Chapman 1-5

Chapman 1-5

Subject-Matter Knowledge
is the information needed to present content
Action-System Knowledge
refers to the skills for planning lessons, making pacing decisions, explaining material clearly, responding to individual differences, and helping students to construct knowledge
Multidimensionality
a single event can have multiple consequences; example: waiting a few seconds for a student to answer a question may increase that child’s motivation but negatively influence of another student who would like to respond
Simultaneity
many things happen at ¬ the same time; example: during discussions a teacher not only listens and responds to the students’ ideas, but also monitors unresponsive students for signs of comprehension while moving at a good pace
Immediacy
teachers must respond to many events that happen rapidly
Unpredictable & Public Classroom Climate
most things happen in ways that are unanticipated; other students see what happens to a student; students make inferences about the way a teacher feels toward certain students by the way she reacts in spontaneous situations
Rhetorical Questions
ex. Manuel has already started back to his seat when teacher needlessly asks, “What were you doing anyway?” These types of questions often communicate negative expectations typically lead to clowning or other disruptive student behavior.
Teacher Questions
assessment of students’ factual knowledge is important but if overemphasized in discussion, students may believe that the teacher is interested in only finding who knows the answers; if questions were of more value in opinion (“How would you feel if you were isolated from your parents and friends for several days?” Would it be important to explore a new planet like Venus? Why”) students may be more interested in the discussion.
Teacher Questions after Student Responses
encourage students to evaluate their own thinking (ex. “Well, that’s one way; what are some other ways that Columbus could have boosted his crew’s morale?”); ask questions to help students evaluate their classmates’ answers; an opportunity to explore a question in depth helps teachers and students determine whether they really understand the material. Use probing techniques as a gentle way to focus students’ attention and to help them think.
Student Questions
allows students to see that the purpose of discussion is to satisfy their needs and interests as well as the teacher’s; it also communicates clear message to students: I have important questions and I want your viewpoint; You certainly must have important questions too; We’ll have an interesting discussion as we address one another’s questions; If you need more information, we’ll get it.
Calling on Student’s who don’t Volunteer
students who avoid public-response situations need to be given opportunities to learn that they can participate in successfully; if students learn that their teacher calls only on those who raise their hands, they may become inattentive.
Key to Useful, Thorough, and Meaningful Classroom Observation
the key to thorough classroom observation is student response. Teachers who want to receive relevant feedback about their behavior and that of their students/observers who want to see what life in a classroom is like must be careful not to disturb the natural behavior in the classroom; by natural, we mean the behavior that would take place if the observer were not present. The observer can help by avoiding eye contact with the students and by refusing to be drawn into long conversations with them or to aid them in their seatwork, unless the observer is also a participant in classroom life; observers should not initiate contact with students or do anything to draw attention to themselves.
Action System Knowledge
action-system knowledge refers to skills for planning lessons, making pacing decisions, explaining material clearly, responding to individual differences, and helping students to construct knowledge; teachers do more than manage learners, they also deal with students as social beings, and students learn more than subject matter in school; teachers have to recognize students’ differences in learning and adjust instruction accordingly.
Key to Meaningful Classroom Observation
no personal objective; objective vs. subjective; become aware of bias; observing specific behaviors; checking our observation data against observations of others
How Teachers can Ignite and Maintain Student Interest in a Topic
in order to optimize the learning process, classroom experiences should be fun, enjoyable and directly related to student interests; cooperative groups increase student involvement and participation, as they work collaboratively to complete a given task and/or project; this strategy develops student interpersonal skills, which is critical in future functional situations; building a classroom environment where students are respected and feel comfortable expressing their ideas and perspectives provides a setting for optimal learning
Effect of teachers engaging in so many tasks and interactions each day
Interacting and engaging 20+ students in a common task is absorbing. Classrooms are complex. Teacher may exchange in more than 1000 interpersonal exchanges with students in one day. Must respond/interpret on the spot.
Quantitative Approach
Asks questions before they observe (Is instruction meaningful or rote?) and develop coding systems that are specifically designed to answer their questions. Narrow Focus, Checklists or Coding schemes, Records certain categories or events, Focus is closed
Qualitative Approach
Asks questions after collecting considerable observational data. Broad Focus, Detailed descriptions of events, Analysis emphasizes how events unfolded and how they were experienced by the participants, Interviews with teachers and students to get their interpretations of behaviors
Must be nonjudgemental during data collection
Knowing the question in advance is not likely to prejudice the outcome of research if the question calls for collection of descriptive facts rather than ratings or value judgments, and the observer concentrates on collecting these facts before exploring their implications for classroom participants.
