CH 9 margin review, World History I

CH 9 margin review, World History I

In what ways did the early history of Islam reflect its Arabian origins? (413)
Place – Arabia
Time – 500 to 1500 CE
Where Islam started – in Arabia between Byzantium and Persia (Sassanid Empire) – influenced it. The monotheistic ideas of the Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians helped define Allah – the one, Islamic God which made it monotheistic.
What did the Quran expect from those who followed its teachings? (414)
How was Arabia transformed by the rise of Islam? (417)
How does the core message of Islam compare with that of Judaism and Christianity?
Place – Arabia
Time – 600 to 1500 CE
The core message of Islam is a belief of Allah – the only God who is the all-powerful Creator, good, just, and merciful – and submission to Him. It is the same message with Judaism and Christianity – one God who is all-powerful and good. Savior is Christian.
In what ways was the rise of Islam revolutionary, both in theory and in practice?
Place – Global
Time – Origin to Present
Islam had become a large empire within twenty years by military success of expansion through the Arabian peninsula and creating Umma in Medina. Muhammed was a military and religious leader.
Why were Arabs able to construct such a huge empire so quickly? (419)
Place – Arabia
Time Time – 500 to 1500 CE
The Arabs had organized themselves into a state with a central command capable of mobilizing the military potential of the Arab population. They were continuing a long pattern of tribal raids into surrounding civilizations and conquering new lands to create an empire.
What accounts for the widespread conversion to Islam? (421)
Place – Arabian Peninsula & Middle East
Time – 600 to 1500 CE
“Social conversion” movement from one religious social community to another. Many elements of Islam were similar in Christianity, Judaism, and Zoroastrianism. Islam was friendly to merchants, it traveled. Islam was associated with a powerful state, the Arab Empire. Social mobility was present in Islam.
What is the difference between Sunni and Shia Islam? (422)
Place – Arab Empire
Time – 600 to 1500 CE
Sunni caliphs were political and military leaders – selected by all Muslims. Shia: leadership in Islam should be from (blood) line of Muhammad. Sunni: religious authority – scholars “ulama.” Shia: leaders “Imams” – religious authority. Sunni: Umayad family – ruled as caliphs.
In what ways were Sufi Muslims critical of mainstream Islam? (424)
Place – Arab Empire
Time – 600 to 1500 CE
They saw mainstream Islam as a distraction and deviation from the purer spirituality of Muhammad’s time. They sought a direct and personal experience with the divine. Did not support Islamic laws – did little to come to Allah.
How did the rise of Islam change the lives of women? (425)
Place – Arab Empire
Time – 600 to 1500 CE
As Arab Empire grew, woman became more restricted. Quran defined men and women as equals. However in Islamic society, women were viewed as inferiors and were subordinate to men. Early Arab practice: women could hold property, dowries, & inheritances, but not as much as men. Women could sue for divorce, had to cover themselves in public, and were often subjected to polygamy.
What similarities and differences can you identify in the spread of Islam to India, Anatolia, West Africa, and Spain? (428)
Place – India, Anatolia, West Africa, and Spain
Time – 600 to 1500 CE
Spread of Islam was harder in India – only about 20-25% in Muslim communities (northwestern India, Bengal). Exclusive from Hinduism. In Anatolia, 90% population became Muslim – smaller population & weak. Islam trades came to West Africa. Peaceful conversion – urban – intellectual. Spain – not total conversion – harmony with Jews & Christians. Then warring – Islam took over.
In what ways was Anatolia changed by its incorporation into the Islamic world? (430)
Place – Anatolia and India
Time – 600 to 1500 CE
It had a smaller population and had grown weak due to famine, massacres, and enslavement.
What makes it possible to speak to the Islamic World as a distinct and coherent civilization? (437)
Place – Islamic World
Time – 600 to 1500 CE
The Islamic world had classes, buildings, education, and specialization.
In what ways was the world of Islam a “Cosmopolitan Civilization?” (438)
Place – World of Islam
Time – 600 to 1500 CE
It was an immense area of exchange in goods, technologies, food products, and ideas widely circulated. It became a prominent part of trade routes.