Chapter 16 AP World History Vocabulary

Chapter 16 AP World History Vocabulary

British East India Company
Government charted joint-stock company that controlled spice trade in the East Indies after the Dutch
Amerigo Vespucci
The Italian sailor who corrected Columbus’s mistake, acknowledging the coasts of America as a new world. America was later named after him.
Smallpox and Measles
The two most deadly diseases that killed more than 50% and up to 80% of the indigenous population in the Americas. Brought by the Europeans.
Colombian Exchange
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus’s voyages.
Boers
Dutch immigrants that settled in South Africa in the 1600’s
Mughal Empire
Muslim state (1526-1857) exercising dominion over most of India in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
Goa
Indian city developed by the Portuguese as a major Indian Ocean base; developed an important Indo-European population.
Vasco da Gama
Portuguese explorer. In 1497-1498 he led the first naval expedition from Europe to sail to India, opening an important commercial sea route.
Francisco Pizarro
Spanish explorer who conquered the Incas in what is now Peru and founded the city of Lima (1475-1541)
Mercantilism
An economic system (Europe in 18th C) to increase a nation’s wealth by government regulation of all of the nation’s commercial interests.
Treaty of Paris
This treaty ended the Seven Years War between Spanish and French.
Louis XIV
King of France from 1643 to 1715; his long reign was marked by the expansion of French influence in Europe and by the magnificence of his court and the Palace of Versailles (1638-1715).
Coercive Labor Systems
Included slavery, indentured servitude, serfdom, and other coercive labor systems in the Americas.
New France
French colony in North America, with a capital in Quebec, founded 1608. New France fell to the British in 1763.
“China”
high quality porcelain originally made in China.
Mestizos
A person of mixed Native American and European ancestry.
John Locke
English empiricist philosopher who believed that all knowledge is derived from sensory experience/social contract (1632-1704).
Calcutta
British East India Company headquarters in Bengal; captured in 1756 by Indians; later became administrative center for populous Bengal.
Emperor Atahualpa
Ruler who’s father was killed by infectious disease , gained throne by killing his half brother in civil war and was executed by Francisco Pizarro.
Christopher Columbus
Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China (1451-1506).
Nagasaki
Trading port, after Jesuit disputes, only the Dutch were allowed to reside here, and only for 2-3 months at a time.
Ceylon
Used by Britain to grow tea. They leveled the land and then created tea plantations. Now known as Sri Lanka; large center of commerce.
Atlantic Colonies
British colonies in North America along Atlantic coast from New England to Georgia.
William Penn
Englishman and Quaker who founded the colony of Pennsylvania (1644-1718). Founded it so others could be free of persecution.
Dependent Economic Zones
Regions within the world economy that produced raw materials; dependent on European markets and shipping; tendency to build systems based on forced and cheap labor.
Henry the Navigator
(1394-1460) Portuguese prince who promoted the study of navigation and directed voyages of exploration down the western coast of Africa.
Bantu farmers
Settled in north and east around 400 AD.They herded and farmed, grouped themselves in little tribes; greatly outnumbered Khoisan.
Macao
A Portuguese province on the south coast of China and two islands in the South China Sea.
World Economy
Created by Europeans during the late 16th century; based on control of the seas; established an international exchange of foods, diseases, and manufactured products.
Cape Colony
A former province of southern South Africa that was settled by the Dutch in 1652 and ceded to Great Britain in 1814.
Ferdinand Magellan
Portuguese navigator who led the Spanish expedition of 1519-1522 that was the first to sail around the world.
Safavid Empire
Iranian kingdom (1502-1722) established by Ismail Safavi, who declared Iran a Shi’ite state.
Core Nations
Nations, usually European, that enjoyed profit from world economy; controlled international banking and commercial services such as shipping; exported manufactured goods for raw materials.
Cape of Good Hope
Southernmost point of Africa (south of Cape Town).
Emperor Aurangzeb
Mughal emperor who used military force to extend his power but whose constant campaigns drained the treasury and whose policy of favoring Islam at the expense of India’s other religions generated social and political tensions.
Vasco de Balboa
Spanish explorer who became the first European to see the Pacific Ocean in 1510 while exploring Panama.
Battle of Lepanto
Turkish sea power was destroyed in 1571 by a league of Christian nations organized by the Pope.