Chapter 17: Organizing Life’s Diversity. Section 1: The History of Classification

What is the grouping of objects or organisms based on a set of criteria?
Classification
Who developed the first widely accepted system of biological classification?
Aristotle
How did Aristotle classify organisms?
By either animals or plants
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How were animals classified?
By the presence of red blood. Then animals were further grouped according to habitat and morphology
How were plants classified?
By their average size and structure as trees, shrubs, or herbs.
How did Aristotle base his views?
That species was unchanging, distinct, and separate.
Who broadened Aristotle’s classification system?
Linnaeous
Linnaeus’s classification system was the first to?
The first formal system of taxonomic organization.
What is Taxonomy?
A discipline of biology primarily concerned with identifying, naming, and classifying species based on natural relationships.
What is taxonomy part of?
A larger branch of biology called systematics
What is systematics?
The study of biological diversity with an emphasis on evolutionary history
What is Linnaeous’s system of classification?
Binomial nomenclature
What is Binomial nomenclature?
Gives each species a scientific name that has two parts: first part is genus and second is specific name.
What is the use of scientific names?
Avoids the confusion that can be created with common names, common names can be misleading
Rules for writing a scientific name:
1.) The first letter of the genus is always cap, but the rest aren’t
2.) If written in print, it should be italicized
3.) If written by hand, it should be underlined
4.) After written once, the genus is letter….
Many scientists began classifying organisms not only on the basis of morphological and behavioral characteristics but also included
Evolutionary relationships
The taxonomic system is organized by?
Each category is contained within another— and is arranged from broadest to most specific
What is a taxon?
A named group of organisms that ranges from having broad dianogstic characteristics to having specific characteristics.
The broader the characteristic…..
the more species the taxon contains.
What is genus?
A group of species that are closely related and share a common ancestor
What is family?
The next higher taxon consisting of similar related genera
What is order?
Contains related families
What is class?
Contains related orders
What is phylum?
Division that contain related classes. Division is used in replacement when classifying bacteria and plants.
What is kingdom?
Related phyla or divisions
What is domain?
The broadest of all the taxa and contains one or more kingdoms
What is a dichotomous key?
A key bases on a series of choices between alternate characteristics

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