CHAPTER 1—INTRODUCTION TO FINANCIAL REPORTING MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Charging off equipment that cost less than $20 would be an example of the application of: a. |going concern| b. |cost| c. |matching| d. |materiality| e. |realization| ANS:D 2. The going concern assumption: a. |is applicable to all financial statements| b. |primarily involves periodic income measurement| c. |allows for the statements to be prepared under generally accepted accounting principles| d. |requires that accounting procedures be the same from period to period| e. |none of the answers are correct| ANS:C 3.
Understating assets and revenues is justified based on: a. |realization assumption| b. |matching| c. |consistency| d. |realization| e. |none of the answers are correct| ANS:E 4. The assumption that enables us to prepare periodic statements between the time that a business commences operations and the time it goes out of business is: a. |time period| b. |business entity| c. |historical cost| d. |transaction| e. |none of the answers are correct| ANS:A 5. Valuing assets at their liquidation values is not consistent with: a. |conservatism| b. |materiality| c. |going concern| d. |time period| . |none of the answers are correct| ANS:C 6. The business being separate and distinct from the owners is an integral part of the: a. |time period assumption| b. |going concern assumption| c. |business entity assumption| d. |realization assumption| e. |none of the answers are correct| ANS:C 7. The principle that assumes the reader of the financial statements is not interested in the liquidation values is: a. |conservatism| b. |matching| c. |time period| d. |realization| e. |none of the answers are correct| ANS:E 8. An accounting period that ends when operations are at a low ebb is: a. a calendar year| b. |a fiscal year| c. |the natural business year| d. |an operating year| e. |none of the answers are correct| ANS:C 9. The accounting principle that assumes that inflation will not take place or will be immaterial is: a. |monetary unit| b. |historical cost| c. |realization| d. |going concern| e. |none of the answers are correct| ANS:A 10. Valuing inventory at the lower of cost or market is an application of the: a. |time period assumption| b. |realization principle| c. |going concern principle| d. |conservatism principle| e. |none of the answers are correct| ANS:D 11.
The realization principle leads accountants to usually recognize revenue at: a. |the end of production| b. |during production| c. |the receipt of cash| d. |the point of sale| e. |none of the answers are correct| ANS:D 12. The comment that “items that are not material may be recorded in the financial statements in the most economical and expedient manner possible” is representative of: a. |matching| b. |conservatism| c. |realization| d. |materiality| e. |none of the answers are correct| ANS:D 13. The assumption that deals with when to recognize the costs that are associated with the revenue that is being recognized is: a. matching| b. |going concern| c. |consistency| d. |materiality| e. |none of the answers are correct| ANS:A 14. The most significant current source of generally accepted accounting principles is the: a. |New York Stock Exchange| b. |Accounting Principles Board| c. |Accounting Research Studies| d. |AICPA committee on Accounting Procedure| e. |Financial Accounting Standards Board| ANS:E 15. All but one of the following statements indicates a difference between the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) and prior approaches. Select the one that is not a difference. a. The FASB is independent of the AICPA. | b. |The size of the board is much smaller. | c. |The FASB has broader representation. | d. |The FASB is the primary board for the development of generally accepted accounting principles. | e. |Members of the FASB serve on a full-time basis. | ANS:D 16. The Accounting Principles Board issued Opinions between: a. |1959-1973| b. |1939-1959| c. |1973-present| d. |1966-1976| e. |none of the answers are correct| ANS:A 17. The Financial Accounting Standards Board has issued statements between: a. |1960-1973| b. |1939-1959| c. |1973-present| d. 1966-1976| e. |none of the answers are correct| ANS:C 18. Accountants face a problem of when to recognize revenue. Which of the following methods of recognizing revenue is not used in practice? a. |point of sale| b. |point of order acceptance| c. |end of production| d. |receipt of cash| e. |revenue recognized during production| ANS:B 19. The organization that has by federal law the responsibility to adopt auditing standards is the: a. |New York Stock Exchange| b. |Public Company Accounting Oversight Board| c. |Accounting Principles Board| d. |Financial Accounting Standards Board| . |AICPA Committee on Accounting Procedure| ANS:B 20. By law, the setting of accounting standards is the responsibility of the: a. |AICPA Committee on Accounting Procedure| b. |New York Stock Exchange| c. |Accounting Principles Board| d. |Securities and Exchange Commission| e. |Financial Accounting Standards Board| ANS:D 21. The assumption that allows accountants to accept some inaccuracy, because of incomplete information about the future, in exchange for more timely reporting is: a. |conservatism| b. |time period| c. |business entity| d. |materiality| e. |realization| ANS:B 22.
