chap 12, chap 9, chap 11: caffeine, chap 10

chap 12, chap 9, chap 11: caffeine, chap 10

many of the capsules, pills, and powders that look like drugs and that consumers think of as drugs are actually classified by the FDA as
food products
if you buy a bottle of St. John’s wort 300 mg tablets, each tablet will contain 300 mg of
total tablet weight, with an unknown amount of plant material or ingredients
the 1994 dietary supplement health and education act
expanded the definition of dietary supplements and restricted the FDAs regulatory authority over them
the FDA was given additional authority over dietary supplements in 2006 to set up
an “adverse effects reporting” process
SAMe is a dietary supplement that has some research support for it possible use in treating
depression
what dietary supplement ingredient has been tested for its ability to improve memory in alzheimers disease, but has produced only small and unreliable improvements in published research
ginkgo biloba
the US marker for over the counter drug products totals about
18 billion
because of the way the FDA reviews and approves OTC drugs
various brands of a given type of remedy usually contain the same few active ingredients
the 2006 revised patriot act required that products containing _______ be kept behind the counter and buyers must show ID and sign for their purchase
psuedoephedrine
the only active ingredient the FDA allows in OTC stimulants is
caffeine
starting in 2007, the only FDA approved OTC weight control ingredient is
orlistat
OTC drugs approved as sleep aids contain
antihistamine such as diphenydramine
Acetylsalicylic acid was developed in the bayer lab and sold under the name
aspirin
besides pain relief, another important effect of aspirin is as a
fever reducer
aspirin should not be used with children who have a viral infection because of increased risk in
Reyes syndrome
The generic name for tylenol and Datril
acetominophen
NASID stand for
non-steroidal anti-inflammatoy drug
cold viruses are usually transmitted
by being picked up on the hands and touching your eyes or nose
why would you want dextromethorphan in a cold remedy
cough suppressant
there has been some reported abuse by young people of products containing ______, which they take high doses to produce visual and auditory hallucinations
dextromethorphan
the acronym GRAS stands for
generally recognized as safe
Suppose you had a fever, a headache and a swollen knee. which medication would be most appropriate for the 3 symptoms
ibuprofen
alcoholic beverages form when yeasts act upon sugars in the process of
fermentation
heating a solution of alcohol and water, then collecting the alcohol vapors and condensing them into a liquid with a higher alcohol content is called
distillation
the alcoholic content of beverages is indicated by the term proof which is
twice the percentage of alcohol
in most commercial beers sold in the US, the alcohol content is about
4%
many large commercial distilleries produce grain neutral spirits which are
95% pure alcohol, the basis gin and vodka
when alcohol is formed, other related substances are also formed called
congeners
although national prohibition of alcohol did reduce alcohol related deaths and hospitalization, it was repealed partly because of the growth of organized crime and partly because
of a desire to reduce income tax
age 21 became the legal drinking age in all US states in what year?
1988
amercians drink most of their alcohol in the form of
beer
total per capita consumption of alcohol
has declined considerably from its peak in 1981
about what percentage of college students report drinking alcohol at least once within the past month?
60%
which of these substances speeds up the absorption of alcohol
carbonated liquids
one major facto determining individual differences in BAC after drinking alcohol is
proportion of body fat
although he exact mechanisms for alcohol’s action in the brain are not completely understood, it is now believed that the most important of its many effects is
enhancing GABA’s inhibitory effects
in a typical person, intoxication to the point of staggering and greatly impaired sensory perception occurs at about what BAC?
