Chapter 15 Quiz

The class of disorders that are marked by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and deterioration of adaptive behavior is known as

A. anxiety disorder.
B. schizophrenic disorders.
C. dissociative disorders.
D. personality disorders.

B
Seligman’s concept of preparedness BEST accounts for the development of

A. obsessive-compulsive disorder.
B. posttraumatic stress disorder.
C. an elevator phobia.
D. a spider phobia.

D
Brain-imaging studies of people with schizophrenia show all of the following EXCEPT

A. reduced white matter.
B. reduced gray matter.
C. enlarged vertricles.
D. increased myelinization.

D
We will write a custom essay sample on
Chapter 15 Quiz
or any similar topic only for you
Order now
Which of the following has NOT been proposed as a factor associated with the development of schizophrenic disorders?

A. Neurological damage during prenatal development
B. Inadequate social skills
C. Excessive levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine
D. Structural abnormalities in the brain

B
Typically, an individual who has which of the following anxiety disorders would be MOST successful in controlling her anxiety?

A. Phobic disorder
B. Posttraumatic stress disorder
C. Panic disorder
D. Generalized anxiety disorder

A
The conditioning and learning explanation for the etiology of anxiety disorders BEST accounts for the development and maintenance of

A. phobic disorder.
B. panic disorder.
C. posttraumatic stress disorder.
D. generalized anxiety disorder.

A
Which of the following symptoms is NOT associated with someone who has a bipolar disorder?

A. Hallucinations
B. Sexually reckless behavior
C. Inflated self-esteem
D. Decreased need for sleep

A
The difference between a phobia and a normal fear is that a phobia

A. only takes place when the actual object is present.
B. interferes with everyday behavior.
C. involves a cognitive component as well as behavioral responses.
D. is characterized by an increase in heart rate.

B
Hope often sits for hours in extremely rigid positions; during these times, she seems to lose contact with the external world and does not respond to people who try to speak to her. At other times, she becomes extremely hyperactive and rambles on incoherently. Hope’s symptoms are MOST consistent with those seen in

A. paranoid schizophrenia.
B. catatonic schizophrenia.
C. disorganized schizophrenia.
D. undifferentiated schizophrenia.

B
According to Susan Nolen-Hoeksema, depressed people who tend to ruminate about their depression

A. recover from their depression quicker.
B. remain depressed longer.
C. attribute their setbacks to situational factors and not to their personal flaws.
D. attribute their setbacks to their personal flaws instead of situational factors.

B
About what percentage of people who complete suicide suffered from some type of psychological disorder?

A. 70%
B. 30%
C. 90%
D. 50%

C
Which of the following is NOT a common symptom of posttraumatic stress disorder?

A. Emotional numbing
B. Irrational thought
C. Nightmares and flashbacks
D. Problems in social relations

B
Theorists who believe that dissociative identity disorder is an authentic disorder argue that cases of the disorder are rooted in

A. extreme stress.
B. intentional role playing.
C. a severe emotional trauma that occurred in childhood.
D. torture by a satanic cult.

C
Prior to the 18th century, people who exhibited abnormal behavior were thought to be

A. possessed by evil spirits and were treated through exorcism.
B. mentally ill and were treated through verbal psychotherapy.
C. possessed by evil spirits and were treated through drug therapy.
D. mentally ill and were treated through exorcism.

A
The Featured Study “Does Negative Thinking Cause Depression?” found that participants who

A. were depressed were less likely to develop a negative cognitive style.
B. were depressed were more likely to develop a negative cognitive style.
C. exhibited a negative cognitive style were more likely to develop depression.
D. exhibited a negative cognitive style were less likely to develop depression.

C
Ohman and Mineka’s concept of the “evolved module for fear learning” is an update of the notion of

A. preparedness.
B. posttraumatic stress.
C. heritability.
D. reaction range.

A
Which of the following statements is LEAST accurate?

A. Depressed people tend to be evaluated negatively by others.
B. There is no relationship between depression and environmental stress.
C. Depressed people gravitate toward people who reinforce their negative views of themselves.
D. Correlations have been found between poor social skills and depression.

B
Recent research has revealed that depressed patients have elevated levels of

A. cortisol.
B. cerebrospinal fluid.
C. serotonin.
D. dopamine.

A
The concordance rate for mood disorders has been found to be about 67% among identical twins and 17% among fraternal twins. These data suggest that mood disorders

A. are caused in part by genetic factors.
B. have an onset at an early age.
C. are due primarily to family environment.
D. are caused primarily by stress.

A
Four years have passed since the death of Bill’s eldest son, and Bill still experiences bouts of depression and anxiety when he thinks about the tragic accident that led to his son’s death. This lingering depression and anxiety is characteristic of

A. burnout.
B. amotivational syndrome.
C. Type A behavior.
D. posttraumatic stress disorder.

D
Children born to two schizophrenic parents have what likelihood of developing the disorder themselves?

A. About a 46% chance
B. About a 66% chance
C. More than a 90% chance
D. Less than a 35% chance

A
The concordance rate for mood disorders has been found to be about 67% among identical twins and 17% among fraternal twins. These data suggest that mood disorders

A. are caused in part by genetic factors.
B. have an onset at an early age.
C. are due primarily to family environment.
D. are caused primarily by stress.

A
Which pair of classes of psychological disorders listed below BOTH show a weak influence of genetic factors on the development of the disorder?

A. Schizophrenic and somatoform disorders
B. Eating disorders and dissociative disorders
C. Mood and schizophrenic disorders
D. Anxiety and dissociative disorders

B
A “John Doe” walked into the police station and reported that he had an unusual problem. He could not remember anything about himself: not where he lived or worked or even his name. The police took him to the local hospital where he was evaluated and found to have no physical injuries. “John Doe’s” symptoms are MOST consistent with

A. schizophrenic disorder.
B. dissociative amnesia.
C. dissociative identity disorder.
D. dissociative fugue.

D
In determining the probabilities associated with comorbidity (the coexistence of two or more psychological disorders), epidemiologists would need to work with

A. conjunctive probabilities.
B. cumulative probabilities.
C. disjunctive probabilities.
D. point prevalence rates.

A
The neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia suggests that schizophrenia may be caused, in part, by

A. abnormal levels of dopamine and serotonin in the cerebral cortex.
B. genetic factors that interact with environmental stressors during infancy.
C. disruptions in the normal maturational process of the brain before or at birth.
D. low levels of expressed emotion in the family of the schizophrenic patient.

