Chapter 16 AP US History

Chapter 16 AP US History

”great upheaval” of 1886″
A wave of strikes and labor protests that touched every part of the nation in 1886.
standard gauge
A standard distance separating the two tracks adopting in 1886 that allowed for the first time trains of one company to travel on another company’s track.
railroad time zones
In 1883, the major rail companies divided the national into four time zones still in use today.
vertical integration
Company�s avoidance of middlemen by producing its own supplies and providing for distribution of its product.
Standard Oil Company
Founded in 1870 by John D. Rockefeller in Cleveland, Ohio, it soon grew into the nation�s first industry-dominating trust; the Sherman Antitrust Act (1890) was enacted in part to combat abuses by Standard Oil.
”captains of industry” v. ”robber barons”
Opposing viewpoints that industrial leaders were either beneficial for the economy or wielded power without any accountability in an unregulated market.
”The Significance of the Frontier in American History”
A lecture given by Frederick Jackson Turner in 1893 arguing that the western frontier had forged the distinctive qualities of American culture: individual freedom, political democracy, and economic mobility.
bonanza farming
Farms that covered thousands of acres and employed large numbers of agricultural wage workers.
Dawes Act
Law passed in 1887 meant to encourage adoption of white norms among Indians; broke up tribal holdings into small farms for Indian families, with the remainder sold to white purchasers.
Ghost Dance
A religious revitalization campaign reminiscent of the pan-Indian movements led by earlier prophets.
greenbacks
Paper money declared to be legal tender printed by the government.
Civil Service Act of 1883
Established the Civil Service Commission and marked the end of the spoils system.
Interstate Commerce Commission
Reacting to the U.S. Supreme Court�s ruling in Wabash Railroad v. Illinois (1886), Congress established the ICC to curb abuses in the railroad industry by regulating rates.
Patrons of Husbandry
An educational and social organization for farmers founded in 1867
iron law of supply and demand
The economic theory that determined wages and prices for goods and services.
Term

Social Darwinism

Application of Charles Darwin�s theory of natural selection to society; used the concept of the �survival of the fittest� to justify class distinctions and to explain poverty.
liberty of contract
The idea that contracts reconciled freedom and authority in the workplace.
Lochner v. New York
Decision by Supreme Court overturning a New York law establishing a limit on the number of hours per week bakers could be compelled to work; �Lochnerism� became a way of describing the liberty of contract jurisprudence, which opposed all governmental intervention in the economy.
Great Railroad Strike of 1877
Interstate strike, crushed by federal troops, which resulted in extensive property damage and many deaths.
Knights of Labor
Founded in 1869, the first national union lasted, under the leadership of Terence V. Powderly, only into the 1890s; supplanted by the American Federation of Labor.
Social Gospel
Preached by liberal Protestant clergymen in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries; advocated the application of Christian principles to social problems generated by industrialization.