Which of the following does not relate to The Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB)? a. |Two members of the board must be CPAs| b. |In addition to appointing the five members of the PCAOB, the SEC is responsible for the oversight and enforcement authority over the Board| c. |The PCAOB consists of five members appointed by the SEC| d. |The PCAOB is to adopt auditing standards| e. |The PCAOB is to adopt accounting standards| ANS:E 23. Understating expenses is justified based on: a. |time period assumption| b. |conservatism assumption| c. |materiality assumption| d. |matching assumption| . |none of the answers are correct| ANS:E 24. At the end of the fiscal year, an adjusting entry is made that increases salaries payable and increases salaries expense. This entry is an application of which accounting principle? a. |full disclosure| b. |materiality| c. |matching| d. |realization| e. |historical cost| ANS:C 25. Accountants provide for inflation using which of the following accounting principles? a. |going concern| b. |time period| c. |conservatism| d. |materiality| e. |none of the answers are correct| ANS:E 26. Which of these measurement attributes is not currently used in practice? . |historical cost| b. |relevant cost| c. |current market value| d. |current cost| e. |present value| ANS:B 27. The following data relate to Swift Company for the year ended December 31, 2008. Swift Company uses the accrual basis. Sales on credit|$250,000| Cost of inventory sold on credit|170,000| Collections from customers|220,000| Purchase of inventory on credit|150,000| Payment for purchases|140,000| Selling expenses (accrual basis)|40,000| Payment for selling expenses|45,000| Which of the following amounts represents income for Swift Company for the year ended December 31, 2008? a. $60,000| b. |$50,000| c. |$40,000| d. |$35,000| e. |$30,000| ANS:C 28. The following data relate to Rocket Company for the year ended December 31, 2008. Rocket Company uses the cash basis. Sales on credit|$180,000| Cost of inventory sold on credit|130,000| Collections from customers|170,000| Purchase of inventory on credit|140,000| Payment for purchases|150,000| Selling expenses (accrual basis)|20,000| Payment for selling expenses|25,000| Which of the following amounts represents income for Rocket Company for the year ended December 31, 2008? a. |$30,000| b. |$5,000 loss| c. |$40,000| . |$45,000| e. |$50,000| ANS:B 29. The following data relate to Gorr Company for the year ended December 31, 2008. Gorr Company uses the accrual basis. Sales for cash|$200,000| Sales for credit| 220,000| Cost of inventory sold | 180,000| Collections from customers| 300,000| Purchases of inventory on credit| 190,000| Payment for purchases| 180,000| Selling expenses (accrual basis)| 50,000| Payment for selling expenses| 60,000| Which of the following represents income for Gorr Company for the year ended December 31, 2008? a. |$180,000| b. |$185,000| c. |$190,000| d. |$200,000| e. none of the answers are correct| ANS:C 30. The following data relate to Falcon Company for the year ended December 31, 2008. Falcon Company uses the cash basis. Sales for cash|$180,000| Sales for credit| 190,000| Cost of inventory sold| 210,000| Collections from customers| 350,000| Purchases of inventory on credit| 200,000| Payment for purchases| 220,000| Selling expenses (accrual basis)| 60,000| Payment for selling expenses| 70,000| Which of the following amounts represents income for Falcon Company for the year ended December 31, 2008? a. |$90,000| b. |$80,000| c. |$70,000| d. $60,000| e. |none of the answers are correct| ANS:D 31. Other than December, the most popular month for fiscal year-end is: a. |January| b. |March| c. |June| d. |September| e. |October| ANS:D TRUE/FALSE 1. In order to determine the economic success of a grocery store, we should view it as separate from the other resources that are owned by this individual. ANS:T 2. Many of our present financial statement figures would be misleading if it were not for the going concern assumption. ANS:T 3. The going concern assumption does not influence the classification of assets and liabilities. ANS:F 4.
