoenicians ca. 800 B.C.E. It became a major commercial center and naval power in the western Mediterranean until being completely destroyed by Rome in the third century B.C.E. following the 3 Punic Wars.
Punic Wars
Punic Wars
A series of three wars between Rome and Carthage (264-146 B.C.); resulted in the destruction of Carthage and Rome’s dominance over the western Mediterranean.
Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism
A religion originating in ancient Iran (classical era Peria) with the prophet Zoroaster. It centered on a single benevolent deity-Ahuramazda, Emphasizing truth-telling, purity, and reverence for nature, the religion demanded that humans choose sides between good and evil. Would influence other monthiestic religions. Faded in competition with Islam.
Trojan War
A war, fought around 1200 B.C., in which an army led by Mycenaean kings(like Agamemnon) attacked the independent trading city of Troy in Anatolia
Aeschylus
Father of Greek tragedy, wrote Oresteia; proposed the idea of having two actors and using props and costumes
Oresteia
Oresteia
A Three play series based on the family of Agamemnon, the Mycenaean king who commanded the Greeks at in the Trojan War-written by Aeschylus, depicting a powerful family (the house of Atreus) torn apart by betrayal, murder and revenge
Herodotus
Herodotus
Greek historian whose writings, chiefly concerning the Persian Wars, are the earliest known examples of narrative history, and is thus called the “father of history” Came from Anatolia( modern day Turkey), also researched in Egypt and gave them the name”Gift of the Nile”. He also did a lot of other things but I’m getting really lazy. Wrote “The Histories” (which is actually split into 9 parts)
Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
Last of the 5 “Good Emperors”, at the end of “Pax Romana” Wrote “Meditations” personal reflections of his beliefs which solidified his stoic philosophy ,
Hittite Empire
Hittite Empire
An empire in Asia minor that had been in conflict with Egypt until a treaty was established, demonstrated an interesting ability to assimilated other cultures into their own, empire ended because of internal problems and attacked by the sea people in Gaza. Smaller states mainly prevailed in the area following it and Egypts downfall.
Fabian Strategy
A method by which Quintus Fabius Maximus, a Roman General, who during the 2nd Punic Wars exhausted Hannibal and his troops. Instead of engaging Hannibal in battle, Fabius would retreat from him and send out parties to burn everything in his wake. This would leave Hannibal without supplies or shelter for his men.
Fabius Maximus
Politician, consul, General ,and appointed dictator to save the country during the campaign of Hannibal (2nd Punic War). He followed Hannibal and laid wast to his own land to prevent supplies to Hannibal’s army. However, his defenses were criticized and not aligned with the Roman imperialism idea, but his “Fabian Strategy” lead to victory
Battle of lake trasimene
Battle of lake trasimene
Battle in the Second Punic War. Hannibal vs. Roman general C. Flaminius. Strategic ambush(Hannibal waited for the mist) leads to Carthaginian Victory. Lead to Quintus Fabius Maximus being declared dictator and devising the Fabian strategy.
Battle of Zama
The final decisive battle of II Punic War. Publius Cornelius Scipio defeated Hannibal. He made inside of the line weak while calvary flanks were strong and surrounded the Carthaginian army, led to surrender
Zeno
An ancient Greek philosopher who formulated paradoxes that defended the belief that motion and change are illusory. Actually knew Odovacer. Founded a school of philosophy called Stoicism; they believed in a divine power that ruled the universe; thought that people should live a virtuous life in harmony with natural law; promoted social unity and encouraged its followers to focus on things that they could control
Olympic Games
Olympic Games
One of the pan-Hellenic rituals observed by all Greek city-states; involved athletic competitions and ritual celebrations
Pericles
Pericles
Important leader and warrior in Athens during the Golden Age who strengthened democracy, made it possible for poor people to be in the government of Athens, and said there should be equal justice for all people. Was an aristocrat also. Died during the beginning of Pelopennesian War.
Pelopennesian War
A war lasting from 431 to 404 BC, was an ancient Greek war fought by Athens and its empire against the Peloponnesian League led by Sparta. Historians have traditionally divided the war into three phases. Lead to a Spartan Victory, but ultimately to the Greek downfall as Philip 2 of Macedon was able to conquer it.
