What were the results of the Fourth crusade?
/instead of reaching the holy land, the knights looted Constantinople.
What was the purpose of the reconquista/
The spanish were trying to drive the Muslims out of Spain
By how much did the three-field system increase the amount of land that could be farmde each year?
two-thirds instead of half
What functions did the craft guilds form?
They were skilled artisans who set standards for quality of work, wages, and working conditions.
who rights did the Magna Carta oginially intend to defend?
What did the decisions of the english royal courts of justice create?
How did the battle of Hastings change the course if English history?
It resulted in a Norman becoming king instead of an anglo-saxon. It layed the foundation for a centralized government.
How was the Great Schism finally resolved?
The council finally got all three popes to resign and then chose a new pope.
What were John Wycliff’s main complaints about the church?
He was offended by the worldliness and wealth many clergy displayed. He believed clergy should own no land or wealth.
What was the most important effect of the hundred years’ war?
It pretty much signaled the end of the middle ages.
How did the crusades and the great schism change the balance of power in medeival europe?
They both increased the power of kings. Failures of crusades and poor choices of pope caused people to be dissappointed and have less trust in the church. This weakened power of the papacy.
How did english government change during the late middle ages, and what caused those changes?
They wanted a democratic government and to strengthen government power against the nobles and church. The creation of common law, parliament and signing the Magna Carta all contributed.
-The english king who led the third crusade
Richard the lion-hearted
-the practice of selling positions in the church
-the founder of franciscans and co of poor clares
st. Francis of Assisi
-the pope who issued the call for the first crusade
-the organized effort to drive the Muslims out of Spain
-the most famous and respected miuslim leader of his age
-the crusade that resulted in the looting of constantinople by western christians
-the church court used in spain to persecute jews and muslims
-the arcitectural style most closely associated with the age of faith
-the style of arcitecture intended to achieve greater light and height
-the crusade that failed in its goal of recapturing the crusader state of eddessa from the turks
-the crusade thast eresulted in teh capture of jerusalem by the christians and the creation of the four crusader states
-the crusade that resulted in the signing of a truce and an agreement to allow christian pilgrims to visit jerusalem
//the church was weakened when pope clement V began the pracice of locating the popes residence in paris
//the great schism involved a dispute over who was the true ruler of France
//the bubonic plague killed approximately 1/3 of population in europe
//the scholar John Wycliff preached that jesus Christ is the true head of the church
//the french troops who broke the siege of Orleans were led into battle by King Charles VI
//thomas aquinas was burned at the stake as a heretic for teaching that the bible had greater authority than the pope
//the most effective fighters at the battles of Crecy, Politiers, and Agincourt, were the English longbowmen
//when pope boniface VIII declared that monarchs must always obey popes, king philip IV of France had the pope excommunicated
What was the chief goal of the crusades?
To gain control of the holy land.
What problem was identified by church reformers during the middle ages?
Many village priests married and had families, the practice of simony, and the practice of lay investiture.
What was the effect of teh three-field system?
Food production increased so villagers had more to eat. This increased population because well fed people could better resist diseases and live longer.
What did the magna carta guarantee?
certain basic political rights
Which group was most responsible for the spread of the bubonic plague to europe?
It was brought to Europe on Genoese merchant trading ships.
Which of the following was the central issue of the hundred years’ war?
Edward III wanted to win the French throne.
What was the major cause of the great schism?
they had two very different popes, living in two different places.
During the lare middle ages, where were serfs most likelt to search for freedom?
Towns and cities because they could usually get better wages and make a better life for themselves. they were considered free if they lived in a town for a year and a day.
//Vernacular is the common diet of a place or region
//When the harness was improved. oxen could be successfully used for plowing and for pulling wagons.
//in the middle ages, men who studied together at the great universities were known as scholastics.
//Thomas Aquinas is known for scholarly work that combined Christian belief with the ideas of the best thinkers of ancient Babbylon