Chapter 15 Practice Quiz

Chapter 15 Practice Quiz

Demography is the study of the size and composition of a society’s population
True
To calculate a crude birth rate, divide the number of live births in a year into the total population and multiply the result by 1,000
True
The crude birth rate in North America is lower than that for Asia
True
The crude death rate is the most widely used measure of a society’s population decline
False
The infant mortality rate for African Americans is more than twice as high as it is for white people
True
The average life expectancy for U.S. children born today is about sixty years
False
People’s movement out of a territory is called immigration
False
The forced transport of 10 million slaves from Africa to the Americas is an example of involuntary migration
True
Most people migrate due to a combination of “push-pull” factors
True
An annual growth rate of about 2% will cause a society’s population to double in about thirty-five years
True
In many low-income nations, parents value sons more than daughters, which explains why the age-sex ratio in these nations may be higher than 100
True
Thomas Robert Malthus expected population to increase according to an arithmetic progression
False
Environmental racism is a pattern by which environmental hazards are greatest for the poor, especially poor minorities
True
For decades, China has regulated fertility with a “one-child” policy
True
A metropolis is a large city that socially and economically dominates an urban area
True
Durkheim’s concept of mechanical solidarity parallels Tönnie’s concept of Gemeinschaft
True
George Simmel claimed that urbanites are so interested in each other’s lives that there is little privacy in cities
False
Because our planet is mostly covered with oceans, there is no shortage of fresh water
False
At the present rate of loss, almost all of the rain forests will be gone by the end of this century
True
In general, the way of life of people living in low-income nations causes much more harm to the environment than the way of life of people living in high-income nations does
False
By 2012, the world is home to about how many people?
7 billion
Fertility refers to
The incidence of childbearing in a nation’s population
Which of the following concepts refers to the maximum possible childbearing women?
Fecundity
Which of the following concepts refers to the number of live births in a given year for every 1,000 people in a population?
Crude birth rate
One region of the world has both the highest birth rate and the highest infant mortality rate. Which is it?
Asia
In global perspective, the crude birth rate of high income nations such as the United States is
Below average
Among which of the following categories of the U.S. population is fertility low?
Asia American
Which of the following four statements about migration is NOT true?
Migration has little or no effect on population size
Looking at countries around the world, what is the relationship between average income level and rate of population increase?
The lower the average income, the greater the population increase
The demographic measure called the “sex-ratio” refers to
The number of males for every 100 females in the population
Why are sex ratios usually below 100?
Because women typically outlive men
If a nation has a sex ratio of 108, as India does, it is very likely that parents there
Value sons more than daughters
If you were to examine an age-sex pyramid for a low-income nation, you would expect to see which of the following patterns?
A wide base, indicating a high birth rate
Throughout most of human history, families had many children because
All of these responses are correct
Which of the following is evidence of the shortage of a fresh water not found around the world?
All of these responses are correct
Currently, about how much of the global population increase is taking place in low-income nations?
98%
Malthusian argued that
All of these responses are correct
The basic idea behind demographic transition theory is
Population patterns reflect a society’s level of technological development
Mounting evidence suggests that the average temperature of the planet is
Rising
In the United States, the birth rate is currently
At about the replacement level
The concept “zero population growth” refers to the level of reproduction that
Maintains population at a steady level
Which of the following statements expresses the “limits to growth” thesis?
We are rapidly consuming the Earth’s finite resources
In most poor nations of the world today, what is the average number of children born to a woman?
Three
In low-income countries, increasing opportunities available to women are likely to
All of these are correct
The concept “environmental deficit” refers to
Long-term harm to the environment caused by a short-sighted focus on material affluence
Urban decentralization has led to
All of these responses are corrections
If you were to compare Sunbelt cities, such as Houston, to Snowbelt, such as Detroit, what differences would you find?
Sunbelt cities generally have larger populations and are larger in physical size
Which of the following concepts refers to the study of the interaction of living organisms and the natural environment?
Ecology
According to Emile Durkheim, while traditional, rural societies were built on ___, modern urban societies are held together by ___
Likeness; difference