The most accurate way to account for the success or failure of an entity is to accumulate all transactions from the opening of business until the business eventually liquidates. ANS:T 5. An entity usually cannot reasonably account for the profits related to inventory until that inventory is sold in the normal course of business. ANS:T 6. To the extent that money does not remain stable, it loses its usefulness as the standard for measuring financial transactions. ANS:T 7. A loss in value of money is called inflation. ANS:T 8. At the time of originally recording a transaction, historical cost also represents the fair market value.
ANS:T 9. It would always be conservative to value inventory at market. ANS:F 10. Accountants normally recognize revenue when cash is received. ANS:F 11. The 1933 and 1934 U. S. federal securities laws virtually gave the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) authority and responsibility for the development of generally accepted accounting principles. ANS:T 12. The Statements of Financial Accounting Concepts are intended to provide the Financial Accounting Standards Board with a common foundation and the basic underlying reasoning on which to consider the merits of various alternative accounting principles. ANS:T 13.
Eventually, the Financial Accounting Standards Board intends to evaluate current principles in terms of the concepts established in the Financial Accounting Concepts. ANS:T 14. Financial Accounting Concepts establish generally accepted accounting principles. ANS:F 15. According to the second Financial Accounting Concept, those characteristics of information that make it a desirable commodity can be viewed as a hierarchy of qualities, with understandability and usefulness for decision making of most importance. ANS:T 16. Performance indicators for nonbusiness organizations are usually formal budgets and donor restrictions.
ANS:T 17. Reasonable inaccuracies of accounting for an entity, short of its complete life span, are accepted. ANS:T 18. Using the business entity assumption, the financial statements are prepared separate and distinct from the owners of the entity. ANS:T 19. The time period assumption indicates that the entity will remain in business for an indefinite period time. ANS:F 20. Timeliness is a pervasive constraint imposed upon financial accounting information. ANS:F 21. Relevance and reliability are two primary qualities that make accounting information useful for decision making. ANS:T 22.
Predictive value, feedback value, and timeliness are ingredients needed to ensure that the information is reliable. ANS:F 23. Decision usefulness is a pervasive constraint imposed upon financial accounting information. ANS:F 24. Relevance is a quality requiring that the information be timely and that it also have predictive value or feedback value or both. ANS:T 25. The SEC has the authority to determine generally accepted accounting principles and to regulate the accounting profession. ANS:T 26. Some industry practices lead to accounting reports that do not conform to the general theory that underlies accounting.
ANS:T 27. All important events that influence the prospects for the entity are recorded and therefore are reflected in the financial statements. ANS:F 28. The accrual basis of accounting recognizes revenue when realized (realization concept) and expenses when incurred (matching concept). ANS:T 29. The cash basis recognizes revenue when cash is received and expenses when cash is paid. ANS:T 30. The accountant records only the events that affect the financial position of the entity and that can be reasonably determined in monetary terms. ANS:T 31.
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act has far-reaching consequences for financial reporting and the CPA profession. ANS:T 32. Among the many responsibilities of the PCAOB is to adopt accounting standards. ANS:F 33. For a public company, the SEC requires that a report be filed annually on its internal control systems. ANS:T 34. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act has had an insignificant effect on the relationship between the company and the internal auditor. ANS:F 35. Reporting under Sarbanes-Oxley revealed that very few companies had material weaknesses in their controls and processes. ANS:F 36.
Private companies are required to report under Sarbanes-Oxley. ANS:F 37. Some firms question the costs/benefits of implementing Sarbanes-Oxley. ANS:T 38. For many companies that use December 31 for the year-end, we cannot tell if December 31 was selected because it represents a natural business year or if it was selected to represent a calendar year. ANS:T 39. Accounting Trends & Techniques is a compilation of data obtained by a survey of 600 annual reports to stockholders undertaken for the purpose of analyzing the accounting information disclosed in such reports. ANS:T 40.
