Chapter 10 US History 1

Industry 1850s North
Railroads carry raw materials east, manufactures and settlers west
– small towns quickly become cities
– telegraph wires provide fast communication
1850s North Immigration
Immigrants become industrial workers, fear expansion of slavery
– slave labor might compete with free labor
– could reduce status of white workers unable to compete
Slavery in the South
Few immigrants; free, enslaved African Americans meet labor needs
In 3 states, blacks are majority; in 2, are half of population
Whites fear restriction of slavery will change society, economy
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Agriculture in the South
South predominantly rural, mostly plantations and small farms
Economy relies on cash crops; manufacture under 10% of U.S. goods
The Wilmot Proviso
1846; no slavery in territory acquired from Mexico
North slave territory
slave territory adds slave states; no jobs for free workers
South slave territory
slaves are property under Constitution; fear more free states
The Compromise of 1850
Henry Clay offers this to settle disputes over slavery; it is
a series of five statues shepherded to passage by Stephen A. Douglas, was approved in September
The Compromise of 1850 included:
– called for the admittance of California as a free state,
– set the present boundaries for Texas,
– allowed the territories of New Mexico and Utah to be organized on the basis of popular sovereignty,
– strengthened the fugitive slave law,
– abolished the slave trade in Washington D.C.
Results of the Compromise of 1850
– Slave states were now outnumbered so the North controlled the Senate and the House of Representatives.
– The Compromise of 1850 sowed seeds for Civil War even though it delayed it for ten years.
– The delay of the war turned out to be good for the North and bad for the South.
Henry Clay
His Accomplishments:
The Great Compromiser
Missouri Compromise
Nullification Crisis
Compromise of 1850
Terms of the Compromise
Compromise has provisions to appease North and South:
– California to be a free state
– more effective fugitive slave law
– popular sovereignty—residents of territory vote to decide slavery
– government to pay Texas $10 million for its claim to eastern NM
– slave trade banned in D.C. but slavery permitted
Clay gives speech begging North and South to compromise, save Union
Daniel Webster
He said, “I wish to speak today not as a Massachusetts man, nor as a Northern man, but as an American, and a member of the Senate of the United States.”
John Calhoun
He said “see how two peoples so different and hostile can exist together in one common Union.”
Stephen A. Douglas
He reintroduces resolutions individually
Millardd Fillmore
Taylors successor; supported the comprise
Fugitive Slave Act
part of Compromise of 1850, has very harsh terms
• Alleged fugitives denied jury trial, right to testify on own behalf
• Federal commissioners paid more for returning than freeing accused
• People convicted of helping a fugitive fined, imprisoned, or both
Personal liberty laws
forbid prison for fugitives, grant jury trials
Underground Railroad
secret network of people who help slaves escape
Harriet Tubman
– escapes from slavery, becomes
“conductor” on 19 trips
– “Moses”
– Helped over 300 slaves to freedom.
– $40,000 bounty on her head.
– Served as a Union spy during the Civil War.
William Stills
Abolitionist and Conductor of the Underground Railroad
PAS
Assisted Free Black Population of Philadelphia through education and jobs
Harriet Beecher Stowe
1811 – 1896;
– “So this is the lady who started the Civil War.” – Abraham Lincoln
– Her book, Uncle Tom’s Cabin, stirs protest
Uncle Tom’s Cabin
– This book shows slavery as moral problem, not just political
– Lincoln once noted….”The Book That Made This Great War”
Kansas-Nebraska Act
1854; allows popular sovereignty on slavery
John Brown
an abolitionist described by one historian as “a man made of the stuff of saints.” He believed that God called him to fight slavery
– Martyr, Mad-Man, Hero?
Franklin Pierce
Democrat; elected president in 1852
Nativism
belief in favoring native-born Americans over immigrants
Know-Nothing Party
Nativists form American Party (1854)
Liberty Party
pursues abolition through laws; affects 1844 election
Free-Soil Party
opposes extension of slavery into territories.
Horace Greeley
abolitionist, helps found Republican party
Republican Party
1854, unhappy Whigs, Democrats, Free-Soilers, Know-nothings, abolitionists
The 1856 Election
Republicans select John C. Frémont
Democrat James Buchanan elected; secession averted
Dred Scott
slave who had lived in free areas sues for freedom
Chief Justice Roger B. Taney
1857, hands down decision
– slaves do not have rights of citizens
– no claim to freedom, suit begun in slave state
– Congress cannot forbid slavery in territories
The Lecompton Constitution
– Proslavery Kansas government writes this constitution, seeks statehood
– Referendum votes down constitution; President Buchanan endorses it
– Stephen Douglas gets second referendum; voters reject it again
Douglas’s Freeport Doctrine
elect leaders who do not enforce slavery
Harpers Ferry
1859, leads band to federal arsenal in this to get arms
Southern Secession
*South Carolina and 6 other states secede:
– want complete independence from federal control
– fear end to their way of life
– want to preserve slave labor system
The Election of 1860
– Democrats split over slavery
– Lincoln wins with less than half of popular vote
The Republican Convention
Overflowing crowds attend presidential convention in Chicago.
Confederacy
permits slavery, recognizes each state’s sovereignty
Jefferson Davis
Former senator unanimously elected president during confederacy.
James Buchanan
calls secesssion illegal
John C. Frémont
the famed “Pathfinder “who had mapped the Oregon trail and led the troops into California during the war with Mexico
Middle-class Protestants
Afraid of Catholicism and Catholics coming from Ireland
Umberella
used to symbolize the Republicans who believed in one thing, everyone supports ending the expansion of slavery.
Cotton Industry
– Because of the boom in the this, slavery is critical in the South
– North uses the South’s cotton
Cotton Mills
beginning of technology

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