Chapter 17 (Ming/Qing China, Tokugawa Japan, Hermit Korea)

Confucianism
ideals stressing love for humanity, ancestor worship, reverence for parents, and harmony in thought and conduct
Manchus
descendants of peoples who had briefly established a kingdom in Northern China during the early eighteenth century
queque
a braided ponytail that China men had to wear
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Sacred Edict
proclaimed to the entire Chinese empire the importance of the moral values established by the master
dyarchy
all important administrative positions were shared equally by Chinese and Manchus
colloquial style
new fiction was characterized by a realism that resulted in vivid protraits of Chinese society
Tokugawa
an extended era of national unification and peace under the rule of its greatest shogunate
Zhu Yanzhang
Self-declared founding emperor of a new Ming (Bright) dynasty and assumed the reign title of Ming Hongwu (Ming Hung Wu, or Ming Martial Emperor); lead the massive kpeasant revellion of 1368
Li Zicheng
Postal worker in central China who had been dismissed from his job as part of a cost-saving measure by the imperial court, now increasingly preoccupied by tribal attacks along the frontier; led a vast peasant rebellion
Emperor Kangxi
Emperor during the Qing dynasty; arguable the greatest ruler in Chinese history
White Lotus Rebellion
Discontented peasants who ahd recently been settled on infertile land launched this revolt in central China
Kowtow
ritual of prostration and knocking the head on the ground performed by foreign emissaries before the emperor
Utamaro-senpai
Renowned of the numerous block-print artsist. Painted erotic and sardonic women in everdya poses, such as walking down the street, cooking, or drying their bodies after a bath
Gun powder empire
a empire formed by outside conquerers who united the regions that they conquered through their mastery of fire arms., Term explains the rise of empires in the Islamic world. A “gunpowder empire” was a new, large-scale empire that relied heavily on firearms. It’s usually applied to the Ottoman Empire. This was a change from the Mongol Empire which conquered on horseback using swords and torches; formed by outside conquerors
Five Pillars of Wisodm
There are “five pillars of Islam” ( arkan al-din ): 1) confession of faith ( the shahada ) by declaring, “There is only one God and that God is Allah and Mohammed is His prophet.” 2) praying five times a day ( salat ) 3) giving of alms to the poor ( zakat ); 4) fasting during the month of Ramadan (sawm ), and 5) making the pilgrimage to Mecca (the Hajj )
polyglot
speaking several languages
Act of Seclusion
this was an act passed by the Japanese and it was made to keep the Christians away from the Japanese and to protect the shogun. The Spanish and Portuguese would have gone along with it.
ethnocentrism
tendency to view one’s own culture and group as superior to all other cultures and groups
sankin-kotai
attendance by turn – each daimyo had to travel to Edo
metsuke
group of officials who toured Japan and reported on possible uprisings or plots against the shogun
Oda Nobunaga
japanese lord who seized the imperial capital kyoto in 1568 and sought to rule the empire by force
Toyotomi Hideyoshi
The predecessor of Tokugawa; succeeded Nobunaga Oda and laid the foundations of the Tokugawa shogunate
Tokugawa Ieyasu
Vassal of Toyotomi Hideyoshi; succeeded him as most powerful military figure in Japan; granted title of shogun in 1603 and established Tokugawa Shogunate; established political unity in Japan
Ming Dynasty
the imperial dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644;, A major dynasty that ruled China from the mid-fourteenth to the mid-seventeenth century. It was marked by a great expansion of Chinese commerce into East Africa, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia.
Qing Dynasty
the last imperial dynasty of China (from 1644 to 1912) which was overthrown by revolutionaries; during this dynasty China was ruled by the Manchu
Three Gorges Dam
A dam built across the Yangtze River that displaced over 1.5 million people during its construction. It is one of the largest dams in the world
Great Wall of China
A huge wall that is over 6000 miles, which was built to keep the Mongolians in the north out of China.
Mandate of Heaven
a political theory of ancient China in which those in power were given the right to rule from a divine source
Zheng He
An imperial eunuch and Muslim, entrusted by the Ming emperor Yongle with a series of state voyages that took his gigantic ships through the Indian Ocean, from Southeast Asia to Africa.
