Chapter 11: The Roman Phase Ap World History

Chapter 11: The Roman Phase Ap World History

Patricians
Roman aristocrats and wealthy classes.
Etruscans
Northern Italian society that initially dominated the Romans; the Etruscans helped convey Greek concepts to the expanding Romans.
Essenes
Jewish sect that looked for the arrival of a savior; they were similar in some of their core beliefs to the early Christians.
Pax Romana
“Roman Peace,” a term that relates to the period of political stability, cultural brilliance, and economic prosperity beginning with unification under Augustus and lasting through the first two centuries C.E.
Latifundia
Huge state-run and slave-worked farms in ancient Rome.
Pater familias
Roman term for the “father of the family,” a theoretical implication that gave the male head of the family almost unlimited authority.
Mithras
sun god. Mithraism mystery religion based on worship; it became popular among the Romans because of its promise of salvation
Paul of Tarsus
he was the principal figure in the development of Christianity from a Jewish sect to an independent religious faith
Jesus of Nazarath
christianity first emerged as a sect of Judaism accepted by only a small number of individuals who regarded ____ ___ ______ as a savior for the Jewish community.
Romulus
This guy founded the city of Rome ad established himself as first king. Had a twin named Remus.They didn’t almost survive infancy because an evil uncle abandoned them by the flooded Tiber river, fully expecting them to drown or die of exposure. A she-wolf found them and nursed them to health. They were strong and courageous.
Aeneas
a refugee from Troy who migrated to Italy when Greek invaders destroyed his native land.
Consuls
elected by an assembly dominated by members of an elite class determined by birth known as the patricians, and they served one-year terms.
Plebeians
there was constant tension between the hereditary elites and the common people
Tribune
the patricians granted plebeians the right to elect officials. They represent their interests in the Roman Government.
Twelve tables
Patricians made a further concession to plebeians by promulgating Rome’s first set of laws, which drew upon Greek laws in establishing a framework for the social organization of the Roman state. It served as the foundation for a long tradition of Roman law making.
Dictator
When faced with civil or military crises, the Roman Senate appointed an official, who wielded absolute power for a term of six months.
Gauls
a powerful Celtic people who on several occasions invaded Italy.
Sicily
carthage became the dominant political power in the western region of grain-rich _______. The most important source of grain in the western Mediterranean.
Carthaginians
natives of the ancient city Carthage. They struggled for supremacy in the region with Romans.
Gaius Gracchus
Had a brother named tiberus. He was the chief proponents of social reform in the roman republic along with his brother. They worked to limit the amount of conquered land that any individual could hold. They had little success because most members of the wealthy and ruling classes considered them dangerous radicals and found ways to stymie their efforts. There enemies executed ____ on trumped-up charges in 121 B.C.E.
Gaius Marius
general who sided with social reformers who advocated redistribution of land
Lucas Cornelius Sulla
a veteran of several foreign campaigns who allied with the conservative and aristocratic classes.
Punic Wars
war between Romans and Carthaginians. The romans won.
Gaul
helped to precipitate a political crisis
Julius Caesar
Roman statesmen and general and roman emperor. stabbed
Tiberius Gracchus
has a brother named gaius gracchus. they worked to limit the amount of conquered land that any individual could hold.
Augustus Caesar
Julius Caesar’s nephew/adopted son. His real name is Octavian. He defeated his principal rival, Mark anthony, His name was changed because of a term with strong religious connotations suggesting the divine or semidivine nature of its holder.
Mark anthony
He was augustus’s rival. He joined forces with Cleopatra.
Cleopatra
last of the Ptolemaic rulers of Egypt.
Actium
naval battle at ______ in Greece (31 B.C.E.), octavian defeated his principal rival, mark anthony, who had joined forces with cleopatra, last of the Ptolemaic rulers of Egypt.
Spartacus
Escaped slave assembled an army of seventy thousand rebellious slaves.
Jupiter
was the principal god, lord of the heavens.
Mars
was the god of war.
Stoicism
The most prominent school lof thought in Hellenistic Greece. They recognized that they lived in a large and interdependent world. They sought to identify a set of universal moral standards based on nature and reason that would transcend local ethical codes.
Marcus Tullius Cicero
(106-43 B.C.E.) he was a thinker. He was readily adopted Stoic values. He studied in Greece and became thoroughly acquainted with both classical and Hellenstic schools of thought. He was a persuasive orator, and he wrote clear, elegant, polished Latin prose.
Testudo
the tortoise
Jews
only recognized one god Yahweh, as divine and Romans had a problem with that
Christ “the annointed one”
the savior who would bring individuals into the kingdom of God. They thought that he was the son of God and that his sacrifice served to offset the sins of those who had faith in him.
Rome
capital of the ancient city. Italy
Persians
a citizen of persia
Judaism
the monotheistic religion of the Jews, having its ethical, ceremonial, and legal foundation in the precepts of the Old Testament and in the teachings and commentaries
epicureanism
the philosophical system or doctrine of Epicurus, holding that the external world is a series of fortuitous combinations of atoms and that the highest good is pleasure, interpreted as freedom from disturbance or pain.
Tacitus
roman historian