Chapter 1- (Early Civilization) :HISTORY 101

Chapter 1- (Early Civilization) :HISTORY 101

Documentation
How did historian create pictures of the past?
hominids
The first humanlike creatures that existed in Africa
Australopithecines
An alternate name hominids are referred to as
Australopithecines
Early humanlike creature that is the first to make simple stone tools
Homo Erectus
“up right” human being
Homo Erectus
Which hominid was the first to leave Africa and move to Eurpoe & Asia?
Homo Sapien
“wise human being”
Homo Sapien Sapien
” wise wise human being” appread in Africa 200,000 years ago
Neanderthal
Found in Neander Valley in Germany [Hominids].
Neanderthal
Which hominid was the first to bury their dead?
Paleolithic
Greek for “Old Stone” , designates the early period of human history
Nomadic
Moving place to place
1)Fire
2)Making Tools
What were 2 important technological innovations during the Paleolithic Perid?
Neolithic Revolution
Significant change in living patterns that occured in the New Stone Age
Agricultural Revolution
Biggest change from hunting animals (food gathering) as well as food production.
Neolithic Farming Villages
Permanent settlements where crops were grown regularly.
Jericho
What was the earliest Neolithic Farming Village?
Civilization
Complex culture large where large numbers of human beings share common elements
Urban Focus
Where cities are centers of political and economic development
Distinct Religous Structure
Gods were crucial to communities success
Organized government bureaucracy arose to meet administration demands
New Political / Military
Hiearchy
Social Structure based on economic power
Development of Writing
To keep records
Aristic intellectual Activity
To alleviate stress and convey relgious points
What are the 6 tenets of civilization?
1)Urban Focus
2)Distinct Religous Structure
3)New Political/ Military
4)Social Structure Based on Economic Power
5)Development of Writing
6)Artistic & Intellectual Activity
1)Fertile Rivers of Tigris & Euphrates
2)The Nile
3)The Indus (Yellow River)
4)Egypt, India, China
What are the 4 organized areas of emerging civilization?
Mesopotamia
Valley between the rivers
Sumerians
creators of mesopotamian civilization who established independent cities
Ziggurat
Massive stepped tower temple it was the center of the city
Sumerians
Which people inventived mudbrick arches and buildings?
Theocratic
Gods ruled cities (Divine Rule)
Elites, Dependent Commoners, Free Commoners, Slaves
4 major social groups in mesopotamian society?
Slaves
Belonged to palace officials, used in building projects. Non racial
Free Commoners
90% of the population, they worked as farmers, merchants, fishers, srcribes and craftspeople
Elites
Royal and priestly officials and their familes
Dependent Commoners
included the elite’s clients who worked on the palace and temple estates
Akkadian Empire
An ancient empire in mesopotamia
Sargon
Leader of Akkadians who overan summerian city staes and established dynasty rule
Naram-Sin
Sargons succesor and grandson who waged many military campaigns.
Naram- Sin
“King of Four corners”
Ur-Nammu
established a new dynasty that reunifed mesopotamia during the end of the Akkadian Empire
Amorites
Established rule after settling over 200yrs. King Hammurab
King Hammurabi
Established new rule and empire over Sumer and Akkad
“Sun of Babylon”
King Hammurabi
Hammurabi’s Code
Taught an eye for an eye and held public officials responsible for protecting cities; very harsh consequences
Nippur
Earliest center of Sumerian Religion
Enlil, An, Enki, Ninhursga
4 Important Deities of Mesopotamia
Enlil
God of wind and 2nd most powerful in the universe
in charge of wind and an expression of the legitimate use of force
An
God of the Sky and 1st most important in the unvierse
Ninhursaga
Began as goddess of soil, mountains and vegatation
Ninhursaga
Mother of all children
Divination
Relationships with the gods based on subservience and sacrifice
Nile River
Largest river in the world that begins in Afrca
“Black Land”
When the Nile river would flood, the silt that would deposit into the earth was black, therefore gaining its name.
Manetho
The Study of Egyptian history was prived by him who was an egyptian priest and historian who divided Egyptian history into 31 dynasties of kings
Old Kingdom
Consisted of numerous populated ares ruled by tribal chieftans
Meres
First Egyptian royal dynasty who united upper/lower Egypt.
Ma’at
Chief spiritual precept that conveyed the idea of truth and Justice.
Nomarch
Head of each Nome in Egypt
Nome
Provinces that were divded in Egypt
A decline in centralized power and drought
the decline in the Old Kingom
Intermediate Period
the period between the old kingdom and middle kingdom that was engendered because of the fall of the old Kingdom
Amenehmet I
Most of the middle kingdoms history cented arund the 12th dynasty by him
Egyptian Society
Organized along hierachial lines, god and king at the top, members ruled the government and managed their own estates
There was no word for religion because it was a seperate element of the world they were in
What was the word for Religion in Egypt
Sun God
took many forms and was worshipped both forms
Atum
form of the sun god who was worshipped in its human form
Re
Form of the sun god who was worshipped in a human form with a falcon face
Osiris
River/Land Deity
Symbol of Ressurection
Osiris, identifying with Osirus, one could hope to gain a new life
Pyramids
A great achievement by Egyptians, they were used for the storage of bodies
“2 bodies”
Referring to the deceased physical body and spiritual body. Preservation of the physical body granted a well kept spiritual body
Mummification
A 6-7 month process that slows the decaying process of a body by applying natural body salts in bandage type material to preserve the deceased’s spiritual and physical body.
Instablitiy and the Incursion into the delta
What Caused the Fall of the Middle Kingdom
Pharoh Ahmose
defeated the hyskos from Egypt and reunited egypt. Founded the New Kingdom
18th Dynasty
New Kingdom
Thumosis I
expanded Egypts border to the south by conquering the African kingdom of Nubia
Thutmosis III
led 17 military campaigns into Canaan and Phoenicia
Amenhotep IV
introduced worship of Aten, god of the sun disk
Aten
god of the sun disk.
Akhenatun
“Slave of Aten” , the changed name of Amenhotep to encourage his people to follow the new religious followings. He also closed temples to other gods
Tutankhamun
Restored the old gods and assumed the role
Ramses
Gained control over Canaan
Syria and Canaan
2 foreign countries lost under Amenhotep IVs rule