canton
a small administrative division of a country
hierarchy
government by ecclesiastical rulers
Confucianism
ideals stressing love for humanity, ancestor worship, reverence for parents, and harmony in thought and conduct
Little Ice Age
a time period that had weather that was similar to that of an Ice Age that ruined crops in China in the early seventeenth century
Manchus
descendants of peoples who had briefly established a kingdom in Northern China during the early eighteenth century
Sacred Edict
proclaimed to the entire Chinese empire the importance of the moral values established by the master
Bannermen
primary fighting force of the empire
dyarchy
all important administrative positions were shared equally by Chinese and Manchus
lineage
a clan that was extended kinship until consisting of dozens or even hundreds of join and nuclear families linked together by a clan council of eldery and a variety of other common social and religious functions
colloquial style
new fiction was characterized by a realism that resulted in vivid protraits of Chinese society
daimyo
great lords of Japan
Tokugawa
an extended era of national unification and peace under the rule of its greatest shogunate
sword hunts
an act that Hideyoshi-sama carried out to disarm the population and attracting samurai to their service in Japan
bakuka
a composing ruiling of a coalition of daimyo and a council of elders
sake
Japanese rice wine
ronin
unemployed samurai, later forced to take their own lives
ie
nuclear family as the basic unit in Japanese society
Kabaki
classical drama with a new emphasis on violence, music, and dramatic gestures
yangban
aristocratic class in Korea
Khubilai Khan
Great Mongol ruler, who’s reing was over Beijing. Overthrown in 1368 by a massive peasant rebellion
Emper Yongle
Emperor that strengthened the Great Wall and pacified the nomadic tribes people who had troubled China in previous centuries
Zhu Yanzhang
Self-declared founding emperor of a new Ming (Bright) dynasty and assumed the reign title of Ming Hongwu (Ming Hung Wu, or Ming Martial Emperor); lead the massive kpeasant revellion of 1368
Emperor Jianwen
Predecessor of Yongle’s; escaped to Southeast Asia to live in exile
Li Zicheng
Postal worker in central China who had been dismissed from his job as part of a cost-saving measure by the imperial court, now increasingly preoccupied by tribal attacks along the frontier; led a vast peasant rebellion
Emperor Kangxi
Emperor during the Qing dynasty; arguable the greatest ruler in Chinese history
Yongzheng
one of Emperor Kangxi’s successors
Qianlong
one of Emperor Kangxi’s successors; was known for his diligence, tolerance, and intellectual curiosity, and he too combined viorious military action against the unruly tribes along the frontiuer with active efforts to promote economic propsperity, administrative efficieny, and scholarship and artistic excellence.
Heshen
Manch official, known for being very corrupt
Kowtow
ritual of prostration and knocking the head on the ground performed by foreign emissaries before the emperor
Nobunaga Oda-sama
One of the Three Great Unifiers of Japan. Son of a samurai and a military commander under the Ashikaga shoguante. Attempted to consolidate his rule throughout the central plains by defeating his rivals and suppressing the power of the Buddhist estates, but he was killed by one of his genreals in 1582 before the process was complete
Hideyoshi Toyotomi-sama
Suceeded Oda-sama. One of the Three Great Unifiers of Japan. Son of a farmer, who had worked his way up within the ranks to become a military commander. Originally lacking a family name of his own, he eventually adoped the name Toyotomi (“abundant provider”) to embellish his reputation for improving the material standards of his domain
Ieyasu Tokogawa-sama
Suceeded Hideyoshi-sama. One of the Three Great Unifiers of Japan. He was the powerful daimyo of Edo (modern-day Tokyo), moved to fill the vaccum. Neither Hideyoshi-sama nor Nobunaga-sama had claimed the title of shogun, but Ieyasu-sama named himself shogun in 1603, initiating the most powerful and long-lasting of all Japanese shogunates
Nagasaki
Center of Christian Japanese and it’s harbor was a small Dutch community were they were permitted to engage in limited trade with Japan
Han
The divided states, separated into territories
Fudai
First type of daimyo, who were mostly small daimyo directly supordinate to the shogunate
Tozama
Second type of daimyo, who were larger and more independent lords usually more distant from the center of shogunate power in Edo
Saikaku-senpai
Considered to be one of Japan’s greatest novelists. Saikaku-senpai’s greatest novel, Five Women Who Loved Love, relates to the amorous exploits of five women of there merchant class. In addition to heterosexual novwels for the merchant class, Saikaku-senpai wrote of homosexual liaisions among the samurai
Basho-senpai
Seventeenth century grand Japanese poet. He was concerned with the search for the meaning of existence and the poetic expression of his experience. His genius lies in his sudden juxtaposition of a genral or eternal conditions with an immediate perception, an elecrical spark that instantly reveals a moment of truth
Utamaro-senpai
Renowned of the numerous block-print artsist. Painted erotic and sardonic women in everdya poses, such as walking down the street, cooking, or drying their bodies after a bath
Hokusai-senpai
Was famour for Thirty-Six Views of Mount Fuji, which created a new and bold interpretation of the Japanese landscape
Hiroshige-senpai
Developed the genre of the travelogue print in his Fifty-Three Stages of the tokaido Highway, which presented ordinary scenes of daily life, both in the country and in the cities, all eveloped in a lyrical, quiet mood.