C
Jazmine has just returned home after receiving treatment for schizophrenia. The clinician who is supervising her case is aware that Jazmine’s family is high in expressed emotion. Under these conditions, Jazmine

A. has a low risk of relapse.
B. is likely to develop symptoms of bipolar disorder.
C. will need little or no medication because she will have high levels of social support.
D. has a high risk of relapse.

D
Which of the following symptoms is NOT associated with someone who has a bipolar disorder?

A. Sexually reckless behavior
B. Inflated self-esteem
C. Hallucinations
D. Decreased need for sleep

C
Alvin suffers from both major depression and generalized anxiety disrder. Alvin’s diagnoses illustrate that mental disorders can be

A. confounded.
B. comorbid.
C. categorical.
D. epidemiological.

B
The class of disorders in which people lose contact with portions of their consciousness or memory, resulting in disruptions in their sense of identity, is known as

A. dissociative disorders.
B. psychosomatic disorders.
C. anxiety disorders.
D. somatoform disorders.

A
Behavior that causes anxiety or concern for the affected individual may be considered to be

A. maladaptive.
B. insane.
C. personally distressing.
D. deviant.

C
Suicide rates are HIGHEST among people with which of the following specific disorders?

A. Generalized anxiety
B. Depression
C. Schizophrenia
D. Bipolar disorder

D
Which of the following is a mood disorder?

A. Panic disorder
B. Fugue
C. Conversion disorder
D. Bipolar disorder

D
The subtype of schizophrenia marked by a striking impairment of psychomotor activity ranging from muscular rigidity to random motor activity is known as

A. hebephrenic.
B. paranoid.
C. disorganized.
D. catatonic.

D
MOST authentic cases of dissociative identity disorder have in common a background of

A. extremely distorted communication patterns in the family.
B. extremely overprotective parents.
C. a traumatic childhood characterized by physical, emotional, or sexual abuse.
D. having been reinforced for “crazy” behavior.

C
Stuart feels like he has been worrying constantly for the past four months. He is worried about making his car payments, losing his job, and how his children are doing in school. He has also started to experience dizziness and occasional heart palpitations. In this case, Stuart’s symptoms are MOST consistent with

A. hypochondriasis.
B. obsessive-compulsive disorder.
C. panic disorder.
D. generalized anxiety disorder.

D
The study of the incidence and distribution of mental or physical disorders within a population defines the discipline known as

A. psychobiology.
B. etiology.
C. demography.
D. epidemiology.

D
Which of the following statements is NOT correct? The separate personalities that coexist in an individual with dissociative identity disorder

A. are usually all aware of the existence of the other personalities.
B. may switch from one personality to another suddenly.
C. may differ in age, sex, or race.
D. may have their own name, personality traits, and physical mannerisms.

A
According to Seligman’s concept of “preparedness,” which of the following stimuli should one develop a phobia toward MOST easily?

A. Certain numbers
B. Chairs
C. Monkeys
D. Heights

D
With regard to age, suicides peak in the

A. age group over 75 years old.
B. group between the ages of 55 and 65.
C. age group under 20 years old.
D. group between the ages of 30 and 40.

A
Which of the following statements is LEAST accurate?

A. There is no relationship between depression and environmental stress.
B. Correlations have been found between poor social skills and depression.
C. Depressed people tend to be evaluated negatively by others.
D. Depressed people gravitate toward people who reinforce their negative views of themselves.

A
Which of the following symptoms is NOT associated with a depressive disorder?

A. Insomnia
B. Altered appetite
C. Feelings of worthlessness
D. Impulsive behavior

D
Dr. Smith is a psychiatrist who argues that different diagnoses represent similar underlying psychological symptoms. Dr. Smith is therefore likely to argue for a(n) _________ approach to diagnosis.

A. epidemiological
B. comorbid
C. dimensional
D. categorical

C
According to Seligman, people who exhibit a ____ explanatory style are especially vulnerable to depression.

A. histrionic
B. ruminative
C. narcissistic
D. pessimistic

D
Several studies have found an elevated incidence of schizophrenia among individuals whose mothers

A. drank heavily during the second trimester of their pregnancy.
B. were exposed to high levels of stress during the second trimester of their pregnancy.
C. were exposed to influenza during the second trimester of their pregnancy.
D. took narcotic drugs during the second trimester of their pregnancy.

C
Personality disorders are characterized by

A. extremely inconsistent behavior across a variety of situations.
B. hallucinations and delusions.
C. an inability to function outside of a hospital setting.
D. extreme, inflexible personality traits.

D
While walking through a shopping center, you suddenly have an intense feeling of dread, notice your heart beating strongly, feel like you are suffocating, and find yourself running for the nearest exit. You would be exhibiting symptoms of

A. panic disorder.
B. mania.
C. acrophobia.
D. schizophrenia.

A
Abnormalities in neural circuits that use ____ have recently been implicated in panic and obsessive-compulsive disorders.

A. acetylcholine
B. endorphin
C. serotonin
D. dopamine

C
Dr. Cummings believes that psychological disorders can be diagnosed, treated, and possibly cured, just like physical illnesses. Dr. Cummings’ views reflect the point of view suggested by

A. the behavioral model of abnormal behavior.
B. the deviance model of abnormal behavior.
C. the psychodynamic model of abnormal behavior.
D. the medical model of abnormal behavior.