Peloponnesian League
A League made to counter the Delian League. It was led by Sparta and other enemies of Athens formed the this League.
Delian League
A confederation of Greek city-states under the leadership of Athens. The name is used to designate two distinct periods of alliance, the first 478-404 B.C., the second 378-338 B.C. The first alliance was made between Athens and a number of Ionian states (chiefly maritime) for the purpose of prosecuting the war against Persia. The 2nd was used against the Peloponnesian League( Sparta and its allies) during the Pelopennesian War.
Philip 2
Macedonian King,he was a brillliant military leader who defeated the Greeks folowing the weakening after the Pelopennesian War. Alexander the Great was his son.
Julius Caesar
Roman general, statesman, and historian who invaded Britain , crushed the army of his political enemy Pompey pursued other enemies to Egypt, where he installed Cleopatra as queen returned to Rome, and was given a mandate by the people to rule as dictator for life On March 15 of the following year he was murdered by a group of republicans led by Cassius and Brutus, who feared he intended to establish a monarchy ruled by himself. “Crossing the Rubicon”
Pompey
Was part of the Roman Triumvirate, and was lieutenant of Sulla. He took credit for repressing the slave revolts led by Spartacus, even though Crassus actually stopped them. His ultimate goal was to get land in the east for veterans. Quarreled with Caesar(his allies in the Senate ordered Caesar to give up his armies) and and was forced to flee with his army to Egypt (after the battle of Pharsalus) where he was murdered
Battle of Pharsalus
A battle in which Caesar faced Pompey’s troops, even though they were half their size and Caesar still decisively won. It was short and Caesar had shown mercy, meanwhile, Pompey fled to Egypt.
Diocletian
Diocletian
Roman emperor who was faced with military problems, when that happened he decided to divide the empire between himself in the east and maximian in the west. he did the last persecution of the Christians
Constantine
Constantine
Roman emperor. After reuniting the Roman Empire, he moved the capital to Constantinople and made Christianity a favored religion. “By the sign, Conquer”
Augustus Caesar
Augustus Caesar
The first emperor of Rome, the adopted son of Julius Caesar, help Rome come into Pax Romana, or the Age of Roman Peace, name was given to him after he defeated Mark Anthony and Cleopatra( was called Octavian)
Mark Anthony
Was Caesar’s chief assistant. He and Octavian successfully defeated the conspirators and began to rule Rome together(2nd Truimvarate). However he lost support of the people because of his affair with Cleopatra and Octavian defeated him and became Emperor.
Polis
a self-governing city-state; the basic political unit of the Greek world, comprised a city, with its acropolis and agora and the surrounding territory.
Direct Democracy
a form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives
Gibbons
English historian who wrote the famours work “the decline and fall of the Roman Empire” explained that Chrisitianity made romans turn the other cheek, laid foundation for future discussions
Euclid
Euclid
He is the father of geometry and wrote a book explaining geometry that was used as a text book till the 1900(The Elements)
Pythagoras
Pythagoras
6th Century B.C., a Greek philosopher and mathematician, founder of a religous movement called Pythagoreanism
Agora
Agora
a central area in Greek cities used both as a marketplace and as a meeting place
Homer
Homer
Ancient Greek epic poet who is believed to have written the Iliad and the Odyssey (circa 850 BC)
Iliad
Iliad
Homer’s great epic that tells the story of the Trojan War
The Odyssey
An ancient Greek epic by Homer that recounts the adventures of Odysseus during his return from the war in Troy to his home in the Greek island of Ithaca.
Sappho
Sappho
From Lesbos, teacher of women, a poet, wrote about love (sometimes about sexual love (sometimes about women)) Called the 10th muse by her peers.
Sophocles
Sophocles
Greek writer of tragedies; author of Oedipus Rex and Antigone
Cicero
Cicero
Rome’s greatest public speaker; he argued against dictators and called for a representative government with limited powers, father of prose
Galen
Greek anatomist whose theories formed the basis of European medicine until the Renaissance (circa 130-200)
Doric
Doric
Along with Ionian and Corinthian; distinct style of Hellenistic architecture; the least ornate of the three styles, a plain, sturdy column with a plain capital
Ionic
along with Doric and Corinthian, distinct style of Hellenistic architecture; more ornate than Doric but less than Corinthian, a taller, thinner column with scroll shapes on its capital
Corinthian
Corinthian
Along with Doric and Ionian, distinct style of Hellenistic architecture; the most ornate of the three styles.
