Chapter 19 World History

plebiscite
a popular vote that made Louis-Napoleon president
Capital
Britians ready supply of money
Cottage industry
a production method in which tasks are don by individuals in their homes
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entrepreneurs
Very wealthy people that are interested in finding new business opportunity and new ways to make profits
James Hargreaves
the inventor of the spinning wheel
Edmund Cartwright
water-powered loom
James Watt
Steam engine
puddling
the process where coke derived from coal is used to burn away impurities in crude iron to produce high quality iron
Robert Fulton
built first paddle wheel steamboat
industrial capitalism
economic system based that produced a new middle-class group called the industrial working class
Socialism
system where society owns and controls some means of production (factories)
Robert Owen
British cotton manufacture who believed humans would show their good if they lived in a cop orate environment
Klemens von Matternich
leader of the Congress of Vienna (Austria)
principle of legitamacy
principle that meant that lawful monarchs from the royal families, before Napoleon, would be restored to their positions of power
conservantism
Obedience to political authority, emphasizes on organized religion to maintain social order, and resistance to the ideas of individual rights and representative government.
Princple of Intervention
great powers had the right to send armies into countries with revolution in order to restore legitimate monarchs
Liberalism
a political philosophy originally based largely on Enlightenment principles, holding that people should be as free as possible from government restraint and that civil liberties-the basic rights
Nationalism
the unique cultural identity of a people based on common language, religion, and national symbols; more powerful than liberalism
Universal Male Suffrage
all afult men could vote
Louis-Napoleon
nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte; new president of the Second Republic
German Confederation
38 independent German states recognized by the Congress of Vienna. Austria & Prussia were the two great powers
Multinational State
a collection of different peoples including Germans, Czechs, Magyars, Slovaks, Romanians, Slovenes, Poles, Croats, Serbians, & Italians
Hapsburg emperor was the common blood
Crimean War
resulted after the stubble of Russian & Ottomans. 1853 Russia invaded Moldavia & Ottomans declared war. (so did France & Great Britian)
(Point:to destroy the Concert of Europe)
Giuseppe Garibaldi
the Italian leader gf the Red Shirts who went to invade the Two Sicilies
Militarism
the reliance on military strength
Otto von Bismarck
new prime minister that was seen as the foremost practitioner of “realpolitik”. Went against the legislature & collected taxes & improved the army.
Kaiser
Emperor (the first to proclaim this title was William I of Prussia)
Queen Victoria
Queen of Great Britian who’s reign was the longest. Sense of duty and morality reflected on the Victorian Age
Compromise of 1867
compromise between Austria and Hungary that unified them under one monarch but each had their own constitution, legislation, government, bureaucracy, and capital
Czar Alexander
czar of Russia who issued the emancipation edict, freeing the serfs. His ways didn’t work so he was assassinated by radicals
Emancipation
the act of setting free
Abolitionism
a movement that ended slavery
secede
withdraw
British North America Act
a bill passed by Parliament in 1867 that established a Canadian nation (Dominion of Canada) with its own constitution
Romanticism
an intellectual movement that emerged at the end of the 18th century in reaction to the ideas of the Enlightenment; stressed feelings, emotions, and imaginations as sources of knowing
Ludwig von Beethoven
greatest music composer of all time
Louis Pasteur
the Frenchman who proposed the germ theory of disease
Mendeleev
he chemist who classified all the material elements then known on the basis of their atomic weights
Faraday
the Englishman who put together a primitive generator that laid the foundation for the use of electric current
secularization
indifference or rejection of religion
Darwin
the scientist who published “On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection”; principle of organic evolution and natural selection
natural selection
the principle set forth by Darwin that some organisms are more adaptable to the environment than others; “survival of the fittest”
realism
mid-19th century movement that rejected romanticism and sought to portray lower- and middle- class life as it actually was; Charles Dickens and Gustave Courbet

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