D
Use of marijuana may precipitate schizophrenia in young people who use it by amplifying neurotransmitter activity in the

A. serotonin circuits.
B. norepinephrine circuits.
C. dopamine circuits.
D. endorphin circuits.

C
A person who perceives stimuli that aren’t there is said to have

A. obsessions.
B. hallucinations.
C. delusions.
D. illusions.

V
Dr. Underhill is reviewing the records from a patient who has just been referred for treatment. He is carefully considering the symptoms that have been documented and is attempting to identify the type of psychological disorder the individual is most likely to have. Dr. Underhill is currently focusing on

A. histology.
B. etiology.
C. prognosis.
D. diagnosis.

D
Earlier age of onset of depression is associated with

A. less chronic symptoms.
B. less severe symptoms.
C. less impairment in occupational functioning.
D. greater comorbidity.

D
Summer has anorexia nervosa and is slowly starving herself to death. However, when friends or family tell her to seek professional help, she tells them that she feels fine. She can’t understand why people won’t just leave her alone. In this example, Summer’s eating disorder would MOST likely be considered

A. culturally deviant.
B. maladaptive.
C. delusional.
D. personally distressing.

B
The apparent causation and developmental history of an illness is referred to as its

A. etiology.
B. diagnosis.
C. prognosis.
D. epidemiology.

A
Sarah is a 23-year-old woman whose sister was recently diagnosed with a depressive disorder. Jacob is a 25-year-old man whose brother was recently diagnosed with a depressive disorder. Based on studies that have investigated genetic vulnerability, you should predict that

A. neither Sarah nor Jacob is likely to develop a depressive disorder.
B. both Sarah and Jacob are equally likely to develop a depressive disorder.
C. Sarah is at a higher risk than Jacob for developing a depressive disorder.
D. Jacob is at a higher risk than Sarah for developing a depressive disorder.

C
The association between stress and mood disorders is inconsistent, but it is clear that

A. most highly stressed people get depressed.
B. stress affects the likelihood of relapse.
C. people do not vary in their initial vulnerability to mood disorders.
D. stress has little effect on responses to treatment.

B
The dimensional approach to describing personality disorders
A. would describe personality disorders in terms of variations in a limited number of continuous personality traits.
B. provides a much more complete description of the dynamics of personality disorders.
C. has been incorporated into the DSM-IV.
D. assumes that people can reliably be placed into nonoverlapping diagnostic categories.
A
Negative symptoms in schizophrenia include

A. behavioral deficits such as flattened emotion, apathy, and poverty of speech.
B. behavioral excesses such as hallucinations, delusions, and bizarre behavior.
C. dissociative behaviors and the emergence of multiple personalities.
D. antisocial behaviors such as violence and rage reactions.

A
Which pair of classes of psychological disorders listed below BOTH show a weak influence of genetic factors on the development of the disorder?

A. Eating disorders and dissociative disorders
B. Mood and schizophrenic disorders
C. Schizophrenic and somatoform disorders
D. Anxiety and dissociative disorders

A
Which of the following statements is MOST accurate concerning the onset of depression?

A. The peak age of onset is during middle or late adulthood (age 40 and on)
B. The peak age of onset is usually in early adulthood (age 20 through 29)
C. The onset of depression can occur at any point in the lifespan
D. The symptoms tend to be most severe when the disorder has a late onset

C
A person who perceives stimuli that aren’t there is said to have

A. hallucinations.
B. obsessions.
C. delusions.
D. illusions.

A
Ohman and Mineka’s concept of the “evolved module for fear learning” is an update of the notion of

A. reaction range.
B. preparedness.
C. posttraumatic stress.
D. heritability.

B
Susan has withdrawn from social contact with others. She spends most of her time alone in her bedroom. She has stopped going to her job and no longer talks to her family on the phone. Additionally, Susan neglects her personal hygiene and rarely bathes, brushes her teeth, or changes clothes. Susan’s behavior BEST illustrates which symptom of schizophrenia?

A. Disturbed emotions
B. Irrational thought
C. Deterioration of adaptive behavior
D. Hallucinations

C
In the past nine months, Andrew has been fired by three different employers. He was unreliable and often missed work, and each employer finally let him go when they found he had been stealing money and materials. Andrew feels no remorse over his actions, but he has managed to convince each of his former employers that he is sorry for his actions and none of the employers plan to press any charges. In this case, Andrew’s behavior is consistent with that seen in

A. dissociative identity disorder.
B. antisocial personality disorder.
C. bipolar disorder.
D. avoidant personality disorder.

B
Using the DSM-IV listings and lifetime prevalence, it is estimated that ____ of the population will experience a psychological disorder at some time in their lives.

A. less than 10%
B. close to 60%
C. approximately 44%
D. approximately 27%

C
Theorists who believe that dissociative identity disorder is an authentic disorder argue that cases of the disorder are rooted in

A. a severe emotional trauma that occurred in childhood.
B. intentional role playing.
C. extreme stress.
D. torture by a satanic cult.

A
The primary characteristic of paranoid schizophrenia is

A. motor disturbances ranging from muscular rigidity to random motor activity.
B. severe deterioration of adaptive behavior.
C. the presence of an idiosyncratic mixture of schizophrenic symptoms.
D. the presence of delusions of persecution and grandeur.

D
Wesley has gone in for a psychiatric assessment. He tells the clinician that he has been feeling apprehensive and edgy for the last month, but so far, his anxiety hasn’t seemed to have had a major impact on either his job or his home life. The clinician should use
A. either Axis I or Axis II of the DSM-IV to record Wesley’s current level of global functioning.
B. not bother recording Wesley’s current level of functioning because Wesley’s symptoms do not meet the criteria for abnormality.
C. Axis V of the DSM-IV to record Wesley’s current level of global functioning.
D. both Axis III and Axis IV of the DSM-IV to record Wesley’s current level of global functioning.
C
Dr. Smith is a psychiatrist who argues that different diagnoses represent similar underlying psychological symptoms. Dr. Smith is therefore likely to argue for a(n) _________ approach to diagnosis.
A. dimensional
B. epidemiological
C. comorbid
D. categorical
A
The dimensional approach to describing personality disorders

A. has been incorporated into the DSM-IV.
B. provides a much more complete description of the dynamics of personality disorders.
C. would describe personality disorders in terms of variations in a limited number of continuous personality traits.
D. assumes that people can reliably be placed into nonoverlapping diagnostic categories.