Plebeians
The poorer majority of the roman empire; the working class; couldnt be part of government; could vote but not hold office; couldnt be in army
Patricans
The great landowners and aristrocrats, they formed the ruling class in the Roman Republic
Alexandria
Alexandria
City on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt founded by Alexander. It became the capital of the Hellenistic kingdom of the Ptolemies. It contained the famous Library and the Museum-a center for leading scientific and literary figures. Its merchants engaged in trade with areas bordering the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean
Ptolemy
Ptolemy
Alexandrian astronomer who proposed a geocentric system of astronomy that was undisputed until Copernicus
Oedipus Rex
Part of a triad of tragedies written by the classical Greek playwright Sophocles concerning the life and death of Oedipus and his daughter, Antigone., a tragic king of Thebes who unknowingly killed his father Laius and married his mother Jocasta
Bread and Circus
Bread and Circus
Provision used by the goverment of Rome, free food and entertainment(Circuses) designed to divert the masses, especially the poor, from engaging in political action, also , ancient Roman metaphor for people choosing food and fun over freedom; free food and entertainment
Consuls
In the Roman republic, one of the two powerful officials elected each year to command the army and direct the government.
Senate
In ancient Rome, the supreme governing body, originally made up only of 300 aristocrats.
The 12 Tables
Roman laws, written law code, patricians engraved on bronze tablets and put them in the Forum, became the basis for all future Roman laws, established the principle that all free citizens had a right to the law’s protection
Olympic Games
Olympic Games
One of the pan-Hellenic rituals observed by all Greek city-states; involved athletic competitions and ritual celebrations
Nero
Nero
One of the more perverse emperors, who began massive execution of Christians to deflect suspicions that he burned most of Rome’s residential section, last of the Augustinian line. He had his mother killed, forced his advisers to commit suicide, and divorced his wife and had her killed, and committed suicide in 68 A.D
Caligula
Caligula
Adopted son of Tiberius; Had no political experience before becoming emperor; Suffered a nervous breakdown 6 months later; Became increasingly erratic and violent, “Let them hate me as long as they fear me.”; Spent money on foolish projects, banished or killed many family members, claimed to be all the gods combined, made his horse a consul; Murdered by his own men after insulting the army, eventually murdered by my bodyguards. Was nicknamed “little boots”.
Claudius
Claudius
Became emperor after Tiberius’ death(appointed by praetorian guard), and conquered Britain. Married Agrippina, and adopted her son Nero. She poisoned Claudius with mushrooms so that Nero could be emperor.Built new harbor at Ostia and new aqueduct for Rome, was said to be deformed and mentally handicapped.
Praetorian guard
Praetorian guard
They evolved from the bodyguards that protected a general. Augustus established several units from his own troops and they became the later emperors’ personal elite force
Hadrian
Hadrian
The Roman Empire in AD 117-138. He ordered the construction of this wall. He traveled though his empire to strengthen it’s frontiers and encourage learning and architecture. Was also born in Spain,built bridges, roads, and aqueducts, ruled during the height of the Pax Romana, adoptive son of Trajan
Hadrians Wall
Hadrians Wall
In present day Scotland, built to keep barbarian invaders from Roman Britain. Punctuated with forts, customs stops, signal posts and on either side, a 30 foot moat for added protection. Soldiers were posted on its top which functioned as a road.
Trajan
Trajan
Roman emperor and adoptive son of Nerva, Adopted by Nerva (previous emperor); One of the “Good Emperors”; Professional soldier from Spain; 1st non-Italian emperor; Brought Rome to it’s height in size (about size of US)
Hannibal
Hannibal
Carthaginian military commander who, in the Second Punic War, attempted a surprise attack on Rome, crossing the Alps with a large group of soldiers, horses, and elephants. He lost to Scipio africanus at the battle of Zama.
Natural History
Encyclopedia written by Pliny the Elder written in 79 A.D. One of the first books that analyzed the historical and contemporary art.
Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
Wrote Naturalis Historia (Natural history) – refers to marine fishes and bivalves (shellfish, clams, and mussels), Killed during Vesuvius’ explosion while trying to learn

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