Chapter 13 AP World History Vocabulary

Chapter 13 AP World History Vocabulary

Bakufu
Military government established by the Minamoto following the Gempei Wars; centered at Kamakura; retained emperor, but real power resided in military government and samurai.
Fujiwara
Japanese aristocratic family in mid-9th century; exercised exceptional influence over imperial affairs; aided in decline of imperial power.
Tea Ceremony
An ancient ritual for preparing and serving and drinking tea, practiced by the Samurai to enhance concentration and self- control.
Kamakura Shogunate
The first of Japan’s decentralized military governments. (1185-1333).
Son of Heaven
Title of the ruler of China, first known from the Zhou dynasty. It acknowledges the ruler’s position as intermediary between heaven and earth.
Nguyen
Rival Vietnamese dynasty that arose in southern Vietnam to challenge traditional dynasty of Trinh in north at Hanoi; kingdom centered on Red and Mekong rivers; capital at Hue.
Le Dynasty
The longest ruling Vietnamese dynasty. Drawing on Confucian principles, its rulers increased the size and strength of the Vietnamese state and promoted agricultural productivity.
Kumsong
Capital of Korea in the Medieval Era modeled after the Chinese capital of Chang’an.
Paekche
Independent Korean kingdom in southeastern part of peninsula; defeated by rival Silla kingdom and its Chinese Tang allies in 7th century.
Trung Sisters
Leaders of one of the frequent peasant rebellions in Vietnam against Chinese rule; revolt broke out in 39 c.e.; demonstrates importance of Vietnamese women in indigenous society.
Taika Reforms
Attempt to remake Japanese monarch into an absolute Chinese-style emperor; included attempts to create professional bureaucracy and peasant conscript army.
Tale of Genji
Story of Prince Genji and his lovers, written by Lady Murasaki Shikibu at end of 11th century, world’s first full novel.
Zen Monasteries
Monasteries where monks practiced Zen Buddhism.
Shoguns
Military leaders of Japan during its feudal era and the actual powers behind the emperor until the Meiji restoration. Leaders of the Bakufu.
Kuya
Early propagator of Pure Land. Was a dancing monk and entertainer; went around singing and dancing. Wore bells, drums, taught ecstatic worship, appealed to the masses.
Ho Xuan Huong
One of the most famous of Vietnamese women who wrote poetry, and flouts Confucian decorum and mocks her male suitors.
Onin War
War between rival heirs of Ashikaga Shogunate; fought between 1467 and 1477; led to warfare between rival headquarters and Kyoto and destruction of old capital.
Koguryo
Tribal people of northern Korea; established an independent kingdom in the northern half of the peninsula; adopted cultural Sinification.
Trinh
Dynasty that ruled in north Vietnam at Hanoi, 1533 to 1772; rivals of Nguyen family in South.
Viets
The Vietnamese people, called “southern barbarians” by the Chinese.
Koryo
Korean kingdom founded in 918 and destroyed by a Mongol invasion in 1259.
Samurai
Feudal Japanese military aristocracy; big importance on loyalty, honesty.
Heian
Capital city of Japan under the Yamato emperors, later called Kyoto; built in order to escape influence of Buddhist monks; patterned after ancient imperial centers of China; never fully populated.
Bushi
Regional warrior leaders in Japan; ruled small kingdoms from fortresses; administered the law, supervised public works projects, and collected revenues; built up private armies.
Minamoto
Defeated the rival Taira family in Gempei Wars and established military government (bakufu) in 12th century Japan.
Hanoi
Capital of Vietnam after reunification; capital of independent North Vietnam during the war.
Daimyo
A Japanese feudal lord who commanded a private army of samurai.
Khmers
Indianized rivals of the Vietnamese; moved into Mekong River delta region at time of Vietnamese drive to the south.
Sinification
Extensive adaptation of Chinese culture in other regions; typical of Korea and Japan, less typical of Vietnam.
Nara
Japan’s first true city; it was established in 710 north of modern Osaka.
Tribute System
A system in which defeated peoples were forced to pay a tax in the form of goods and labor. This forced transfer of food, cloth, and other goods subsidized the development of large cities.
Seppuku
Ritual suicide or disembowelment in Japan; commonly known in West as hara-kiri; demonstrated courage and a means to restore family honor.
Yoritomo
Leader of the Minamoto clan and became the supreme military leader of Japan when he defeated the only remaining powerful clan; was granted the title of shogun; created a warrior state ruled by military.
Emperor Kammu
Started the heian period. Kicked Buddhists out of the city. Stopped Taika reforms.
Ryoanji Temple
Zen Buddhist temple (in Kyoto), design of garden consists of islands of volcanic rock set amidst white pebbles.
Kami
One the Shinto deities (including mythological beings, spirits of distinguished men, forces of nature.
Chams
Indianized rivals of the Vietnamese; driven into the highlands by the successful Vietnamese drive to the south.
Silla
Independent Korean kingdom in southeastern part of peninsula; defeated Koguryo along with their Chinese Tang allies; submitted as a vassal of the Tang emperor and agreed to tribute payment; ruled united Korea by 668.
Middle Kingdom
Refers to China because the people believed that their land stood between heaven and earth.
Shintoism
Religion located in Japan and related to Buddhism. Shintoism focuses particularly on nature and ancestor worship.
Yi
Korean dynasty that succeeded Koryo dynasty following period of Mongol invasions; established in 1392; ruled Korea to 1910; restored aristocratic dominance and Chinese influence.
Gumpei Wars
Waged for five years from 1180 on Honshu between the Taira and Minamoto families; ended in destruction of Taira.
Kama Kura
Rule in Japan before Minamoto. First Shogunate.`
Yoshitsune
In 1185, he wins a decisive naval battle at Dannoura and defeats the Taira.