Anecdotal Record
Brief notes identifying a student’s behavioral pattern. No environmental context, shorter periods, less detail
Running Record
Detailed, ongoing descriptive account of the behavior and context. Environmental context important, longer periods, more detail
Pygmalion in the Classroom
A book (Oak School Experiment – Robert Rosenthal & Lenore Jacobson). They led elementary teachers to believe that certain students in their classes would “bloom” intellectually during the upcoming school year, and as a result, would make stronger achievement gains than would be expected based on their previous records. Predictions were based on results from a test administered early in the school year. The test was a nonverbal intelligence test, but it was described to the teachers as designed to identify students who were about to bloom intellectually. They actually selected randomly instead of selecting just on the basis of their test scores, yet the students did show greater gains than their classmates on achievement tests given at the end of the year. Rosenthal and Jacobson explained these results as evidence of the self-fulfilling prophecy effects of teachers’ expectations. They made clear that the expectations they created had caused the teachers to treat the “bloomers” differently, in ways that helped them to achieve more that year. Oak School findings were often exaggerated and it made knowledgeable researchers skeptical. They noted that design and analysis problems suggested a need for caution in interpreting the study’s results, and a replication attempt failed to produce the same findings. Eventually, this work produced a consensus that teachers’ expectations can and sometimes do affect teacher-student interaction and student outcomes, but the processes involved are much more complex than originally believed. These experiments demonstrated that teachers’ expectations could have causal effects on student outcomes, but they did not show how the process plays out in the classroom.
The Self-fulfilling Prophecy Effect
in which an originally unfounded expectation nevertheless leads to behavior that causes the expectation to become true.
Sustaining Expectation Effect
the expectations are better founded, in that teacher expect students to sustain previously demonstrated patterns.
Define teacher expectations based on content in the text
1. Early in the year, the teacher forms differential expectations for student behavior and achievement.
2. Consistent with these differential expectations, the teacher behaves differently toward different students.
3. This treatment tells students something about how they are expected to behave in the classroom and perform on academic tasks.
4. If the teachers’ treatment is consistent over time, and if students do not actively resist or change it, it likely will affect their self-concepts, achievement motivation, levels of aspiration, classroom conduct, and interactions with the teacher.
5. These effects will complement and reinforce the teacher’s expectations, so that students will come to confirm to those expectations more than they might have otherwise.
6. Ultimately, this will affect achievement and other student outcomes. High-expectation students will be led to achieve at or near their potential, but low-expectation students will not gain as much as they could have gained if taught differently.
How teachers form expectations
– Research has focused on teacher’s expectations for their students’ achievements rather than for other student outcomes (motivation, conduct, social adjustment) and most has focused on expectations of individuals rather than groups or the whole class.
– Teachers form differential achievement expectations at the beginning of the school year
Two types of teacher expectations
Self-fulfilling prophecy effect
an expectation that may not quite be true, but showing that the potential is there, leads to the fulfillment of the original expectation.
Sustaining expectation effect
students are expected to sustain same behavior patterns over a period of time, but this allows for overlooking change and potential growth.
Student’s perception of differential teacher treatment
• Grouping of students
• Task and materials
• Motivation strategies
• Role students play in their own learning
• How students are evaluated
• Quality of classroom relationship
• Quality of parent-classroom relationship
• Quality of classroom-school relationship
• Key Terms
• Self-fulfilling prophecy effect
• Sustaining expectation effect
• Lower achievers
• Differentiated treatment
Differentiated expectations are usually formed
– Studies show Teachers form differential expectations at the beginning of the school year, some of these expectations are made by just looking at records and making predictions based on race, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and gender.
– Teachers do not passively accept phony information if it is contradicted by other information they have from more credible sources or from their own tests, assignments, or interactions with their students.
– What does this mean? It means that these studies usually do not reveal much evidence of grossly biased judgments. For example, most impressions that teachers form from interacting with their students are based primarily on the student’s participation in academic activities and performance on tests and assignments, not on gender, race, or other status characteristics.
– Summary, practicing teachers usually develop mostly accurate expectations about their students, and usually correct the inaccurate ones as more information becomes available.
Teacher behaviors associated with communicating low expectations to students
– Teachers can hinder student performance through the types of questions we ask, and the types of assignments and responsibilities we provide.
– We can communicate low expectations to individual students in whole class settings.