Many companies are on a 51-52 week fiscal year. ANS:F 41. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act has materiality implications. ANS:T 42. Web sites are not very useful when performing analysis. ANS:F 43. Accounting standards codification TM reorganizes the accounting pronouncements into approximately 90 accounting topics. ANS:T 44. Accounting standards codification TM addresses U. S. GAAP for nongovernmental entities. ANS:T PROBLEMS 1. Required: Listed below are several accounting principles and assumptions. Match the letter of each with the appropriate statement. a. Business entity|e. Historical cost|i.
Full disclosure| b. Going concern|f. Conservatism|j. Verifiability| c. Time period|g. Realization|k. Materiality| d. Monetary unit|h. Consistency|l. Industry practices| 1. |Some industry practices lead to accounting reports that do not conform to the general theory that underlies accounting. | 2. |Requires the accountant to adhere as closely as possible to verifiable data. | 3. |Requires the entity to give the same treatment to comparable transactions. | 4. |Directs that the measurement that has the least favorable effect on net income and financial position in the current period be selected. 5. |The decision is made to accept some inaccuracy because of incomplete information about the future in exchange for more timely reporting. | 6. |Involves the relative size and importance of an item to a firm. | 7. |A reasonable summarization of financial information is required. | 8. |Deals with the problem of when to recognize revenue. | 9. |The primary value that is used for financial statements. | 10. |Standard of measure for financial statements. | 11. |The assumption that the entity being accounted for will remain in business for an indefinite period of time. 12. |Assumption that a business’s financial statements are separate and distinct from the personal transactions of the owners. | ANS: 1. |l| 2. |j| 3. |h| 4. |f| 5. |c| 6. |k| 7. |i| 8. |g| 9. |e| 10. |d| 11. |b| 12. |a| 2. Required: State the accounting principle or assumption that is most applicable: a. |The company uses the same accounting principle from period to period. | b. |Financial statements are prepared periodically. | c. |Subscriptions paid in advance are recorded as unearned subscription income. | d. |All significant financial transactions are reported. | e. Personal transactions of the stockholders are not recorded on the company’s financial statements. | f. |Land is recorded at $10,000, which was the amount paid. Current value of the land is $25,000. | g. |The accountants determine that the company is in danger of going bankrupt and therefore refuse to certify the statements as prepared according to generally accepted accounting principles. | h. |The company loses a major customer and does not record a loss. | ANS: a. |consistency| b. |time period| c. |realization| d. |full disclosure| e. |business entity| f. |historical cost| g. |going concern| h. |transaction approach| . Listed below are ten interrelated elements that are directly related to measuring performance and status of an enterprise according to SFAC No. 6, “Elements of Financial Statements. ” a. Assets|f. Comprehensive income| b. Liabilities|g. Revenues| c. Equity|h. Expenses| d. Investments by owners|i. Gains| e. Distribution to owners|j. Losses| Required: Match the letter with the appropriate definition. 1. |Probable future sacrifices of economic benefits arising from present obligations of a particular entity to transfer assets or provide services to other entities in the future as a result of past transactions or events. 2. |Increases in the equity of a particular business enterprise resulting from transfers to the enterprise from other entities of something of value to obtain or increase ownership interests (or equity) in it. Assets are most commonly received as investments by owners, but that which is received may also include services or satisfaction or conversion of liabilities of the enterprise. | 3. |A decrease in the equity of a particular business enterprise resulting from transferring assets, rendering services, or incurring liabilities by the enterprise to owners.
Decreases ownership interest (or equity) in an enterprise. | 4. |Decreases in the equity (net assets) from peripheral or incidental transactions of an entity and from all other transactions and other events and circumstances affecting the entity during a period, except those that result from expenses or distributions to owners. | 5. |Outflows or other consumption or using up of assets or incurrences of liabilities (or a combination of both) from delivering or producing goods, rendering services, or carrying out other activities that onstitute the entity’s ongoing major or central operations. | 6. |The change in equity (net assets) of a business enterprise during a period from transactions and other events and circumstances from nonowner sources. It includes all changes in equity during a period, except those resulting from investments by owners and distributions to owners. | 7. |Probable future economic benefits obtained or controlled by a particular entity as a result of past transactions or events. | 8. |The residual interest in the assets of an entity after deducting its liabilities. 9. |Inflows or other enhancements of assets of an entity or settlements of its liabilities (or a combination of both) from delivering or producing goods, rendering services, or engaging in other activities that constitute the entity’s ongoing major or central operations. | 10. |Increases in the equity (net assets) from peripheral or incidental transactions of an entity and from all other transactions and other events and circumstances from revenues or investments by owners. | ANS: 1. |b| 2. |d| 3. |e| 4. |j| 5. |h| 6. |f| 7. |a| 8. |c| 9. |g| 10. |i| 4.