C
Which of the following has NOT been proposed as a factor associated with the development of schizophrenic disorders?

A. Neurological damage during prenatal development
B. Inadequate social skills
C. Excessive levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine
D. Structural abnormalities in the brain

B
The terms “mental illness” and “psychopathology” are MOST closely associated with which model of abnormal behavior?

A. The medical model
B. The learning model
C. The humanistic model
D. The psychodynamic model

A
Lukas does not trust anyone. He is convinced that no one around him is truthful and everything they say to him is a lie. He is extremely suspicious of other people’s motives, and he often flies into a jealous rage when his wife speaks to other men. If Lukas has a personality disorder, his symptoms are MOST consistent with those associated with disorders in the

A. anxious/fearful cluster.
B. neurotic/dissociative cluster.
C. dramatic/impulsive cluster.
D. odd/eccentric cluster.

D
According to Susan Nolen-Hoeksema, depressed people who tend to ruminate about their depression

A. remain depressed longer.
B. attribute their setbacks to situational factors and not to their personal flaws.
C. recover from their depression quicker.
D. attribute their setbacks to their personal flaws instead of situational factors.

A
Which of the following is NOT one of the factors that have been linked to the development of anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa in young women?

A. Parents who are negligent or uninvolved in their children’s lives
B. A genetic vulnerability to eating disorders
C. Mothers who model unhealthy dieting behaviors for their daughters
D. The presence of rigid, all-or-none thinking and maladaptive beliefs

A
Psychological disorders that are recognized abnormal syndromes but only found in a few cultural groups are referred to as

A. pancultural disorders.
B. universal disorders.
C. culture-bound disorders.
D. unique disorders.

C
Using the DSM-IV, disorders of mood would be recorded on
A. Axis I.
B. Axis X.
C. Axis III.
D. Axis IV.
A
The psychological disorder that involves the coexistence in one person of two or more largely complete, and usually very different, personalities is

A. schizophrenic disorder.
B. dissociative identity disorder.
C. dissociative amnesia.
D. dissociative fugue.

B
The apparent causation and developmental history of an illness is referred to as its
A. epidemiology. B. etiology.
C. diagnosis.
D. prognosis.
B
Paxton comes from a home where discipline was erratic, and he was physically abused by his parents. His parents were also self-centered and exploitive. Based on research, this home environment is likely to increase Paxton’s risk for developing
A. asomatoformdisorder.
B. paranoidschizophrenia.
C. bipolar disorder.
D. antisocialpersonalitydisorder.
D
The class of disorders that are marked by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and deterioration of adaptive behavior is known as
A. schizophrenicdisorders. B. anxietydisorder.
C. personalitydisorders.
D. dissociativedisorders.
A
For the past month, Lawrence seems to have lost interest in most of his normal activities. He feels irritable and has had difficulty sleeping. He also finds that he has difficulty making decisions. Lawrence’s symptoms are MOST consistent with those seen in
A. disorganizedschizophrenia. B. majordepressivedisorder. C. bipolar disorder.
D. generalizedanxietydisorder.
B
Tina has been extremely hyperactive for the past week and getting by with only three hours of sleep each night. Her thoughts seem to be racing out of control, and she is convinced that the novel she started last week will become a best seller and win a Pulitzer Prize, even though she has never had any of her writing published in the past. Tina’s symptoms suggest that she is currently experiencing
A. dissociativefugue.
B. generalizedanxietydisorder. C. dysthymicdisorder.
D. amanicepisode.
D
Thomas Szasz would be MOST critical of the commonly used criterion to diagnose psychological disorders that relates to
A. cognitiveconfusion. B. deviance.
C. personal distress.
D. maladaptivebehavior.
B
Which of the following is NOT one of the three most common types of psychological disorders?
A. Mooddisorders
B. Anxietydisorders
C. Substance(alcoholanddrug)usedisorders D. Schizophrenia
D
The results of both twin and family studies suggest that for anxiety disorders,
A. thereisamoderategeneticpredispositiontoanxietydisorders. B. thereisnoevidenceforheritabilityofanxiety.
C. anxiety disorders do not run in families.
D. thereisastronggeneticpredispositiontoanxietydisorder.
A
Preparedness” is a term coined by Seligman that refers to
A. psychologicalprocessesthataccompanyobsessive- compulsive behavior patterns.
B. abiologicalpredispositiontobeeasilyconditionedtofear certain things.
C. a particular type of learning situation in which negatively reinforced behaviors reduce the level of one’s generalized anxiety disorder.
D. thephysicalstateorconditionassociatedwithapanicattack.
B
Tony is very rigid and inflexible and has serious difficulties in his interactions with his family and coworkers. If Tony has a psychological disorder, he is MOST likely to be diagnosed as having a(n)
A. mooddisorder. B. anxietydisorder.
C. somatoformdisorder. D. personalitydisorder.
D
According to Mowrer, phobic responses are acquired through ____ conditioning and maintained through ____ conditioning.
A. classical;classical B. operant;operant C. operant;classical D. classical;operant
D
The rise of the medical model in the study of psychopathology brought about
A. improvementsinthetreatmentofindividualswhoexhibited abnormal behavior.
B. anincreaseinmisconceptionsaboutmentaldisorders.
C. an increase in the number of asylums for the treatment of the mentally ill.
D. decreasesintheexpressionofsympathytowardthementally ill
A
The Featured Study “Does Negative Thinking Cause Depression?” found that participants who
A. exhibitedanegativecognitivestyleweremorelikelytodevelop depression.
B. weredepressedweremorelikelytodevelopanegative cognitive style.
C. weredepressedwerelesslikelytodevelopanegativecognitive style.
D. exhibitedanegativecognitivestylewerelesslikelytodevelop depression.
A
The neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia suggests that schizophrenia may be caused, in part, by
A. geneticfactorsthatinteractwithenvironmentalstressors during infancy.
B. abnormallevelsofdopamineandserotonininthecerebral cortex.
C. disruptions in the normal maturational process of the brain before or at birth.
D. lowlevelsofexpressedemotioninthefamilyofthe schizophrenic patient.
C
Claire has been diagnosed with anorexia nervosa. Based on the physical symptoms listed in your text, you should expect that Claire will show evidence of
A. dentalproblemsandcardiacarrhythmias.
B. metabolicdisturbancesanddentalproblems.
C. cardiacarrhythmiasandelevatedbloodpressure. D. amenorrheaandlowbloodpressure.
D
Who would be MOST likely to worry about driving home from work while it is snowing because he recalls “the last time I drove home in the snow, I skidded and almost had an accident?”
A. Scott,whohasasomatoformdisorder B. Sean,whohasaschizophrenicdisorder C. Alan,whohasananxietydisorder
D. David,whohasadissociativedisorder
C
The cartoon character Charlie Brown, with his extreme dread, pessimism, worrying, and brooding, could be diagnosed as having
A. obsessive-compulsivedisorder. B. aphobicdisorder.
C. ageneralizedanxietydisorder. D. panicdisorder.
C
MOST authentic cases of dissociative identity disorder have in common a background of
A. extremelydistortedcommunicationpatternsinthefamily.
B. extremelyoverprotectiveparents.
C. having been reinforced for “crazy” behavior.
D. atraumaticchildhoodcharacterizedbyphysical,emotional,or sexual abuse.
D
Ivy excitedly tells you that she has been invited to sing at the coronation of the new King of Cyprus. You find this difficult to believe, considering Ivy sings terribly and Cyprus has an elected government, not a monarchy. Ivy’s statements are clearly out of touch with reality. It appears that Ivy is experiencing