– Expectations can be based on classroom events, If Susan regularly fails to do homework assignments, her teacher may gradually stop trying to change her work habits. To avoid this, teachers need to keep their expectations flexible and bear in mind their role as instructors.
– The fact that a student couldn’t’t do something yesterday doesn’t’t mean they couldn’t’t do it today so teachers need to give them a chance.
Proactive teachers
are guided by their own beliefs about what is appropriate in setting goals for the class as a whole and for individual students. If they set realistic goals and have the needed skills, they are likely to help their students fulfill the expectations associated with these goals. Proactive teachers are the most likely to have positive expectation effects on their students.
Over reactive teachers
develop rigid, stereotyped perceptions of students based on students prior records and on first impressions of their behavior. Over reactive teachers tend to treat students as stereotypes rather than as individuals, and they are the most likely to have negative expectation effects.
Reactive teachers
hold their expectations lightly and adjust them in response to new feedback. They have minimal expectation effects on their students, tending to maintain existing differences between high and low achievers.
teacher behaviors associated with students perceived as “more capable.”
– Teachers demonstrate a strong sense of self efficacy if they…
– Teachers praising and smiling more often
– Teachers are doing less criticizing and punishing
– Teachers are managing their classrooms
Be familiar with teacher approaches to developing classroom management and the effectiveness of the various approaches.
Plan rules and procedures in advance – the more you carefully think through your preferred rules and procedures, the more prepared you will be to explain them clearly to students to be consistent in ensuring their implementation.
Establish clear rules and procedures when needed – demonstrations followed by opportunities to practice the new rules are essential, especially for younger grades. Keep behavioral rules to a minimum and state them clearly with convincing rationales.
Let students assume responsibility – not letting students have any responsibility, communicates negative expectations by treating students as if they were infants and it denies them the chance to develop skills for productivity managing their own behavior.
Minimize disruptions and delays – problems start and spread more easily when students are idle or distracted. Therefore, plan room arrangement, equipment storage, preparation for lessons, and transitions between activities to avoid needless delays.
Plan independent activities as well as organized lessons – provide worthwhile assignments and have backup plans prepared for times when students finish more quickly than anticipated because disruptions often start when students are not working on their assignments.
“Withitness”
When a teacher is aware of what is happening and likely to detect misbehavior early and accurately. Enables you to nip problems before they escalate. If you are unaware of who was most responsible, tell the entire group involved to resume working so that you avoid publicly blaming the wrong student
Overlapping
Effective teachers do more than one thing at a time when necessary. For example, when teaching small groups they respond to students from outside the group who had questions but at the same time and in ways that did not disrupt ongoing group activities.
Signal Continuity and Momentum
Preparation = smooth lessons that provided a continuous “signal”. For example, moving near inattentive students and using eye contact when possible.
Group Alerting
A good technique to maintain or reestablish attention during lessons. For example, selecting students randomly, getting around to everyone frequently, asking for volunteers, throwing out challenges by declaring that the next question is difficult, and presenting an interesting material.
Accountability
Having students hold up props, show their answers, or otherwise indicate attention to the lesson. Also asking them to comment on peer’s responses or having them respond in unison.
Variety and challenge in independent work
provide assignments that are both: Familiar and easy enough for students to do successfully; Challenging and varied enough to sustain their motivation.
A teacher’s management behavior based on a classroom example.
– On page 73 in our book it discusses four different types of classrooms (Read the four types of common classrooms). The types of classrooms described are “can’t cope”, “bribes the students”, “runs a tight ship”, and/or “has cooperative students”.
– The classroom-learning environment develops gradually in response to the teacher’s communication of expectations, modeling of behavior, and approach to management.
Effects of praising students, positive and negative
•+ Builds relationships
•+ “Effective praise calls attention to development in students learning progress or skill mastery”
•+ “Expresses appreciation for efforts in ways that call attention to accomplishments themselves rather than their role in pleasing the teacher. This helps students learn to attribute their efforts to their own motivation rather than external pressures.”
•- Well-liked students get more genuine and warm praise versus disliked students who are praised on behavior instead of accomplishments.
•- “Struggling students need encouragement, but they also need accurate feedback. If they notice that they are frequently praised for minor accomplishments, they may infer that the teacher does not have much confidence in their abilities or potential.”
•- Be sure to focus on the effort and care put into work rather than portraying achievement as evidence of knowledge.