Ming
Chinese dynasty between 1368-1644. Economy flourished, Border Policy was good, but not well enough enforced, as they were taken over by the Manchu from the North in 1644.
Jesuits
Also known as the Society of Jesus; founded by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) as a teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism.
Matteo Ricci
An Italian Jesuit who by his knowledge of Astronomy and science was accepted as a missionary of China
Manchu
the last imperial dynasty of China (from 1644 to 1912) which was overthrown by revolutionaries
Qing
Manchu dynasty that seized control of China in mid-17th century after decline of Ming; forced submission of nomadic peoples far to the west and compelled tribute from Vietnam and Burma to the south
Kangxi
Qing emperor (r. 1662-1722). He oversaw the greatest expansion of the Qing Empire.
Qianlong
expanded China’s borders, 1736-1796, stopped Mongol invasions and had dual government positions for Chinese and Manchu’s
Banners
military organization used by Manchu tribes
Diarchy
a form of government having two joint rulers
Chen Shu
chinese woman artist
Tokugawa Ieyasu
This man established a shogunate that would dominate Japan for hundreds of years
Daimyo
a japanese feudal lord who commanded a private army of samurai
Edo
the capital and largest city of Japan
Francis Xavier
This was a man who helped Ignatius of Loyola to start the Jesuits. He also was famous for his number of missionaries he went on to promote Christianity
Bakufu
Military-style government of the Japanese shogun
Shogun
a hereditary military dictator of Japan
Samurai
a Japanese warrior who was a member of the feudal military aristocracy
Ronin
samurai who had lost their daimyo and were forced to wander until another master would accept their services
Saikaku
Was considered one of Japans’s best writters, Wrote Five Women who loved love
Kabuki
A popular type of Japanese drama combined with music and dance, it is the type of theatre in Japan(Played by all male actors)
Basho
greatest Chinese poet
Manchus
descendants of peoples who had briefly established a kingdom in Northern China during the early eighteenth century
Tokugawa
an extended era of national unification and peace under the rule of its greatest shogunate
Zhu Yanzhang
Self-declared founding emperor of a new Ming (Bright) dynasty and assumed the reign title of Ming Hongwu (Ming Hung Wu, or Ming Martial Emperor); lead the massive kpeasant revellion of 1368
Li Zicheng
Postal worker in central China who had been dismissed from his job as part of a cost-saving measure by the imperial court, now increasingly preoccupied by tribal attacks along the frontier; led a vast peasant rebellion
Emperor Kangxi
Emperor during the Qing dynasty; arguable the greatest ruler in Chinese history
Kowtow
ritual of prostration and knocking the head on the ground performed by foreign emissaries before the emperor
Act of Seclusion
this was an act passed by the Japanese and it was made to keep the Christians away from the Japanese and to protect the shogun. The Spanish and Portuguese would have gone along with it.
ethnocentrism
tendency to view one’s own culture and group as superior to all other cultures and groups
Oda Nobunaga
japanese lord who seized the imperial capital kyoto in 1568 and sought to rule the empire by force
Toyotomi Hideyoshi
The predecessor of Tokugawa; succeeded Nobunaga Oda and laid the foundations of the Tokugawa shogunate
Tokugawa Ieyasu
Vassal of Toyotomi Hideyoshi; succeeded him as most powerful military figure in Japan; granted title of shogun in 1603 and established Tokugawa Shogunate; established political unity in Japan
Ming Dynasty
the imperial dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644;, A major dynasty that ruled China from the mid-fourteenth to the mid-seventeenth century. It was marked by a great expansion of Chinese commerce into East Africa, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia.
Qing Dynasty
the last imperial dynasty of China (from 1644 to 1912) which was overthrown by revolutionaries; during this dynasty China was ruled by the Manchu
Three Gorges Dam
A dam built across the Yangtze River that displaced over 1.5 million people during its construction. It is one of the largest dams in the world
Great Wall of China
A huge wall that is over 6000 miles, which was built to keep the Mongolians in the north out of China.