A. loosening of associations.
B. hallucinations.
C. compulsions.
D. delusions of grandeur.

D
Kim suffers from anhedonia, which means that she

A. has two different psychological disorders.
B. has trouble getting along with people.
C. has difficulty experiencing pleasure.
D. experiences mild manic states.

C
The basic problem in the mood disorders is disturbed ____; the basic problem in the schizophrenic disorders is disturbed ____.

A. thought; perception
B. emotion; thought
C. thought; emotion
D. perception; thought

B
A person is shy, timid, and wary of others. Research suggests such a temperament puts the person at risk for developing
A. ananxietydisorder.
B. amooddisorder.
C. schizophrenia.
D. asomatoformdisorder.
A
Dr. Underhill is reviewing the records from a patient who has just been referred for treatment. He is carefully considering the symptoms that have been documented and is attempting to identify the type of psychological disorder the individual is most likely to have. Dr. Underhill is currently focusing on
A. diagnosis. B. etiology. C. histology. D. prognosis.
A
Treit’s best friend was seriously injured in a car accident last month. Since that time, Treit has been attending all his classes, but he feels like he is unable to pay attention because he is constantly thinking about his friend. Treit finds he can’t seem to think about anything else, and he is frequently overwhelmed by feelings of helplessness. In this example, Treit’s feelings would MOST likely be considered
A. culturallydeviant.
B. maladaptive.
C. compulsive.
D. personallydistressing.
D
Of the major disorders, symptom patterns are probably MOST culturally variable for
A. depression.
B. dissociativedisorders. C. schizophrenia.
D. bipolarillness.
A
Frequently, people call a psychologist for assistance after “deciding for themselves” that they need help. People would be MOST likely to use which two of the commonly used criteria for psychological disorders when deciding to seek treatment?
A. Devianceandcognitiveconfusion
B. Personaldistressanddeviance
C. Cognitiveconfusionandmaladaptivebehavior D. Maladaptivebehaviorandpersonaldistress
C
The prevalence estimates of both schizophrenia and bipolar disorders are roughly comparable across diverse cultures. This finding lends support to
A. thepanculturalviewofpsychologicaldisorders. B. theidiosyncraticviewofpsychologicaldisorders.
C. therelativisticviewofpsychologicaldisorders.
D. thestress-vulnerabilitymodelofpsychologicaldisorders.
A
A patient with schizophrenia tends to have the most favorable prognosis when
A. theproportionofnegativesymptomsisrelativelylow. B. theonsetofthedisorderisgradual.
C. the onset occurs at an early age.
D. thepatient’sfamilyishighinexpressedemotion.
A
Who would be MOST likely to worry about driving home from work while it is snowing because he recalls “the last time I drove home in the snow, I skidded and almost had an accident?”
A. Sean,whohasaschizophrenicdisorder B. Scott,whohasasomatoformdisorder C. Alan,whohasananxietydisorder
D. David,whohasadissociativedisorder
C
Depression is an example of a ____ mood disorder.
A. unipolar B. bipolar
C. dissociative D. cyclical
A
Ohman and Mineka’s concept of the “evolved module for fear learning” is an update of the notion of
A. preparedness. B. heritability.
C. posttraumaticstress. D. reactionrange.
A
Which of the following statements is MOST accurate concerning the onset of schizophrenia?
A. Thesymptomsusuallyemergeduringadolescenceorearly adulthood
B. Theonsetofschizophreniaisspreadevenlyacrossalmostall age groups
C. Thepeakageofonsetisduringmiddleorlateadulthood(age 45 and on)
D. Thesymptomstendtobemostseverewhenthedisorderhasa late onset
A
Which temperament is characterized by shyness, timidity, and wariness?
A. Inhibited B. Pensive
C. Sanguine D. Choleric
A
Kevin hears voices singing even though none are present. Kevin suffers from
A. hallucinations. B. delusions.
C. obsessions.
D. looseningofassociations.
A
Alexia started a new job on Monday morning. For the first three days, she showed up in bright colors and was outgoing and extroverted. However, on Thursday, she showed up in a dark suit and appeared shy and introverted. She insisted that her name was Clara, and she couldn’t understand why her coworkers kept calling her Alexia. In this example, Alexia is showing symptoms that are consistent with
A. disorganizedschizophrenia. B. antisocialpersonalitydisorder. C. dissociativeidentitydisorder. D. bipolardisorder.
C
Researchers have found that depression occurs

A. nearly four times as frequently in women as in men.
B. nearly twice as frequently in women as in men.
C. nearly twice as frequently in men as in women.
D. with equal frequency in women and in men.