•Quiet, private over loud, public
•Academic praise over conduct praise
•Quality over frequency
Methods of promoting self-regulated learning
•Manage time and procedures
•Set goals
•Delay feedback
•Students learn to change themselves, the task, or the environment
Major goal of classroom management associated with long-term benefit
•Jacob Kounin found that the key to good management is to use techniques that produce student cooperation and involvement in activities and therefore prevent problems from occurring.
•”Withitness”, overlapping, signaling continuity and momentum, group alerting, accountability, and variety and challenge in independent work have been proven as keys to successful classroom management. They have also shown they are associated with achievement gains
How teachers can be effective at promoting higher order learning
Achieving higher-order learning outcomes requires more advanced management approaches, in which the teacher delegates authority to individuals or groups of students rather than trying to personally supervise multiple overlapping activities.
Effective elementary school classroom managers
•Preparation and organization at the beginning of the year
•Attention to areas of concern during the first week:
➢Information about the teacher and students
➢Daily schedule
➢Procedures
➢Where things belong
•Don’t overload students with too much at one time
•Describe expectations, model procedures, answer questions, allow students to practice, give feedback
•Focus on instruction over control
•Remind students of procedures
•Allow time for review
•Inappropriate behavior is stopped immediately
Conveying purposefulness
maximize time for instruction, completing work, and receiving feedback
Teaching appropriate conduct
clear expectations about what students should be doing and how to do it with corrective feedback instead of criticism or punishment
Maintaining attention
➢Monitors students for signs of confusion
➢Arranges seating to help focus attention
➢Change in voice, movement, and pacing to regain attention
➢Lessons have a clear beginning and end with transition
Appropriate teacher cues
Positive language cues are essential. Learning is easier when we are shown what to do, not told what to do. Negative statements are okay at times, such as when a student is doing something that must be stopped immediately, but statements of desirable behaviors should follow even that. For example, instead of saying, “Don’t yell out the answer” try saying, “Raise your hand if you think you know the answer”.
High salience
large or highly attractive rewards, or rewards presented in ways that call attention to them.
Non-contingency
rewards are given for mere participation in activities, rather than being contingent on meeting specific performance standards
Unnatural/unusual
rewards are artificially tied to behaviors as control devices rather than being natural outcomes of the behaviors
Appropriate Statements to Manage
– Demand appropriate behavior, keep demands short and direct
– Name students, indicate correct behavior
– Speak firmly
– Remind students of expectations
– Brief and concise
– Do not scorn or embarrass
– Encourage students to accept responsibility
Inappropriate Statements to Manage
– Don’t ask obvious questions about misbehavior
– Don’t threaten or display authority unnecessarily
– Do not dwell on misbehavior
– Do not give up hope
Gordon’s “no lose” approach
Teacher owned problems: Specify behavior problem, specify how behavior affects you, specify the resulting feelings.
Student owned problems: Active listening in order to have multiple students describe a problem and understand it from their points of view.
Appropriate Punishment
– Exclusion from the group (where they cannot affect the rest of the group)
– Tie removal of activities to remedial behavior
– Tell students why they are being punished
– Tell students what they can do to rejoin the group
Inappropriate Punishment
– Abusive verbal attacks
– Physical punishment
– Extra work
– Lowering grades
Effects of punishment
– Only a response to repeated misbehavior
– A way to exert control over students who will not control themselves
– Punishment should be avoided when students are trying to improve
– Effectiveness depends on how you present it to students
Extreme laws and policies aimed at “dangerous” students
– Zero tolerance policy
– Laws aimed at dangerous students have extended far beyond their intended scope
Redirecting inattentive students
•Eye contact and gesture
•Touch
Effective in small groups:
• Physical proximity
• Asking for responses
• Name dropping
Inappropriate techniques for direct correction
· Asking questions about obvious behavior (asking rhetorical questions).
· Avoid any unnecessary threats and displays of authority.
· Avoid dwelling on misbehavior or nagging students
Ways students are most likely to deal with conflict
withdraw or submission, coercive aggression, or trying to get the teacher to force peers to coincide.
What Good and Brophy says about teachers who use punishment
Teachers should be able to recognize and solve problems/ stop misbehavior. If they are using punishment it shows that they have not been able to cope with or solve that problem. These teachers that use punishment often will have only limited and temporary success.
Contingency Contracting is usually most effective when…
Students know what they are supposed to do and they are capable of doing it and there are a variety of attractive rewards made available.
