Chapter 16 AP World History

Chapter 16 AP World History

Buzurg ibn Shahriyar
definition: A storytelling mariner who came from the emporium of Siraf on the Persian Gulf

significance: Demonstrated trade influenced in India

Harsha
definition: 7th century north Indian ruler; built a large state that declined after his death 646 (last true Hindu ruler)

significance: unified India temporarily

Mahmud of Ghazni
definition: third ruler of Turkish slave dynasty in Afghanistan; led invasions of northern India; credited with sacking one of wealthiest of Hindu temples in northern India; gave Muslims reputation for intolerance and aggression

significance: set back Islam in India

Harihara and Bukka
definition: two brothers dispatched by officials in Delhi to represent the sultan and implement court policies in the sought. Converted from Hinduism to Islam; in 1336 they renounced Islam, returned to Hindu faith, and proclaimed of an established empire, independent empire of Vijayanagar

significance: Established a new empire

Shankara
definition: southern India; tried to harmonize all the Hindu writings

significance: matured Hinduism

Raminuja
definition: taught in the hands of Vishnu one will win god’s grace and live in presence

significance: matured Hinduism

Sind
definition: Indus River valley in NW India; conquered in 711; fringe of Islamic world

significance: helped spread Islam to India

Sultanate of Delhi
definition: the kingdom established by Mahmud’s succesors to spread islam in India

significance: spread Islam to India

Chola Kingdom
definition: kingdom situated in the deep south. At its high point, Chola forces conquered Ceylon and parts of southeast Asia, funded by the profits of trade, dominated the sea, did not build a tightly centralized state

significance: brought order to Southern India

Vijayanagar
definition: independent empire proclaimed by Harihara and Bukka; “city of victory”. Dominate state in southern India until 1565

significance: brought order to Southern India

Monsoons
definition: seasonal wind patterns that cause wet and dry seasons

significance: helped trade and agriculture

Dhows
definition: Arab sailing vessels with triangular or lateen sails; strongly influenced European ship design

significance: helped to trade in the Indian Ocean Basin

Junks
definition: Chinese ships equipped with watertight bulkheads, sternpost rudders, compasses, and bamboo fenders; dominant force in Asian seas east of the Malayan peninsula

significance: helped trade in the Indian Ocean Basin

Kingdom of Axum
definition: Christian kingdom in Ethiopia

significance: Helped with maritime trade

Caste System
definition: a social structure in which classes are determined by heredity

significance: helped integrate immigrants

Vishnu
definition: A Hindu god considered the preserver of the world

significance: helped with Cults and Hinduism

Shiva
definition: an important Hindu deity who in the trinity of gods was the Destroyer

significance: helped with Cults and Hinduism

Sufis
definition: a mystical Muslim group that believed they could draw closer to God through prayer, fasting, and a simple life

significance: helped spread Islam

Bhakti
definition: Indian movement that attempted to transcend the differences between Hinduism and Islam

significance: helped spread Islam

Funan
definition: Early complex society in Southeast Asia between the first and sixth centuries C.E.

significance: demonstrated Indian influence

Srivijaya
definition: Southeast Asian kingdom, based on the island of Sumatra that used a powerful navy to dominate trade

significance: Used Maritime trade to garner power

Angkor
definition: Southeast Asian Khmer kingdom (889-1432) that was centered around temple cities

significance: demonstrated Indian influence

Melaka
definition: the first major center of Islam in Southeast Asia, a port kingdom on the southwestern coast of the Malay Peninsula

significance: Helped to spread Islam