B
Which of the following statements is MOST accurate concerning the onset of depression?

A. The peak age of onset is usually in early adulthood (age 20 through 29)
B. The onset of depression can occur at any point in the lifespan
C. The symptoms tend to be most severe when the disorder has a late onset
D. The peak age of onset is during middle or late adulthood (age 40 and on)

B
Which of the following statements is MOST accurate concerning the onset of schizophrenia?
A. Theonsetofschizophreniaisspreadevenlyacrossalmostall age groups
B. Thesymptomsusuallyemergeduringadolescenceorearly adulthood
C. Thepeakageofonsetisduringmiddleorlateadulthood(age 45 and on)
D. Thesymptomstendtobemostseverewhenthedisorderhasa late onset
B
Distress-induced eating binges that are not accompanied by purging, fasting, and excessive exercise are characteristic of
A. gorgingdisorder.
B. obesitydisorder.
C. binge-eating disorder. D. purgingdisorder.
C
Which of the following is a common stereotype about psychological disorders?
A. Psychologicaldisordersareafunctionofbiophysiological factors.
B. Peoplewithpsychologicaldisordersareviolentanddangerous.
C. Psychologicaldisordersarecurable.
D. Peoplewithpsychologicaldisordersarenotverydifferentfrom normal people.
B
The MOST common psychological disorders in the United States are
A. schizophrenicdisorders. B. mooddisorders.
C. personalitydisorders.
D. substanceusedisorders.
D
Individuals with antisocial personality disorder exhibit all of the following behaviors EXCEPT
A. theyareirresponsibleandimpulsive,andcantoleratelittle frustration.
B. theychronicallyviolatetherightsofothersandrarelyfeel guilty.
C. they typically avoid social interactions.
D. theyrarelyexperiencegenuineaffectionforothers.
Question 7 of 20 Score: 1 (of possible 1 point)
Question 8 of 20 Score: 0 (of possible 1 point)
Question 9 of 20 Score: 1 (of possible 1 point)
C
Valerie has attempted suicide on four separate occasions in the past month. Her family has approached a judge asking for legal intervention to protect Valerie from hurting herself. In this case, it is likely that the judge will
A. refusetointervenebecauseValeriedoesnotposeariskto others.
B. declareValerielegallyinsaneandsentencehertotimeina psychiatric facility.
C. orderthatValeriebeinvoluntarilycommittedtoapsychiatric facility.
D. findValerieisnotcompetentandpostponethecivilhearing until she recovers.
C
Carol finds she is no longer interested in things she used to do, is sad most of the time, and thinks she is a terrible person. Additionally, she has recently lost a lot of weight and doesn’t sleep very much. Carol’s behavior would be diagnosed as
A. ananxietydisorder.
B. amooddisorder.
C. adissociativedisorder. D. apersonalitydisorder.
B
Research concerning the etiology of schizophrenic disorders has implicated excessive activity of the neurotransmitter(s)
A. serotoninandepinephrine. B. dopamine.
C. GABA.
D. norepinephrine.
B
Behavior that interferes with an individual’s social or occupational functioning may be considered to be
A. deviant.
B. insane.
C. personallydistressing. D. maladaptive.
D
Using the DSM-IV, disorders of mood would be recorded on
A. AxisX. B. AxisIII. C. AxisIV. D. AxisI.
D
Tony believes that he is Thomas Edison and that his neighbors are spies who are trying to steal his inventions. He thinks the neighbors break into his house and search for plans for new inventions when he is not home. Tony’s symptoms are MOST consistent with those seen in
A. paranoidschizophrenia.
B. disorganizedschizophrenia.
C. catatonicschizophrenia.
D. undifferentiatedschizophrenia.
A
Jose has a psychological disorder, and his doctor has prescribed a drug that affects both the levels of norepinephrine and serotonin in Jose’s nervous system. Based on this information, it is MOST likely that Jose is being treated for
A. aschizophrenicdisorder. B. asomatoformdisorder. C. an anxiety disorder.
D. depression.
D
Jacobs maintains that depression occurs when
A. majorlifestresscausesneurochemicalreactionsthatsuppress neurogenisis.
B. majorlifestresscausesneurochemicalreactionsthatsuppress dopamine action at the synapse.
C. majorlifestresscausesneurochemicalreactionsthatsuppress norepinephrine action at the synapse.
D. majorlifestresscausesneurochemicalreactionsthat encourage neurogenisis.
A
Diagnosis is to etiology as
A. whenistowhere. B. whereistowhen. C. what is to why. D. whyistowhat.
C
Which of the following statements is MOST accurate concerning the onset of bipolar disorder?

A. The peak age of onset is during middle or late adulthood (age 40 and on)
B. The peak age of onset is in the late teenage years
C. The onset of bipolar disorder is spread evenly across almost all age groups
D. The symptoms tend to be most severe when the disorder has a late onset

B
Grayson seems to be preoccupied with the possibility that he might miss an important message from someone in his family. He checks for new messages on his answering machine every 15 minutes. Grayson’s constant checking for messages could be considered an example of