Motivation
subjective experience that cannot be observed directly
Stimulus
something that triggers a response and can be either internal or external
Reinforcement
➢Positive: a stimulus provided which creates increase in behavior
➢Negative: a stimulus is removed which creates increase in behavior
➢Self-Reinforcement: students with concepts and language needed to evaluate their performance can reinforce themselves for their progress
Response
Theories and terminology associated with academic aptitude
Aptitude – is more aligned with the concepts of readiness, suitability, susceptibility, and proneness (natural tendency to do something). Capability; innate or acquired capacity for something
Learning Goals (task or mastery goals)
developing knowledge or skills activities are designed to develop
Performance Goals (ego goals)
activity is treated as a way to test their ability to perform
Goal Setting
Proximal: completing a task in the present rather than the future
Specific: Complete a task with very few errors or in a certain way
Challenging: Difficult but reachable
Extrinsic
•Links performance on a task to a consequence students value
•Key to rewarding effectively is to make sure it supports their motivation to learn and to avoid encouraging them to think they only do activities to earn a reward
•Better to use rewards when there is a clear goal rather than ambiguous goals
Intrinsic
•Using activities that students enjoy and find interesting so that they want to engage in them
•Interest Theory: focuses on the activities and keeping students motivated by using content they find interesting
•Individual Interest: engaging with particular content or activities when opportunities present themselves
•Situational Interest: triggered in the moment, responding to something that catches our interest and motivates us to explore it
•Self-Determination Theory: focuses on helping students feel a sense of autonomy when engaging in learning activities
•Rooted in satisfying 3 basic needs:
•Autonomy: self-determination in deciding what to do and how to do it
•Competence: developing and exercising skills for controlling the environment
•Relatedness: affiliation with others
Tasks to promote student Effort and Persistence
•Avoid time pressures unless necessary for skill being taught
•Stress feedback functions rather than evaluation or grading functions of tests
•Portray tests as assessing progress instead of ability
•Tell students some problems are above their current achievement level so they do not have to be worried about failing to solve all of them, when appropriate
•Provide pretests
•Teach stress-management skills and effective test-taking skills
Teacher behaviors that will and will not, minimize text anxiety
– Avoid time pressures unless necessary for skill being taught
– Stress feedback functions rather than evaluation or grading functions of tests
– Portray tests as assessing progress instead of ability
– Tell students some problems are above their current achievement level so they do not have to be worried about failing to solve all of them, when appropriate.
– Provide pretests
– Teach stress-management skills and effective test-taking skills
Value of promoting student autonomy in learning tasks
Taking Intellectuals: “At least try”; repeatedly encourage students to try and express confidence that they will succeed with continued effort
Reward System: Reward good effort and performance; motivators for students who believe they will receive a reward if they put forth the effort
Concepts/theories of stimulus, response, motivation and strategies
– Motivation comes from stimulating students to take an interest
– Allow them to see the value of what they are learning
– Provide guidance on how to go about learning:
– Modeling own motivation and task-related thinking
– Communicating desirable expectations
– Minimize anxiety
– Kick-start curiosity – Make abstract content familiar
– Induce cognitive conflict and awareness of learning strategies
– Students generate own motivation
– State the learning goals
expectancy x value theory of motivation
– Expectation to do well on task — Value placed on reward — Motivation
– Balance the student’s ability to accomplish what the teacher wants and what’s in it for that student, and how hard is that student willing to work (which is the motivation)
Chapman’s Teaching Triangle
Lesson content
Monitors students
Teaching techniques
Teacher Questions
Assessment of students’ factual knowledge is important but if overemphasized in discussion, students may believe that the teacher in interested in only finding out who knows the answers. If the questions were of more value in opinion (“How would you feel if you were isolated from your parents and friends for several days?” Would it be important to explore a new planet like Venus? Why”) students may be more interested in the discussion. Teachers implicitly want- TELL ME WHAT THE BOOK SAID. Could also ask students to evaluate the social consequences of the events discussed. (Was it worth the time and money to send the astronauts to the moon? What did we learn as a result of the space program?)
Teacher Questions
Assessment of students’ factual knowledge is important but if overemphasized in discussion, students may believe that the teacher in interested in only finding out who knows the answers. If the questions were of more value in opinion (“How would you feel if you were isolated from your parents and friends for several days?” Would it be important to explore a new planet like Venus? Why”) students may be more interested in the discussion. Teachers implicitly want- TELL ME WHAT THE BOOK SAID. Could also ask students to evaluate the social consequences of the events discussed. (Was it worth the time and money to send the astronauts to the moon? What did we learn as a result of the space program?)