Chapter 1 US History

Chapter 1 US History

Nomadic
Some Native American tribes that moved often for food and water.
Aztec
c. 1200; lived in the Valley of Mexico; later conquered by Cortez.
Anasazi
introduced crops into arid deserts of the Southwest c.300 BC
Pueblo
from Anasazi and Hohokam; architecturally advanced
Iroquois
Northeastern hunters/fishers
Benin
c. 1400 kingdom ruled by a single leader, became a major West African state in the 1400s
Ewuare
Developed Benin City and ruler of Benin
Kongo
Kingdom of smaller kingdoms all ruled by one leader. Based on agriculture; ruled by hereditary monarchy
Islam
monotheistic religion spread through trade routes across North Africa c. 1400
Christianity
teaching from the life of Jesus; spread by Europeans. Clashing of Christianity and Islam lead to Crusades
Reformation
split between protestants and Catholics; took power from the Pope
Renaissance
rebirth of art highlighting the physical world
Christopher Columbus
Spanish explorer looking for a short route to India, landed in Bahamas and settled there. Harsh rule and helped bring together the European, American, and African worlds. In search of God, Gold, and Glory
Taino
people living where Columbus landed
“Nobel Ones”
Wiped out by Columbus and Spanish
Treaty of Tordesillas
Between Spain and Portugal; divided Western Hemisphere between the two countries –> lead to jealousy between other nations.
Columbian Exchange
global transfer of living things (livestock, raw materials, food, disease) from America, Europe, and Africa.
conquistador
Spanish explorers who conquered parts of America
Hernando Cortes
1519 Conquered Aztec empire with advanced army and smallpox/measles. Used Aztecs for mining gold
Montezuma
Aztec emperor; encountered Cortes and the Spanish and saw that they rode horses; assumed that the Spanish were gods. He welcomed them hospitably, but the explorers soon turned on the natives and ruled them for three centuries.
mestizo
mixed Spanish-Native American child, result of Spanish men mating with Native American women
encomienda
Spanish authorities allowed explorers to demand Native labor (very close to slavery for the natives)
New Spain
Mexico and parts of Guatemala
New Mexico
Capital = Santa Fe
Royal Road location; goods traveled between Santa Fe and Mexico City.
John Smith
founder of James Town, came to America for profit; explorer
Jamestown
First permanent English settlement; located in Virginia. Founded by London Company
joint-stock companies
money from English companies and investors to fund American exploration. Failed in some cities that could not find gold (ex. Jamestown)
indentured servants
many of the first English settlers in Americas had to pay off debs with labor for 4-7 years; replaced so by African slaves
puritan
christians who wanted to separate from the Catholic church. Has subgroups of Separatists and Pilgrims. Formed both Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay Colonies
John Winthrop
founder (with Puritans) of Massachusetts Bay Colony. Founded for religious spreading and as a model for other colonies. “City upon a hill”
King Phillip’s War
War between the Native American tribes of New England and British colonists that took place from 1675-1676. Was the result of tension caused by encroaching white settlers. The chief of the Wampanoags lead the natives. The war ended Indian resistance in New England and left a hatred of whites.
William Penn
was owed money from King Charles and was payed off by getting land. Founder of Pennsylvania
Quaker
Lead by William Penn, religious tolerance
mercantilism
An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
Navigation Acts
Only English ships could trade with English colonies, ¾ of crew on ships must be english, all ships going to English colonies must pass through an English port, and an exclusivity on certain raw materials put a type of monopoly on trade and benefitted both England and America.
triangular trade
routes between America, West Indies, and West Africa trading rum, raw materials, and slaves
middle passage
trading African slaves to West Indies (from there they went to America)
Enlightenment
Emphasis on questions + nature; science over religion; questions church and politics (TJ)
Benjamin Franklin
American ENLIGHTENMENT figure who was a scientist and inventor
Great Awakening
Puritan influence waning (due to religious tolerance), wanted to bring back Puritan goals
Religious revival in the American colonies of the eighteenth century during which a number of new Protestant churches were established.
Jonathan Edwards
Preacher during the First Great Awakening; “Sinners in the hands of angry god”, not enough to just come to church (must live by the church)
French and Indian War
(1754-1763) fought in the colonies between the English and the French for possession of the Ohio Valley area. The English won. French enlisted the help of Native alliances
William Pitt
British Minister determined to expel French from North America during 7 years war
Pontiac
Chief native who captured eight British forts in the Ohio Valley and Great Lakes area; in response, British wiped them out with disease
Proclamation of 1763
established a line along the Appalachians that the colonists could not cross; gave Natives a piece of land. British DID cross and expand West.