A. a compulsion.
B. a delusion.
C. a hallucination.
D. an obsession.

A
Which of the following statements is MOST accurate?
A. Peoplewithmentalillnessseldomhavesocialproblemsonce they have recovered.
B. Stigmatizationofmentalillnesshasremainedstableovermany years.
C. Negative stereotypes about mental illness do not generally contribute to stigma about mental illess.
D. Stereotypesaboutmentalillnessarelargelypositive.
B
Recent research has revealed that depressed patients have elevated levels of
A. cerebrospinalfluid. B. serotonin.
C. dopamine.
D. cortisol.
D
Cliff has been diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Currently, he is very optimistic about his life. Even though he is only sleeping three hours a night, he is very energetic. He has turned his basement into a workshop where he plans to mass produce his new “banana computer” that will revolutionize the computer market. Cliff is experiencing
A. anunipolarepisode. B. adepressiveepisode. C. amanicepisode.
D. abipolarepisode.
C
The evidence available today suggests
A. nolinkbetweenstressandtheonsetofmooddisorders.
B. averyweaklinkbetweenstressandtheonsetofmood disorders.
C. amoderatelystronglinkbetweenstressandtheonsetofmood disorders.
D. aninverselinkbetweenstressandtheonsetofmood disorders.
C
Studies that have evaluated concordance rates for various mood disorders have found
A. theinfluenceofgeneticfactorsappearstobestrongerfor bipolar disorders than for unipolar disorders.
B. theinfluenceofgeneticfactorsisthesameforbothbipolarand unipolar disorders.
C. onlyunipolardisorderhasageneticcomponent.
D. theinfluenceofgeneticfactorsappearstobestrongerfor unipolar disorders than for bipolar disorders.
A
Brain-imaging studies of people with schizophrenia show all of the following EXCEPT
A. enlargedvertricles.
B. increasedmyelinization. C. reducedwhitematter. D. reducedgraymatter.
B
Maria is afraid to leave her home to go shopping or even go to work; she avoids all public places. Maria suffers from a disorder known as
A. agoraphobia. B. simplephobia. C. brontophobia. D. claustrophobia.
A
A person who maintains bizarre, false beliefs that have no basis in reality is said to have
A. delusions. B. obsessions.
C. hallucinations. D. illusions.
A
Which pair of classes of psychological disorders listed below BOTH show a strong influence of genetic factors on the development of the disorders?
A. Moodandschizophrenicdisorders B. Moodandeatingdisorders
C. Eatingdisordersanddissociativedisorders D. Schizophrenicanddissociativedisorders
A
Which of the following statements is MOST accurate concerning the onset of schizophrenia?
A. Thesymptomstendtobemostseverewhenthedisorderhasa late onset
B. Theonsetofschizophreniaisspreadevenlyacrossalmostall age groups
C. Thesymptomsusuallyemergeduringadolescenceorearly adulthood
D. Thepeakageofonsetisduringmiddleorlateadulthood(age 45 and on)
C
Your friend’s mother is afraid of squirrels. Although she knows squirrels are basically harmless, she cannot control her anxiety when she sees either a real squirrel or a picture of a squirrel. She never took your friend to the local park when he was a child because of the numerous squirrels. Your friend’s mother has
A. panicdisorder.
B. conversiondisorder.
C. generalizedanxietydisorder. D. phobicdisorder.
D
Explanations concerning the etiology of which dissociative disorder are MOST controversial?
A. Ddissociativedepressivedisorder B. Dissociativeidentitydisorder
C. Dissociativefugue
D. Dissociativeamnesia
B
Recent research into the possibility of a neurochemical basis for anxiety disorders has generated evidence that suggests anxiety disorders may result from

A. disturbances in the neural circuits using norepinephrine.
B. disturbances in the neural circuits using GABA.
C. too much activity in the neural circuits using serotonin.
D. too little activity in the neural circuits using serotonin.

B
Correlations between mood disorders and a variety of structural abnormalities in the brain suggest that reduced volume in the ____ is related to depression.
A. amygdala
B. thalamus
C. hypothalamus D. hippocampus
D
Jeffrey Dahmer was judged to be legally sane, even though he admitted to butchering, cannibalizing, and then having sex with the dead bodies of over a dozen young men. The judgment of legal sanity meant that
A. hewasabletoappreciatethefactthathisactionswerelegally or morally wrong at the time of the crime.
B. hisactionsfailedtomeetthecriteriaofpersonaldistress.
C. hehadrecoveredfromhispsychologicaldisorderbythetime the trial took place.
D. hisactionsfailedtomeetthecriteriaofculturaldeviance.
A
Lenny is diagnosed with schizophrenia. He will often remain completely motionless for long periods of time. He almost looks as if he is imitating a store mannequin or a statue. Lenny’s behavior is MOST consistent with
A. undifferentiatedschizophrenia. B. catatonicschizophrenia.
C. paranoidschizophrenia.
D. disorganizedschizophrenia.
B
If your careless smoking caused your family’s home to burn down, you would be MOST likely to develop which of the following psychological disorders?
A. Dissociativeidentitydisorder
B. Dissociativefugue
C. Dissociativedepressivedisorder
D. Dissociativeamnesia
D
When a psychologist compares the symptoms an individual is experiencing to the symptoms of various disorders to determine the specific disorder the individual has, the psychologist is concerned with
A. etiology. B. treatment. C. prognosis. D. diagnosis.
D
A major criticism of the medical model made by Thomas Szasz is that
A. uniformityofbehaviorpatternscannotbeestablishedfromthe medical model viewpoint.
B. noevidenceexiststosupporttheefficiencyofthemedical model’s treatment approaches.
C. most abnormal behavior reflects a moral judgment about what is socially acceptable or unacceptable behavior.
D. themodelisnotwellunderstoodbyitspractitioners.
C
The subtype of schizophrenia marked by a striking impairment of psychomotor activity ranging from muscular rigidity to random motor activity is known as
A. hebephrenic. B. catatonic.
C. paranoid.
D. disorganized.
B
The most recent research on biological factors in depression has focused on
A. hormones.
B. electricalactivityinthebrain. C. bloodglucose.
D. thesizeofthecerebellum.
A
Often, cases of dissociative identity disorder (multiple personality disorder) receive wide press coverage, leading people to believe this disorder is a relatively common psychological problem when, in fact, it is quite rare. People’s estimates of the prevalence of dissociative identity disorder may be influenced to a large extent by
A. theconjunctionfallacy. B. theavailabilityheuristic.
C. thehindsightbias.
D. therepresentativenessheuristic.
B
Harold sits all day alone on a park bench, babbling incoherently and giggling to himself. Harold would MOST likely be diagnosed as having
A. disorganizedschizophrenia.
B. undifferentiatedschizophrenia. C. paranoidschizophrenia.
D. catatonicschizophrenia.
A
The evidence available today suggests
A. averyweaklinkbetweenstressandtheonsetofmood disorders.
B. amoderatelystronglinkbetweenstressandtheonsetofmood disorders.
C. nolinkbetweenstressandtheonsetofmooddisorders.
D. aninverselinkbetweenstressandtheonsetofmood disorders.
B
Which of the following has NOT been proposed as a factor associated with the development of schizophrenic disorders?
A. Excessivelevelsoftheneurotransmitterdopamine B. Inadequatesocialskills
C. Structural abnormalities in the brain
D. Neurologicaldamageduringprenataldevelopment
B
The prevalence estimates of both schizophrenia and bipolar disorders are roughly comparable across diverse cultures. This finding lends support to
A. thestress-vulnerabilitymodelofpsychologicaldisorders. B. therelativisticviewofpsychologicaldisorders.
C. the pancultural view of psychological disorders.
D. theidiosyncraticviewofpsychologicaldisorders.
C
The MOST common psychological disorders in the United States are
A. mooddisorders.
B. personalitydisorders.
C. substanceusedisorders. D. schizophrenicdisorders.
C
Rick believes that his dog is really his sister who was given up for adoption by his mother 30 years ago. Rick’s belief is
A. afaultyperception. B. anillusion.
C. adelusion.
D. ahallucination.
C
The likelihood a person would be declared legally incompetent would be HIGHEST for