.25%
the livers enzyme primarily responsible for metabolizing alcohol is
alcohol dehydrogenase
at BAC of .08, the relative risk of being involved in a fatal auto crash is about
3 times as great for a sober driver
the total number of alcohol related traffic fatalities per year in the US
has declined from the peak year of 1980
which of the following are signs of alcohol poisoning
breathing rate is slow or irregular, skin is cold and clammy, vomiting and then loss of consciousness
breath samples to determine BAC
provide an accurate indicator of BAC across a wide range
fairly high doses of alcohol interfere with erection of the penis in males, probably because of
impaired processing of erotic signals
in studies relating to alcohol use,
about half of all murderers and about half of all victims had been drinking
over one thousand people die in the US each year from alcohol overdose. it id particularly dangerous
to begin drinking again after vomiting
heavy drinkers with Wernicke’s disease also usually exhibit memory deficits and other mental problems associated with
Korsakooff’s psychosis
cirrhosis of the liver can result from drinking alcohol
in larger amounts for ten years or more
among women classified as problem drinkers, the rate of FAS is about
23-29 per 1000 births
tremors, hallucinations, delusions, and seizures are all symptoms associated with
alcohol withdrawal syndrome
the legend of the discovery of coffee relates to
kaldi and the dancing goats
the early history of coffee included a 1674 pamphlet from england titled
the womens petition against coffee
in the 18th century coffee houses were referred to as
penny universities
the largest exporters of coffee to the US are
colombia, brazil, and vietnam
green, black and oolong tea are all prepared from leaves of
camellia sinensis
the worlds largest per capita consumers of tea are found in
turkey
_____is prescribed to asthma sufferers because it releases bronchial passages
camellia sinensis, theobromine, exanthine, theophylline
theophylline
Theobroma, the genus name for the cocao tree, is latin for
food of the gods
most regular brewed teas have about how much caffeine per cup
40-60 mg (about 1/2 amount in coffee)
the unique xanthine in chocolate is:
hysocine, diphenhydramine, theobromine, methylene chloride
theobromine
in 1909, the FDA seized some Coca-Cola syrup and filed charges against the company partly because
the syrup contained caffeine
according to current FDA rules on cola drinks
they cannot contain more than 6 mg caffeine per ounce
the max CNS effect of caffeine is reached about ___ after drinking coffee
2 hours
the most consistent withdrawal symptom after chronic caffeine use is
headache
caffeine works in the brain by
blocking adenosine receptors
one important determinant of the behavioral effects of caffeine is
whether the person is a regular user
caffeine had been shown to be an effective treatment for
migrane headaches
drinking 5 or more cups of coffee per day
slightly increases the risk of heart attack
caffeine is thought to relieve headaches because it’s
a vasoconstrictor
tobacco use became popular in european culture because
it was associated with wealth and status
during the 18th century, which method of use of tobacco increased in england?
snuff
chewing was the most popular form of tobacco use until about 1900, but by 1920 the most popular form was
cigars
over 90 percent of all US cigarettes sold now are
filter cigarettes
per capita sales of cigarettes in the US began to decline
after the 1964 surgeon generals report
in 2000, the US supreme court ruled that the FDA
had no authority to regulate tobacco products
people who switch to low tar and nicotine brand cigarettes
typically take more and deeper puffs and probably get no safety benefits
one big factor associated with lower rates of cigarette smoking among adults is
high level of educations
the biggest health concerns for users of smokeless tobacco has been
cancer
one recent fad in tobacco use has been
hookahs
although lung cancer is not common, about ____ percent of all lung cancers occur in smokers
80%
Annual smoking attributable mortality in the US is estimated at
440,000
in 1993, the environmental protection agency declared that
secondhand smoke is known as a carcinogen
one of the most consistent and best documented effects of cigarette smoking during pregnancy is
low birth weight
nicotine acts in the brain by
first stimulating and then blocking cholinergic receptors
as a potent poison, nicotine causes death by
paralysis of respiration muscles
the psychological effect of cigarette smoking is
arousal and activation – a mild stimulant effect
calm and relaxation- a mild anti anxiety effect
recent research on dependence produced by nicotine has focused on genetic differenced related to
acetylcholine receptors
about 90% of the more than 40 million former smokers in the US report that
they quit smoking without a treatment program
(p. 254) The world’s greatest per-capita consumers of tea are found in
Turkey
(p. 252) Most American coffee comes from China.
false
(p. 234) New battery-powered electronic cigarettes (i.e., tobacco-less nicotine delivery systems) are quickly becoming one the largest U.S. exports.
false