Ch. 4 The Human World

Ch. 4 The Human World

death rate
the number of deaths per year for every 1,000 people
birthrate
the number of births per year for every 1,000 people
natural increase
growth rate of a population
doubling time
the number of years it takes a population to double in size
population distribution
the pattern of human settlement
population density
the average number of people living on a square kilometer of land
migration
the movement of people from place
culture
the way of life of a society of people who share similar beliefs and customs
language family
large groups of languages having similar roots
ethnic group
a group of people who share a common language, history, place of origin, or a combination of these elements
culture region
a region of the earth where people share common traits
cultural diffusion
the process of spreading new knowledge and skills from one culture to another
culture hearth
early civilizations whose ideas and practices spread to surrounding areas
unitary system
a system of government that gives all key powers to the national or central government
federal system
a system of government that divides power between the national government and state or provincial governments
autocracy
a system of government in which the power and authority to rule belong to a single individual
oligarchy
a systyem of government in which a small group holds power
democracy
a system of government in which leaders rule with the consent of the citizens
traditional economy
an economy in which habit and custom determine the rules of economic activity
market economy
an economy in which individuals and private groups make decisions about what to produce
mixed economy
an economy in which the government supports and regulates free enterprise through decisions that affect the marketplace
command economy
an economy in which decisions are made at the upper levels of government and handed down to the people
natural resource
an element from the earth that can be used for food, fuel, or other necessities
developed country
a country in which most people are employed in manufacturing or service industries and enjoy a high standard of living
developing country
a country that is working toward greater manufacturing and technology
industrialization
the spread of industry
free trade
the removal of trade barriers so that goods can flow freely between countries
pollution
the release of unclean or impure elements into the air, water, and land