Listed below are several qualitative characteristics. a. |understandability| b. |usefulness for decision making| c. |relevance| d. |reliability| e. |predictive| f. |feedback value| g. |timely| h. |verifiable| i. |representational faithfulness| j. |neutrality| k. |comparability| l. |materiality| m. |benefits of information should exceed its cost| Required: Match the letter (or letters) that goes with each statement. 1. |Two constraints included in the hierarchy. | 2. |For this quality, the information needs to have predictive and feedback value and be timely. | 3. These are the qualitative characteristics that are viewed as having the most importance. | 4. |SFAC No. 2 indicates that to be reliable, the information needs to have these characteristics. | 5. |Interacts with relevance and reliability to contribute to the usefulness of information. | 6. |Two primary qualities that make accounting information useful for decision making. | 7. |For this quality, the information must be verifiable, subject to representational faithfulness, and neutral. | 8. |SFAC No. 2 indicates that to be relevant, the information needs to have these characteristics. |
ANS: 1. |l, m| 2. |c| 3. |a, b| 4. |h, i, j| 5. |k| 6. |c, d| 7. |d| 8. |e, f, g| 5. Listed below are ten phrases with the appropriate abbreviation. a. |Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP)| b. |Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)| c. |American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA)| d. |Accounting Principles Board (APB)| e. |Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB)| f. |Statements of Financial Standards (SFAS)| g. |Discussion Memorandum (DM)| h. |Statements of Position (SOP)| i. |Emerging Issues Task Force (EITF)| j. |Financial Reporting Releases (FRRs)| k. The Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB)| Required: Match the letter with the appropriate definition. 1. |Issued by the SEC and give the SEC’s official position on matters relating to financial reports. | 2. |Accounting principles that have substantial authoritative support. | 3. |A task force of representatives from the accounting profession created by the FASB to deal with emerging issues of financial reporting. | 4. |Created by the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. | 5. |Issued by the Accounting Standards Division of the AICPA to influence the development of accounting standards. 6. |A professional accounting organization whose members are certified public accountants (CPAs). | 7. |Issued official opinion on accounting standards between 1959-1973. | 8. |This board issues four types of pronouncements: (1) Statements of Financial Accounting Standards (SFAS), (2) Interpretations, (3) Technical Bulletins, and (4) Statements of Financial Accounting Concepts (SFAC). | 9. |Presents all known facts and points of view on a topic; issued by the FASB. | 10. |Issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) and establish GAAP for specific accounting issues. 11. |Responsible for adopting auditing standards. | ANS: 1. |j| 2. |a| 3. |i| 4. |b| 5. |h| 6. |c| 7. |d| 8. |e| 9. |g| 10. |f| 11. |k| 6. Listed below are Concept Statements. a. |Statement of Financial Accounting Concepts No. 1| b. |Statement of Financial Accounting Concepts No. 2| c. |Statement of Financial Accounting Concepts No. 3| d. |Statement of Financial Accounting Concepts No. 4| e. |Statement of Financial Accounting Concepts No. 5| f. |Statement of Financial Accounting Concepts No. 6| g. |Statement of Financial Accounting Concepts No. 7| Required:
Match the letter that goes with each Concept Statement title. 1. |Objectives of Financial Reporting by nonbusiness| 2. |Elements of Financial Statements of Business Enterprises| 3. |Qualitative Characteristics of Accounting Information| 4. |Elements of Financial Statements (a replacement of No. 3)| 5. |Objective of Financial Reporting by Business Enterprises| 6. |Recognition and Measurement in Financial Statements of Business Enterprise| 7. |Using Cash Flow Information in Accounting Measurements| ANS: 1. |d| 2. |c| 3. |b| 4. |f| 5. |a| 6. |e| 7. |g|