Mandate of Heaven
a political theory of ancient China in which those in power were given the right to rule from a divine source
Zheng He
An imperial eunuch and Muslim, entrusted by the Ming emperor Yongle with a series of state voyages that took his gigantic ships through the Indian Ocean, from Southeast Asia to Africa.
canton
a small administrative division of a country
hierarchy
government by ecclesiastical rulers
Confucianism
ideals stressing love for humanity, ancestor worship, reverence for parents, and harmony in thought and conduct
dyarchy
all important administrative positions were shared equally by Chinese and Manchus
lineage
a clan that was extended kinship until consisting of dozens or even hundreds of join and nuclear families linked together by a clan council of eldery and a variety of other common social and religious functions
colloquial style
new fiction was characterized by a realism that resulted in vivid protraits of Chinese society
daimyo
great lords of Japan
Tokugawa
an extended era of national unification and peace under the rule of its greatest shogunate
sword hunts
an act that Hideyoshi-sama carried out to disarm the population and attracting samurai to their service in Japan
bakuka
a composing ruiling of a coalition of daimyo and a council of elders
sake
Japanese rice wine
ie
nuclear family as the basic unit in Japanese society
Kabaki
classical drama with a new emphasis on violence, music, and dramatic gestures
yangban
aristocratic class in Korea
Khubilai Khan
Great Mongol ruler, who’s reing was over Beijing. Overthrown in 1368 by a massive peasant rebellion
Emper Yongle
Emperor that strengthened the Great Wall and pacified the nomadic tribes people who had troubled China in previous centuries
Zhu Yanzhang
Self-declared founding emperor of a new Ming (Bright) dynasty and assumed the reign title of Ming Hongwu (Ming Hung Wu, or Ming Martial Emperor); lead the massive kpeasant revellion of 1368
Emperor Jianwen
Predecessor of Yongle’s; escaped to Southeast Asia to live in exile
Li Zicheng
Postal worker in central China who had been dismissed from his job as part of a cost-saving measure by the imperial court, now increasingly preoccupied by tribal attacks along the frontier; led a vast peasant rebellion
Emperor Kangxi
Emperor during the Qing dynasty; arguable the greatest ruler in Chinese history
Yongzheng
one of Emperor Kangxi’s successors
Qianlong
one of Emperor Kangxi’s successors; was known for his diligence, tolerance, and intellectual curiosity, and he too combined viorious military action against the unruly tribes along the frontiuer with active efforts to promote economic propsperity, administrative efficieny, and scholarship and artistic excellence.
Heshen
Manch official, known for being very corrupt
Kowtow
ritual of prostration and knocking the head on the ground performed by foreign emissaries before the emperor
Nobunaga Oda-sama
One of the Three Great Unifiers of Japan. Son of a samurai and a military commander under the Ashikaga shoguante. Attempted to consolidate his rule throughout the central plains by defeating his rivals and suppressing the power of the Buddhist estates, but he was killed by one of his genreals in 1582 before the process was complete
Hideyoshi Toyotomi-sama
Suceeded Oda-sama. One of the Three Great Unifiers of Japan. Son of a farmer, who had worked his way up within the ranks to become a military commander. Originally lacking a family name of his own, he eventually adoped the name Toyotomi (“abundant provider”) to embellish his reputation for improving the material standards of his domain
Ieyasu Tokogawa-sama
Suceeded Hideyoshi-sama. One of the Three Great Unifiers of Japan. He was the powerful daimyo of Edo (modern-day Tokyo), moved to fill the vaccum. Neither Hideyoshi-sama nor Nobunaga-sama had claimed the title of shogun, but Ieyasu-sama named himself shogun in 1603, initiating the most powerful and long-lasting of all Japanese shogunates
Nagasaki
Center of Christian Japanese and it’s harbor was a small Dutch community were they were permitted to engage in limited trade with Japan
Han
The divided states, separated into territories
Fudai
First type of daimyo, who were mostly small daimyo directly supordinate to the shogunate
Tozama
Second type of daimyo, who were larger and more independent lords usually more distant from the center of shogunate power in Edo
Saikaku-senpai
Considered to be one of Japan’s greatest novelists. Saikaku-senpai’s greatest novel, Five Women Who Loved Love, relates to the amorous exploits of five women of there merchant class. In addition to heterosexual novwels for the merchant class, Saikaku-senpai wrote of homosexual liaisions among the samurai
Basho-senpai
Seventeenth century grand Japanese poet. He was concerned with the search for the meaning of existence and the poetic expression of his experience. His genius lies in his sudden juxtaposition of a genral or eternal conditions with an immediate perception, an elecrical spark that instantly reveals a moment of truth
Utamaro-senpai
Renowned of the numerous block-print artsist. Painted erotic and sardonic women in everdya poses, such as walking down the street, cooking, or drying their bodies after a bath
Hokusai-senpai
Was famour for Thirty-Six Views of Mount Fuji, which created a new and bold interpretation of the Japanese landscape
Hiroshige-senpai
Developed the genre of the travelogue print in his Fifty-Three Stages of the tokaido Highway, which presented ordinary scenes of daily life, both in the country and in the cities, all eveloped in a lyrical, quiet mood.

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