A. a schizophrenic disorder.
B. a substance-abuse disorder.
C. an antisocial personality disorder.
D. a generalized anxiety disorder.

A
Carly has had intense feelings of sadness for the past several weeks. She has very little energy and has stopped going out with her friends. She has lost her appetite and rarely cooks. Carly feels her situation is hopeless and that she only has herself to blame. MOST likely, Carly has
A. generalizedanxietydisorder. B. bipolardisorder.
C. majordepressivedisorder. D. minordepressivedisorder.
C
Jerry’s mother always dwelled on the dangers of roller coasters. She frequently reminded Jerry of the dangers and expressed fear anytime the family visited an amusement park. Because of his mother’s behavior, Jerry would be MOST likely to develop
A. obsessive-compulsivedisorder. B. histrionicpersonalitydisorder. C. dependent personality disorder. D. phobicdisorder.
D
The class of disorders marked by extreme and inflexible characteristics that cause subjective distress or impaired social and occupational functioning are referred to as
A. mooddisorders.
B. affectivedisorders. C. conduct disorders.
D. personalitydisorders.
D
A college student faced with upcoming exams and term papers responds to his resulting feelings of anxiety by reorganizing his notes, rearranging his bookshelves, cleaning out his desk drawer, and straightening up his closet. He would be showing symptoms of
A. claustrophobia.
B. psychogenicfugue.
C. obsessive-compulsivedisorder. D. disorganizedschizophrenia.
C
he study of the incidence and distribution of mental or physical disorders within a population defines the discipline known as
A. psychobiology. B. demography. C. etiology.
D. epidemiology.
D
Epidemiology is the study of
A. howculturalvaluesaffectjudgmentsofabnormality.
B. sudden”epidemics”involvingspecificmentalorphysical disorders.
C. the distribution of mental or physical disorders in a population.
D. treatmentsforpsychologicaldisorders.
C
Thomas Szasz would be MOST critical of the commonly used criterion to diagnose psychological disorders that relates to
A. personaldistress.
B. cognitiveconfusion. C. deviance.
D. maladaptivebehavior.
C
Earlier age of onset of depression is associated with
A. lesschronicsymptoms.
B. lessimpairmentinoccupationalfunctioning. C. greater comorbidity.
D. lessseveresymptoms.
C
Being careful not to make the conjunction fallacy, indicate which of the following is MOST probable:
A. Ralphisanalcoholic;Ralphentersatreatmentprogram;Ralph wins a major world tennis tournament.
B. Ralphisanalcoholic;Ralphentersatreatmentprogram;Ralph has been sober for a year; Ralph practices tennis 50 hours a week; Ralph wins a major world tennis tournament.
C. Ralphisanalcoholic;Ralphwinsamajorworldtennis tournament.
D. Ralphisanalcoholic;Ralphentersatreatmentprogram;Ralph has been sober for a year; Ralph wins a major world tennis tournament.
C
Mark is hospitalized as a result of schizophrenia. He constantly rambles incoherently about a variety of topics and does not interact with the other patients or hospital staff. Mark has delusions that his right arm is slowly shrinking and that he is growing a third eye on the back of his head. MOST likely, Mark is diagnosed with
A. catatonicschizophrenia.
B. undifferentiatedschizophrenia. C. disorganizedschizophrenia.
D. paranoidschizophrenia.
C
The psychological disorder that involves the coexistence in one person of two or more largely complete, and usually very different, personalities is
A. dissociativeamnesia.
B. schizophrenicdisorder.
C. dissociativefugue.
D. dissociativeidentitydisorder.
D
Recent research into the possibility of a neurochemical basis for anxiety disorders has generated evidence that suggests anxiety disorders may result from
A. disturbancesintheneuralcircuitsusingnorepinephrine. B. disturbancesintheneuralcircuitsusingGABA.
C. too much activity in the neural circuits using serotonin. D. toolittleactivityintheneuralcircuitsusingserotonin.
B
Which of the following is a common stereotype about psychological disorders?
A. Psychologicaldisordersareafunctionofbiophysiological factors.
B. Psychologicaldisordersarecurable.
C. Peoplewithpsychologicaldisordersareviolentanddangerous.
D. Peoplewithpsychologicaldisordersarenotverydifferentfrom normal people.
C
Personality disorders are characterized by

A. extreme, inflexible personality traits.
B. hallucinations and delusions.
C. an inability to function outside of a hospital setting.
D. extremely inconsistent behavior across a variety of situations

A

Custom writing services

×

Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out