Chapter 17: American History

George Marshall
Army Chief of Staff who pushed for the formation of the WAAC
Manhattan Project
the U.S. program to develop an atomic bomb for use in World War ll.
War Production Board
an agency established during World War ll to coordinate the production of military supplies by U.S. industries.
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Rationing
a restriction of people’s rights to buy unlimited amounts of particular foods and other goods
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Supreme Allied Commander of the forces in Europe
D-Day
the day on which the allies launched an invasion of the European mainland during World War ll.
George Patton
Leader of the Third Army that liberated Paris
Battle of the Buldge
a month-long battle of World War ll, in which the allies succeeded in turing back the last major German offensive.
V-E Day
“Victory in Europe Day” on which Eisenhower’s acceptance of the unconditional surrender of Nazi Germany marked the end of World War ll.
Harry S. Truman
President of the United States who authorized the use of the atomic bomb
Douglas MacArthur
General in the Philippines who pledged to return to the Philippines after retreating
Battle of Midway
After the allies won, they took the offensive in the Pacific and began to move closer to Japan.
Kamikaze
Involving or engaging in the deliberate crashing of a bomb-filled airplane into a military target.
J. Robert Oppenheimer
Leading scientist in the development of the atomic bomb
Hiroshima/Nagasaki
Japanese industrial cities that were severely damaged when the atomic bombs were dropped on them
Nuremberg Trials
The court proceedings after World War ll, in which Nazi leaders were tried for war crimes.
GI Bill of Rights
Law that provided financial and educational benefits for World War ll veterans.
Internment
confinement or a restriction in movement under wartime conditions.
*Analyze how the United States expanded and mobilized for WWII?*
• Selective Service System drafted 10 million
• Women joined force (WAAC)
• War-time production
• Fabrication at shipyards, plants increased production
*Describe specific examples on how the United States government control the American economy during WWII?*
-War production increases, consumer production decreased
-Office of Price Administration
-Fights inflation by freezing prices
-Rationing established
-Victory gardens
-Rationing books
-Congress raised taxes, reducing consumer demand on goods
-War Production Board
-Decided which companies received raw materials
-Requested that Americans would select certain things to be recycled for the war effort
*Identify and describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Allies and the Axis powers?*
Allies:
• Strengths
1)U.S. had tremendous production capacity
2)Soviet Union had vast manpower
3)Britain and Soviets had not been defeated
• Weaknesses
1)Faced long, drawn-out fight on several fronts
2)Enemy held firm control over conquered areas

Axis:
• Strengths
1)Controlled areas invaded
2)Better prepared
3)Been rearmed since 1930s
4)Airfields, barracks, military training centers
5)Economy ready for war
• Weaknesses
1)Defend multiple fronts

*Describe the relationship between FDR and Churchill and their strategy for winning the war?*
-Worked closely together to take out Italy and Germany & then Japan
– Battle of Atlantic
oBritain relied on American goods
oGermans at first successful
oConvoy system, sonar, radar soon turned the tides to the Americans
oJune 1943 tides completely turned
Identify, describe, and explain the importance of four major battles of WWII?
*Stalingrad
– Russia v. Germany
– In Russia
– Germany lost & turned back to retreat
– turning point in eastern war
*Battle of the Bulge
– Russia v. Allied Powers
– In France
– Germany lost & turned back to retreat
*Doolittle Raids
– bombing of Tokyo (lifted American spirits and damped the Japanese)
*Battle of Midway
– Found Japanese ill prepared
– took down many carriers & aircraft
*Coral Sea
– Stopped Japanese advancement towards Australia
*What was the turning point in the war in the Pacific?*
Battle of Midway (June 1942):
oChester Nimitz cracked Japanese code
oFound the Japanese ill prepared and destroyed them
oFour aircraft carriers, cruiser, and 250 planes
oTurning point in the Pacific
Identify and describe the allied strategy to winning the war in the Pacific?
*’island hopping’ strategy
oAmerica fights ocean war with Japan
oThe geography of the war put demands on America to supply forces over different areas
*Identify, describe, and explain the importance of several major battles in the Pacific?*
• Battle of Midway: Found Japanese ill prepared, took down many carriers & aircraft
• Coral Sea: Stopped Japanese advancement towards Australia
• Doolittle Raid: bombing of Tokyo (lifted American spirits and damped the Japanese)
*Explain the development and usage of the atomic bomb?*
• “Best-kept secret of the war”
• Truman ordered to prevent countless lives to be lost
• Leveled Hiroshima & Nagasaki
Analyze the challenges the Allied powers had in rebuilding of WWII?
*Yalta Conference (rebuilding of Europe) was attended by the Big Three
-Stalin favored harsh punishment, which Churchill was lenient
*Nuremberg Trials 1945
-The need to punish those responsible for crimes against humanity, crimes against the peace, and war crimes
-12 out 24 defendants sentenced to death
-Some say the trials didn’t go far enough
-Established the principle of individuals responsibility cant say I was following orders
*Japan occupied for 7 years
-MacArthur commander
-War trails held with 7 sentenced to death
-Introduced free-market economy, new constitution with women suffrage and basic freedom
*Summarize the opportunities and the discrimination of African Americans and other minorities during WWII?*
• AA left the South for cities in the North
• Whites found that jobs obtained by minorities belonged to them
• Number of skilled AA rose
• “Zoot-suit” riots
• Internment of Japanese
*State a case with multiple arguments for or against the internment of Japanese America?*
• The interment of the Japanese would…
– prevent any risk of traitors
– protect the Japanese from angry Americans
Hardships faced
*All Americans faced inflation and rationing
*Women & Minorities
– women leave the home and go into the workforce
– women leave their children
– women were forced out of work after war
– minorities were in segregated units in military
– minorities had to move to find work
– minorities were payed less
– minorities were involved in violence & riots
– minorities were forced out of work & the first fired when war was over
North African Front
oOperation Torch, invasion of North Africa
oLed by Dwight D. Eisenhower
oNovember 1942 – May 1943
oChased and defeated Erwin Rommel (Desert Fox)
About D-Day
•4,126 troops carriers and 132,000 soldiers went into Germany
•The Germans were unable to defend themselves against the massive amount of soldiers

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